Introduction II Knowledge Enrichment Lecture notes



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Question 2

Suggested answers and reference for assessment


(a)

(i)

Major constraint faced by MSF during the early 1970s

Major constraint:

  • Financial constraint / lack of funds / insufficient funds


Clues, e.g.:

  • “Because of the budget constraints, …”

  • “…they did not advertise to solicit contributions, which kept their funds low.”




[1+1 mark]

[1 mark]

[1 mark]




(ii)

Factor changing MSF’s mode of financing its humanitarian missions

L1 General answer without due reference to the Source

L2 Comprehensive answer with due reference to the Source
Factor:

  • The ever-expanding need to deliver medical services in refugee camps

  • Clues, e,g,:

    • “The multiplication of its missions in refugee camps at the end of the 1970s forced MSF to adopt a more professional approach…”

    • “…the new generation of doctors wanting to serve for longer terms in refugee camps and to providing more demanding medical services.”

  • Due to such changing circumstances, the mode of minimal advertising and negligent contributions could no longer cater for the financial needs of MSF, thus leading to a change in the mode of financing its work.




[3 marks]

[max. 1]

[max. 3]

(b)

The kind of debate changing the development of MSF during the 1990s

L1 General answer merely attempting to summarize the Source

L2 Appropriate answer able to identify and elaborate the debate

Debate changing the development of MSF:

  • Whether the MSF should speak explicitly on a country’s state affairs to safeguard human rights, or remain silent and keep itself distant from state affairs

  • Clues, e.g.:

    • “speaking out publicly and defending human rights began to gain some legitimacy…”

    • “…they had until then resolutely opposed the French practice of bearing witness, which they accused on politicizing MSF in violation of its statutes.”

  • The MSF experienced an increasing need to make known its own stance regarding issues of human rights and individual countries’ behaviour unacceptable to MSF. This implied the abandoning of the previous principle of staying silent regarding state affairs.




[4 marks]

[max. 2]

[max. 4]

(c)

Whether Sources C, D and E sufficiently reflect the factors affecting the work of MSF in relieving problems of population and resources

L1 Lopsided answer focusing on either usefulness or limitations

L2 Comprehensive answer covering both usefulness and limitations
Usefulness, e.g.:

  • (Source C) MSF’s financial independence kept its work at a minimal level

  • (Source D) Expansion of needs for MSF services in refugee camps caused the employment of more MSF doctors, thus causing conflicting views among MSF members

  • (Source E) The urge to speak out against national government’s neglect/suppression of human rights in the 1990s caused a departure from its original principle of confidentiality and isolation from state affairs.


Limitations, e.g. Sources C to E do not reflect the following:

  • The availability of funds, particularly in developed countries, which depends largely on their citizens’ awareness of the needs of developing countries

  • The diplomatic relations between developing and developed countries, which indirectly determines the willingness of developed countries to supply funds to MSF’s work

[7 marks]

[max. 4]

[max. 7]

3. Study Sources F, G and H.

SOURCE F

The following are reasons behind the food crisis in 1973-1974:




  1. A devastating cyclone hit Bangladesh in November 1970; there was a long drought in the Sahel region of sub-Saharan Africa and serious floods in northern India.

  2. Due to Morocco’s decision to seek improvement of its earnings from rock phosphate (a fertilizer), fertilizer prices trebled January and July 1974.

  3. The price of oil rose by nearly 450% from October 1973 to May 1974 and rapidly affected the economies of many "third world" countries as they struggled to pay for oil imports.

Source: “The world’s food insecurity – Open Democracy website” (http://www.opendemocracy.net/article/the_world_s_food_problem) (Accessed on 7 July 2014)


SOURCE G

The following conclude the three-point plan decided in the World Food Conference of 1975:




  1. Establishing a world food bank to maintain continual access to around 10 million tonnes of stored grain that could be made freely available in time of need;

  2. A new International Fund for Agricultural Development that would commit $5 billion a year for ten years to improve tropical agriculture;

  3. Setting up a new food forecasting system that would provide early warning of future crises.

Source: “The world’s food insecurity – Open Democracy website” (http://www.opendemocracy.net/article/the_world_s_food_problem) (Accessed on 7 July 2014)
SOURCE H

The following is a chart from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization showing the number of hungry people in the world between 1969 and 2000.


