Introduction II Knowledge Enrichment Lecture notes



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Question 3

Suggested answers and reference for assessment


(a)

Reason for the U.S. to offer the Marshall Plan in 1947

[2 mark]




L1 General answer without due reference to the Source

L2 Well explained answer with due reference to the Source


  • European countries badly needed additional help in terms of foreign food and other necessities. If the U.S. did not provide these, European countries could suffer from serious economic, social and political disruptions.

[1 mark]

[2 marks]










(b)

Whether Source E provides the same reason as in part (a)

[4 marks]




L1 General answer without due reference to Sources D and E

L2 Well explained answer with due reference to Sources D and E
Source E does NOT provide the same reason as in part (a):

  • Reason shown in Source D: to assist European countries in economic recovery and solving economic needs.

  • Reason shown in Source E: to counter the expanding influence of the USSR in eastern Europe (represented by Joseph Stalin pushing passengers “Hungary” and “Bulgaria” to board the bus to “Pension Russe” in Source E).


Explanation, e.g.:

  • Implication of Source D: If the U.S. did not provide the Marshall Plan, European countries would fall into hopelessness in their material life.

  • Implication of Source E: If the U.S. did not provide the Marshall Plan, European countries would entirely fall under the hegemony of the USSR.

[max. 2]

[max. 4]










(c)

Whether Sources D and E sufficiently reflect the historical background of European economic cooperation after WWII

[6 marks]




L1 Lopsided answer focusing on either usefulness or limitations

L2 Comprehensive answer covering both usefulness and limitations
Usefulness, e.g.:

  • (Source D) the necessity of helping European countries solve their urgent economic problems and boost economic growth

  • (Source E) the necessity of winning support from European countries so as to counterbalance the expanding influence of the USSR


Limitations, e.g.:

  • (own knowledge) after WWII the U.S. intended to depart from its pre-WWII isolationism and expand its leadership role in global politics and economics

  • (own knowledge) the U.S.’s realization of the importance of helping countries suffering from serious economic setbacks so as to avoid the outbreak of another world war

[max. 3]

[max. 6]




  1. Study Sources F and G.

SOURCE F

The following cartoon entitled “Step on it, Doc!” is adapted from a journal published in the United States in 1947.


Source: “Step on it, Doc! – History Tunes website” (http://www.historytunes.com/images/cartoons/43-1.png) (Accessed on 17 January 2014).

SOURCE G

The following excerpt is adapted from Harry Truman’s address before a joint session of Congress on 12 March 1947.



I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. I believe that our help should be primarily through economic and financial aid which is essential to economic stability and orderly political processes.

Source: “Student Activity: Harry Truman and the Truman Doctrine – Harry S. Truman Library & Museum website” (http://www.trumanlibrary.org/teacher/doctrine.htm) (Accessed on 17 January 2014)


  1. Refer to Source F. What is the cartoonist’s view about the role of the Soviet Union in western Europe? Support your answer with one clue from Source F. (1+1 marks)




  1. Refer to Source G. Would Harry Truman agree with the view of the cartoonist as you pointed out in part (a)? Explain your answer with reference to Source G and using your own knowledge. (4 marks)




  1. What are the usefulness and limitations of Sources F and G in explaining the reasons for the intervention of the United States in the post-WWII economic development of Europe? Explain your answer with reference to Sources F and G and using your own knowledge. (6 marks)



Question 4

Suggested answers and reference for assessment


(a)

Cartoonist’s view about the role of the USSR in western Europe

[1+1 marks]




Cartoonist’s view about the role of the USSR:

  • The USSR was trouble-maker / source of chaos.


Clue:

  • The eagle labeled “communism” (representing the USSR) was bringing the evil-looking child labeled “chaos” and flying to western Europe at high speed.

[1 mark]

[1 mark]










(b)

Whether Harry Truman would agree with the cartoonist’s view

[4 marks]




L1 General answer without due reference to Sources F and G

L2 Well explained answer with due reference to Sources F and G
Harry Truman’s view: AGREE with the cartoonist’s view

  • Harry Truman mentioned that there were people in Europe “who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures” (Source G). This corresponds to the possible threat of “chaos” being brought by the eagle to western Europe (Source F).

