Introduction II Knowledge Enrichment Lecture notes



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Question 7

Suggested answers and reference for assessment


(a)

Cartoonist’s view about relative influence of earliest ECSC members:

[1+2 marks]




L1 General answer without due reference to the Source

L2 Comprehensive answer with due reference to and elaboration on the Source
Cartoonist’s view:

  • West Germany, France and Italy played a leading role / more prominent role than Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxemburg.


Clue:

  • Adults representing West Germany, France and Italy in the cartoon walk in front of the young kids representing Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxemburg, implying that they were pioneers in the ECSC.

  • Representatives of West Germany, France and Italy were drawn bigger than those representing Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxemburg, implying that they followed the leadership of West Germany, France and Italy.

[1 mark]

[2 marks]











(b)

Cartoonist’s attitude towards forthcoming development of ECSC:

[4 marks]




L1 General answer focusing on either the Source or own knowledge

L2 Well-explained answer covering both the Source and own knowledge
Cartoonist’s attitude: positive / optimistic

Clue (either one):

  • The 6 minsters set sail on a sunny day with seagulls flying.

  • The ship is a large and stable one, and its smoke shows that it is ready to spark off a journey.


Own knowledge:

  • The most urgent period (late 1940s) of food insufficiency was basically over. The early 1950s was a time for further reconstruction.

  • Each of the 6 member states of the ECSC had their own relative advantages in terms of resources and technology, thus making them complementary partners to start the cooperative reconstruction.

[max. 2]

[max. 4]










(c)

Whether the cartoonist’s attitude in part (b) correspond to actual historical development during the 1950s-60s:

[6 marks]




L1 Lopsided answer covering only part of the given period (1950s-60s), and without due explanation using own knowledge

L2 Comprehensive answer covering the whole given period (1950s-60s), and with due explanation using own knowledge
Answer: Yes
Source L:

  • Leadership of West Germany and France in the ECSC prevailed in the 1950s.

  • Close partnership among members in the Inner Six prevailed in the 1950s.


Own knowledge:

  • The leadership of West Germany and France continued over the 1950s-60s. West Germany became the strongest economic power in Europe after experiencing the economic miracle. French leadership was particularly obvious in her rejection of British membership during Charles de Gaulle’s term of office.

  • The ECSC (1952) and the EEC (1958) were so successful in enhancing European economic growth that the European Community was set up in 1961 based on their previous models.


[max. 3]
[max. 6]




  1. Study Sources M and N.

SOURCE M

The following cartoon appeared in a British evening newspaper on 19 November 1948.



Charles de Gaulle

(representing France)



Clement Attlee (British Prime Minister)

Harry Truman (U.S. President)

Europe- It’s Me!”

Source: “Cartoon by Low on General de Gaulle’s European idea (19 November 1948) – Centre Virtuel de la Connaissance sur l'Europe website” (http://www.cvce.eu/viewer/-/content/715e2d83-a903-4e5d-aca9-b171e5ad60ca/cdbf03c3-5fc3-4b85-b6d8-40fef7b312b1/en) (Accessed on 12 February 2014).
SOURCE N

The following is a Dutch cartoon dated 17 November 1961.




*Engeland: England

*Verenigde de Staten:

the United States of America

America is seeking rapprochement with the European Community.”



De Gaulle: “No, I can’t bring myself to swallow that yet!”
Source: “Cartoon by Wierengen on relations between France and the United States of America (17 November 1961) - Centre Virtuel de la Connaissance sur l'Europe website” (http://www.cvce.eu/obj/en-482efda9-63b1-483c-a362-a584ece372d5) (Accessed on 12 February 2014).



  1. Refer to Source M. What was the view of France about European affairs and the role of the U.S. and Britain? Explain your answer with reference to Source M. (3 marks)




  1. Refer to Source N. Did France adopt the same view when handling the affairs of the European Community in the early 1960s, as you pointed out in part (a)? Explain your answer with reference to Source N and using your own knowledge. (4 marks)




  1. What are the usefulness and limitations of Sources M and N in reflecting the diplomatic attitude of France as an obstacle to European economic integration during the period 1948-75? Explain your answer with reference to Sources M and N and using your own knowledge. (6 marks)

Question 8

Suggested answers and reference for assessment

(a)

View of France about European affairs and role of the U.S. & Britain

[3 marks]




L1 General answer without due reference to Source M

L2 Comprehensive answer with due reference to Source M
View of France:

Clues:

  • Charles de Gaulle said “Europe – It’s me!”

  • The U.S. (represented by Harry Truman) and Britain (represented by Clement Attlee) had to kneel down in front of Charles de Gaulle, listen to him, and had their hands off Europe.