Source: “2013 World Hunger and Poverty Facts and Statistics – Hunger Notes website“ (http://www.worldhunger.org/articles/Learn/world%20hunger%20facts%202002.htm) (Accessed on 7 July 2014)





(a)

(i)

Refer to Source F. Identify the most serious problem of resources probably faced by developing countries in the early 1970s. (2 marks)





(ii)

Refer to Source G. Identify two solutions sought by the World Food Conference of 1975 to resolve the problem of resources you mentioned in part (a)? Support your answer with relevant clues from Source G. (3 marks)


(b)

Refer to Source H. Identify the trend in the global development of hunger from the 1970s to 2000. Explain your answer with reference to Source H. (4 marks)


(c)

How useful are Sources F, G and H in reflecting the global problems of resources during the period 1970s-2000? Explain your answer with reference to Sources F, G, and H, and using your own knowledge. (6 marks)


Question 3

Suggested answers and reference for assessment


(a)

(i)

The most serious problem of resources probably faced by developing countries in the early 1970s

L1 Unable to paraphrase the Source

L2 Able to paraphrase the Source
The most serious problem:

  • Shortage of food supply in Bangladesh (due to cyclone), sub-Saharan Africa (due to drought) and northern India (due to flood)




[2 marks]

[max. 1]

[max. 2]




(ii)

Two solutions sought by the World Food Conference of 1975 to resolve the problem of resources mentioned in part (a)

L1 Unable to paraphrase the Source

L2 Able to paraphrase the Source
Actions taken by the World Food Conference, e.g.:

  • Setting up a world food bank to sustain the supply of stored grain (Clue: “establishing a world food bank”)

  • Earmarking a new fund for the enhancement of agricultural development (Clue: “new International Fund for Agricultural Development”)

  • Forecasting food supply and providing early warning in case of food shortage (Clue: “setting up a new food forecasting system”)




[3 marks]

[max. 2]

[max. 3]

(b)

Trend in the global development of hunger from the 1970s to 2000

L1 General answer without due reference to the Source

L2 Well-explained answer substantiated by evidence from the Source

Trend:

  • The number of people suffering from hunger slightly dropped from about 880 million in 1969-71 to about 850 million in 1990-92.

  • Though a more obvious improvement took place in the early 1990s (from 850 million in 1990-92 to 780 million in 1995-97), the situation worsened again in the late 1990s (rising back to about 840 million in 2000-02).

  • In general, the global situation of hunger only slightly improved from the early 1970s to 2000. The drop was smaller than 10%.




[4 marks]

[max. 2]

[max. 4]

(c)

Usefulness and limitations of Sources F, G and H in reflecting global problems of resources during the period 1970s-2000

L1 Lopsided answer focusing on either effective or ineffective side

L2 Comprehensive answer discussing both effective and ineffective sides
Usefulness, e.g.:

  • (Source F) Morocco’s previous poverty status and its wish to rely on the sale of fertilizers to increase national income

  • (Source G) Lack of coordinated attempts at international level to handle food supply and enhance agriculture in some world regions until the mid-1970s

  • (Source H) Slow improvement in the situation of hunger and starvation among the world’s population


Limitations, e.g. Sources F to H do not reflect the following:

Sources F, G and H mainly focus on the problem of food supply and food shortage, but does not provide information on the following:



  • The availability of effective medical facilities in developing and under-developed countries

  • Developing countries being exploited by developed countries for their mineral, oil, timber and food resources through unfair trade

  • Developing countries’ own misuse/depletion of natural resources leading to further poverty

[6 marks]

[max. 3]

[max. 6]


4. Study Sources I, J and K.

SOURCE I

The following text is adopted from a book on the development of international non-governmental organizations published in 1999.




The founding of INGOs prior to World War I [came before] modern concepts of ‘international-development assistance’ or ‘international development.’ The three types of organizations founded during this period- missionary organizations, specialized humanitarian organizations and professional labor and political solidarity groups- all shared more general religious or moral aims.

Source: Colette Chabbott, ‘Development INGOs’ in J. Boli and G. Thomas, ed., Constructing World Culture: International Nongovernmental Organizations since 1875 (California: Stanford University Press, 1999), pp.227-231.


SOURCE J

The following text is adopted from a book on the development of international non-governmental organizations published in 1999.




World War II brought famine and pestilence on an unprecedented scale and prompted the creation of a host of new governmental and nongovernmental organizations. These included private groups that would later become some of the largest development INGOs: Oxfam, Catholic Relief Services, World Relief, CARE…

Source: Colette Chabbott, "Development INGOs", in John Boli & George M. Thomas, ed., Constructing World Culture: International Nongovernmental Organizations Since 1875 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999), p.231.
SOURCE K

The following is adapted from UNICEF’s self-introduction.




Since our establishment in 1946, we have been working with other UN agencies, governments and NGOs to ensure children's rights in survival, development, protection and participation.
The world’s largest provider of vaccines for developing countries, UNICEF supports child health and nutrition, good water and sanitation, quality basic education for all boys and girls, and the protection of children from violence, exploitation, and AIDS, providing emergency relief and run long-term development programmes.

Source: “About us – UNICEF Hong Kong website” (http://www.unicef.org.hk/about-us) (Accessed on 8 July 2014).