  • Harry Truman pointed out that the US policy was to “assist free peoples to work out their own destinies” and to provide “economic and financial aid” (Source G). This corresponds to the doctor (representing the US Congress) rushing to western Europe to forestall “chaos” (Source F).


Explanation, e.g.:

  • The threat of communism was ascending during the post-WWII years as economic recovery was the primary economic concern while political stability was at stake if economic problems were not solved.

[max. 2]

[max. 4]










(c)

Usefulness and limitations of Sources F and G in explaining the reasons for American intervention in post-WWII economic development in Europe

[6 marks]




L1 Lopsided answer focusing on either usefulness or limitations

L2 Comprehensive answer covering both usefulness and limitations
Usefulness, e.g.:

  • (Source F) the need to forestall chaos that could be brought by the rise of communism at times of economic difficulties

  • (Source G) the need to free European peoples who would be subject to communist subjugation and to help them establish economic stability and political order


Limitations, e.g.:

  • The American realization of the need to take up a more active leadership role in international affairs after a long period of isolationism

  • The American desire to transplant its successful capitalist system to European countries which might possibly turn communist under the influence of various communist parties and their influence

[max. 3]

[max. 6]




  1. Study Sources H and I.




SOURCE H

The following is a map of eastern Europe from 1945-1955.





SOURCE I

The following is a map of the European Economic Community.








  1. What can you infer from Source H about the pattern of economic cooperation in eastern Europe during the period 1945-55? Support your answer with one clue from Source H. (2 marks)




  1. Describe and explain the pattern of economic cooperation in western Europe during the period 1952-90. Explain your answer with reference to Source I and using your own knowledge. (4 marks)




  1. Do Sources H and I sufficiently reflect the patterns of economic cooperation in Europe during the period 1945-2000? Explain your answer with reference to Sources H and I and using your own knowledge. (7 marks)

Question 5

Suggested answers and reference for assessment


(a)

Pattern of economic cooperation in eastern Europe during 1945-55

[2 marks]




Pattern of economic cooperation:


Clues:

  • eastern European states became “satellite states” of the USSR, signifying that they were subject to the influence and control of the USSR.

[1 mark]

[1 mark]










(b)

Pattern of economic cooperation in western Europe during 1952-90

[4 marks]




L1 General answer without due reference to Source I

L2 Well explained answer with due reference to Source I
Pattern of economic cooperation in western Europe:

  • Gradual participation in the European Economic Community over 4 decades, instead of all at once


Clues:

  • The Inner Six (i.e. West Germany, France, etc.) joined in 1957

  • The U.K. and Ireland joined in 1973.

  • Greece, Spain and Portugal joined in the 1980s.

  • East Germany joined in 1990.

[max. 2]

[max. 4]










(c)

Whether Sources H and I sufficiently reflect the patterns of economic cooperation in Europe during 1945-2000

[7 marks]




L1 Lopsided answer focusing on either usefulness or limitations

L2 Comprehensive answer covering both usefulness and limitations
Usefulness, e.g.:

  • Source H shows only the once-for-all inclusion of eastern European communist states in the USSR’s sphere of control.

  • Source I shows only the gradual participation of western European capitalist states in the European Economic Community.


Limitations, e.g.:

  • Both sources fail to reflect how the communist and capitalist states cooperated among themselves, e.g.

      • By sharing raw materials (coal and steel) among the Inner Six during the 1950s;

      • By specializing in different stages of production, i.e. East Germany in industry, Romania in agriculture

[max. 4]

[max. 7]




  1. Study Sources J and K.

SOURCE J

The following text is adapted from a book on European economic integration.



The first stone in the building of the European Community was laid on 9 May 1950, when Robert Schuman, the French Foreign Minister, put forward a plan worked out by himself and Jean Monnet for France and Germany to pool all their coal and steel production under a joint High Authority, within an organization open to any other country in Europe. Behind this proposal lay a twofold realization: on the one hand, it was pointless to impose unilateral restrictions on Germany, but at the same time a fully independent Germany was still perceived as a potential threat to peace. The only way out of this dilemma, Schuman realized, was to bind Germany politically and economically into a firmly based grouping of European States.