[max. 1]

[max. 3]










(b)

Whether France adopted the same view when handling European Community affairs in the early 1960s

[4 marks]




L1 Lopsided answer focusing on either the Source or own knowledge

L2 Comprehensive answer covering both the Source and own knowledge
Whether France adopted the same view in the early 1960s:

  • Yes. France was reluctant to accept British influence in European Community affairs and rejected any American influence at all.

Clue:

  • Charles de Gaulle (representing France) could hardly swallow the bread labelled England, and said that “I can’t bring myself to swallow that yet!”

  • Charles de Gaulle rejected the bread labelled the United States of America.

Own knowledge:

  • France was still skeptical about any British influence in Europe, particularly any British commercial interests with the British Commonwealth and the U.S. which might largely weaken the leading position and influence of France in the 1950s.

  • Also, anti-American sentiments existed in France due to the imposing cultural, economic and political influence of the U.S. delivered through the Marshall Aid since the 1940s.

[max. 2]

[max. 4]










(c)

Usefulness and limitations of Sources M and N in reflecting the diplomatic attitude of France as an obstacle to European economic integration during the period 1948-75

[6 marks]




L1 Lopsided answer focusing on part of the given period (1948-75), and focusing on either the Sources or own knowledge

L2 Comprehensive answer covering the whole given period (1948-75), and covering both the Sources and own knowledge
Usefulness, e.g.:

  • (Source M) The anti-British and anti-American diplomatic attitude of France in the late 1940s restricted the process of European economic integration on the European continent, and confined the Inner Six to coordinate the economic cooperation on their own.

  • (Source N) France’s slow acceptance of Britain in the early 1960s and the prevalent anti-Americanism slowed down the progress of European economic integration , i.e. no new members joined the Inner Six in the late 1960s, although the economic cooperation among the member states was getting closer.


Limitations, e.g.:

  • Sources M and N do not reflect the change of French attitude towards Britain and the U.S., as well as the subsequent advance in the progress of European economic integration.

  • Since the retirement of Charles de Gaulle in 1969, the anti-British and anti-American stance of France softened. After another round of negotiation, Britain was eventually admitted to the European Community in 1973, thus extending the extent of European economic integration to a former economic power. This further strengthened the economic status of the European Community.

[max. 3]
[max. 6]





  1. Study Source O.

SOURCE O

The following cartoon appeared in a British newspaper on 18 February 1969.



EEC = European Economic Community

WEU = Western European Union

Harold Wilson

(British Prime Minister)



Charles de Gaulle

(French President)



Source: “Cartoon by Papas on WEU and the United Kingdom’s application for accession to the European Communities (18 February 1969) - Centre Virtuel de la Connaissance sur l'Europe website” (http://www.cvce.eu/viewer/-/content/5cba5816-45f3-416e-8355-0e20798053f7/04bd8684-60c1-46b6-9a45-6c7ed79c1f5b/en) (Accessed on 12 February 2014).


  1. Could Britain take part in the European economic cooperation during the late 1960s? Cite relevant clues from Source O to support your answer. (1+1 mark)




  1. What was the main reason for your answer in part (a)? Explain your answer with reference to Source O and using your own knowledge. (4 marks)




  1. Did the pattern of European economic cooperation you mentioned in parts (a) and (b) change in the 1970s? Explain your answer with reference to Source O and using your own knowledge. (6 marks)

Question 9

Suggested answers and reference for assessment


(a)

Whether Britain could take part in European economic cooperation during the late 1960s

[1+1 mark]




Whether Britain could take part: No

Clue:

  • Harold Wilson (British Prime Minister) had to stay outside the house labelled EEC.

[1 mark]

[1 mark]










(b)

Main reason for answer in part (a)

[4 marks]




L1 General answer focusing merely on the Source

L2 Comprehensive answer covering both the Source and own knowledge
Main Reason:

  • France dominated the European Economic Community (EEC) and was anxious about maintaining her influence.

  • Clue:

    • The nose of Charles de Gaulle (French president) was so large that it blocked the entrances to the house labelled European Economic Community.


Own knowledge:

  • France under Charles de Gaulle’s presidency attempted to maintain strong French influence in the EEC, restrict British participation and minimize British influence. It was because of the French unwillingness to be weakened by the relative economic strength of Britain and the incoming of various commercial interests from the British Commonwealth.

[max. 2]

[max. 4]










(c)

Whether the pattern of European economic cooperation in parts (a) & (b) change in the 1970s

[6 marks]




L1 General answer focusing on either the Source or own knowledge

L2 Comprehensive answer covering both the Source and own knowledge


Whether the pattern would change:

  • Yes

  • (Source O) Britain was barred from joining the EEC until early 1969 due to the opposition of France to British membership.