(a)

Refer to Sources I and J. Identify a change in the type of international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) existing in the world caused by the Second World War. Support your answer with relevant clues from Sources I and J. (1+2 marks)


(b)

Refer to Sources J and K. Identify the major difference between the INGOs and the UNICEF in terms of their main concerns after the Second World War. Explain your answer with reference to Sources J and K and using your own knowledge. (4 marks)


(c)

Did the work of the INGOs and the UNICEF mentioned in Sources J and K represent all types of international efforts in resolving the global problems of population and resources? Explain your answer with reference to Sources J and K and using your own knowledge. (7 marks)


Question 4

Suggested answers and reference for assessment


(a)

ONE Change in the type of INGOs caused by WWII

Change in the type of INGOs:

  • Changed from concerning religious, humanitarian and professional issues to making primary effort to poverty issues


Clues:

  • (Source I) “missionary organizations, specialized humanitarian organizations and professional labor and political solidarity groups”

  • (Source J) “Oxfam, Catholic Relief Services, World Relief, CARE…” – these focus on the relief of poverty problems.




[1+2 marks]
[1 mark]


[2 marks,

1 mark

each]

(b)

Major difference between INGOs and UNICEF in terms of their main concerns after WWII

L1 Rough answer covering either INGOs or UNICEF

L2 Comprehensive answer covering both INGOs and UNICEF
Major difference:

  • INGOs are concerned about relief services during natural disasters, while UNICEF is concerned about children’s well-being, including health and medicine, education and exploitation, etc.

  • (Source J) “World War II brought famine and pestilence … and prompted the creation of a host of new governmental and organizations.”

  • (Source K) “Since our establishment in 1946, we have been working … to ensure children’s rights in survival, development, protection and participation.”


[4 marks]
[max. 2]

[max. 4]

(c)

Whether the work of INGOs and the UNICEF represent all types of international efforts in resolving global problems of population and resources

L1 Lopsided answer claiming that Sources J and K represent all types of international efforts in resolving problems of population and resources

L2 Comprehensive answer pointing out other types of international efforts not shown in Sources J and K
Whether the work of INGOs and UNICEF are all-inclusive:

  • No


Types of international efforts represented by INGOs & UNICEF:

  • (Source J) voluntary, privately-funded, humanitarian relief work offered by INGOs (e.g. Oxfam) at times of natural disasters

  • (Source K) official, besides public funds, UNICEF also receives funding from private sectors and donation from individuals; provides emergency relief and run long-term development programmes.


Types of international efforts not represented by INGOs & UNICEF:

  • International conferences attempting to negotiate the coordination of food supply worldwide, jointly participated by the UN and INGOs

  • Attempts at promoting fair trade jointly made by the commercial sector and the humanitarian sector

[7 marks]

[max. 4]

[max. 7]


5. Study Sources L and M.

SOURCE L

The following extract is adapted from a report on the work of Oxfam, an international non-governmental organization, published in 1970.




As well as suffering and homelessness provoked by man, there has also been a dreadful harvest of natural disaster. Private aid organizations like Oxfam are invariably the quickest to act after floods, cyclones, hurricanes and earthquakes… [also] properly geared both to tapping the sources of public generosity in this country and to assessing the needs of the developing world. In the first financial year of the sixties, the organization broke the £1 million cash barrier for the first time in its history. During the year 1962-1963, Oxfam collected more than £2 million in cash and clothing…

Source: P. Gill, Drops in the Ocean: The Work of Oxfam 1960-1970 (London: Hazell Watson & Viney Ltd., 1970), pp.11, 12, 14.


SOURCE M

The following extract is adapted from a book on non-governmental organizations which reports the work of Oxfam in the 1990s.




With the escalating number of conflicts following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the eastern bloc, Oxfam began emergency and rehabilitation work in this region. During the 1990s, Oxfam supplied humanitarian aid to affected civilians on all sides of the wars in the former Yugoslavia. Oxfam's largest-ever response to a humanitarian disaster was in the Great Lakes region of Central Africa in the mid-1990s... The work on the ground was matched by international lobbying and campaigning aimed at the UN, the Organization of African Unity, and powerful governments, in an effort to build a lasting peace. ... An Oxfam International advocacy office opened in Washington DC to lobby international bodies like the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the United Nations.

Source: Roger Courtney, Strategic Management for Nonprofit Organizations (London & New York: Routledge, 2002), p.292.


(a)

Identify two major areas of Oxfam’s work in the 1970s, as reflected in Source L. Support your answer with relevant clues from Source L. (2+2 marks)


(b)

Did the Oxfam work in the same areas in the 1990s as you pointed out in part (a)? Explain your answer with reference to Source M and using your own knowledge. (4 marks)


(c)

“The majority of international efforts in resolving global problems of population and resources were just the same as those undertaken by Oxfam during the period 1970s-1990s.” Do you agree? Explain your answer with reference to Sources L and M and using your own knowledge. (7 marks)


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