Source: Klaus-Dieter Borchardt, European Integration: The origins and growth of the European Union (Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1995), p.9.

SOURCE K

The following is adapted from the ‘Treaty Establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, ECSC Treaty,’ signed on April 18 1951.



The aim of the Treaty [of Paris], as stated in Article 2, was to contribute, through the common market for coal and steel, to economic expansion, growth of employment and a rising standard of living. Thus, the institutions had to ensure an orderly supply to the common market by ensuring equal access to the sources of production, the establishment of the lowest prices and improved working conditions. All of this had to be accompanied by growth in international trade and modernization of production.

Source: “Treaty Establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, ECSC Treaty – EUROPA website” (http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/institutional_affairs/treaties/treaties_ecsc_en.htm) (Accessed on 12 March 2014).


  1. Refer to Source J. What was the motive behind Robert Schuman’s proposal of setting up “an organization open to any other country in Europe”? Support your answer with one clue from Source J. (1+1 mark)




  1. Refer to Source K. What was the objective of setting up the European Coal and Steel Community, as officially stated in Source K? Explain your answer with reference to Source K. (3 marks)




  1. Which source reflects a more pressing need for economic cooperation during the early 1950s? Explain your answer with reference to Sources J and K and using your own knowledge. (6 marks)

Question 6

Suggested answers and reference for assessment


(a)

Motive behind Robert Schuman’s proposal

[1+1 mark]




Motive:


Clue:

  • “to bind Germany politically and economically into a firmly based grouping of European States”

[1 mark]


[1 mark]










(b)

Objective of setting up ECSC

[3 marks]




L1 General answer without due reference to the Source

L2 Comprehensive answer with due reference to the Source
Objective:

  • To facilitate economic growth, create job opportunities and upgrade the Europeans’ living standard


Clue:

  • “to contribute … to economic expansion, growth of employment and a rising standard of living”

[max. 1]

[max. 3]










(c)

Which source reflects a more pressing need for economic cooperation during the early 1950s

[6 marks]




L1 One-sided answer without comparing the two motives, and using either the Source or own knowledge

L2 Comprehensive answer with thorough comparison and discussion of both motives, and using both the Source and own knowledge
Source K reflects a more pressing need for economic cooperation during the early 1950s.

The need to check German threat to peace:

  • (Source J) Robert Schuman hoped to form an economically stronger group of European states to check German expansion.

  • (Own knowledge) Germany was largely disarmed and divided after 1945, and could hardly re-unify her own forces to act against her neighbours militarily again. It was the right time to check German expansion before it was too late.


The need to facilitate European economic and material growth:

  • (Source K) The ECSC was set up to foster economic and material growth, and generate a better standard of living

  • (Own knowledge) This economic need was urgent after WWII, since many farms and factories were destroyed during WWII, and had not yet fully recovered then. The inability to produce enough food and daily necessities to satisfy the post-war population was a matter of life and death.


[max. 3]
[max. 6]




  1. Study Source L.

SOURCE L

The following features a political caricature by a German cartoonist on the signing of the European Coal and Steel Community Treaty dated April 19 1951.



Netherlands

Belgium

Italy

France

West Germany

Luxemburg

Six ministers board the same boat’



Source: “Cartoon by Wand on the signing of the ECSC Treaty (19 April 1951) – CVCE website” (http://www.cvce.eu/obj/cartoon_by_wand_on_the_signing_of_the_ecsc_treaty_19_april_1951-en-b3e362b0-c399-4e67-9202-b7f2caebc08e.html) (Accessed on 12 March 2014).


  1. What is the cartoonist’s view about the relative influence of the earliest members of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)? Cite relevant clues from Source L to support your answer. (1+2 marks)




  1. What is the cartoonist’s attitude towards the forthcoming development of the ECSC? Explain your answer with reference to Source L and using relevant historical facts from the 1950s. (4 marks)




  1. Did the cartoonist’s attitude you mentioned in part (b) correspond to actual historical development during the 1950s-60s? Explain your answer with reference to Source L and using your own knowledge. (6 marks)
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