  • However, circumstances changed soon in 1969 as Charles de Gaulle retired and some of his policies were abandoned.


Own knowledge:

  • After Charles de Gaulle’s retirement, the anti-British stance of France subsided.

  • Negotiations with Britain concerning British membership resumed, leading to Britain’s eventual membership in the EEC in 1973.

[max. 3]

[max. 6]





  1. Study Sources P and Q.

SOURCE P

The following is adapted from a book on European economic cooperation in 1977.



Between 1955 and 1970 the total East-West trade rose nearly 5.5-fold; within this trade, the exports of the developed capitalist countries to the socialist countries increased from 1.3 to 8.4 billion dollars, while the exports of the socialist countries to the capitalist countries increased from 1.7 to 7.8 billion dollars. For the sake of comparison it has to be added that in the same period the total exports of the developed capitalist countries 3.7-fold, those of the socialist countries 3.5-fold and the world average 3.3-fold.

Source: János Szita, Perspectives for All-European Economic Co-operation (Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1977), p.54.

SOURCE Q

The following is an extract of Mikhail Gorbachev’s writings on Europe in 1987.



The dialogue started between the communists and social democrats by no means obliterates the ideological differences between them. At the same time, we cannot say that any of the participants in this dialogue has lost face or been placed under the thumb of the other side… The success of the European process could enable it to make an even bigger contribution to the progress of the rest of the world.

Source: M. Gorbachev, Perestroika: New Thinking for Our Country and the World (New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1987), p.207 & 209.


  1. Refer to Source P. How did the economic relationship between the capitalist countries and socialist countries in Europe develop during the period 1955-70? Cite relevant clues from Source P to support your answer. (1+2 marks)




  1. Refer to Source Q. What was the attitude of Mikhail Gorbachev towards the development of economic relationship between capitalist and socialist countries in Europe during the 1980s? Explain your answer with reference to Source Q. (4 marks)




  1. “The economic integration between eastern and western European countries started long before the end of Cold War in 1991.” Do you agree? Explain your answer with reference to Sources P and Q and using your own knowledge. (6 marks)

Question 10

Suggested answers and reference for assessment


(a)

Development of economic relationship between capitalist and socialist countries during the period 1955-70

[1+2 marks]




Relationship:

  • Capitalist and socialist countries in Europe built increasingly strong trading relationships. OR

  • They became increasingly interdependent in terms of trade.


Clues:

  • The total East-West trade rose nearly 5.5-fold.

  • While world export trade increased by only 3.3-fold during the given period, the total exports of the developed capitalist countries rose by 3.7-fold and those of the socialist countries 3.5-fold.

  • All these show that the capitalist and socialist countries relied particularly more on this bilateral trade.

[1 mark]

[2 marks]










(b)

Attitude of Gorbachev towards economic relationship between capitalist and socialist countries in Europe during the 1980s

[4 marks]




L1 General answer without due explanation

L2 Comprehensive answer with due explanation
Attitude of Gorbachev:

  • Positive / approving / appreciative

  • Clues, e.g.:

  • “we cannot say that any of the participants in this dialogue has lost face…” / “success of the European process” / “even bigger contribution to the progress of the rest of the world”

Explanation:

  • Gorbachev was one of the prominent politicians of the 1980s who re-built harmonious relationships between the two blocs.

  • Instead of compromising on ideological principles, Gorbachev considered the building of friendly and cooperative relations between the two blocs as a strategy of win-win diplomacy.

[max. 2]

[max. 4]










(c)

The economic integration between eastern and western European countries started long before the end of Cold War in 1991.” Do you agree?

[6 marks]




L1 Merely elaborating on the two Sources without showing and explaining stance, and focusing on either the Sources or own knowledge

L2 Showing and explaining stance, and covering both the Sources and own knowledge
Stance, e.g.:

Agree
Sources:



  • Although Source Q shows that Gorbachev welcomed the connections between the two blocs in as late as the 1980s, Source P shows that the export trade between the capitalist and Communist blocs had already been increasing by 5.5 times during the period 1955-70.

  • This proves that the economic integration between western and eastern European countries started not in the 1980s, but early in the 1950s.


Own knowledge:

  • The period of mutual exclusion in trade between the two blocs lasted from the mid-1940s to the mid-1950s. After that, communist countries in eastern Europe realized the need to catch up with the western European countries’ economic progress by trading with them. Therefore, doors were opened for ever-increasing trade volumes since the 1950s.

  • This implies that the economic integration between eastern and western European countries in the late 1980s / early 1990s was only the last stage of the long episode.

[max. 3]
[max. 6]



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