Introduction Ch. 5 Western Civilization 101



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Introduction – Ch. 5

Western Civilization 101

Spielvogel, 7th ed.


Intro. – Ch. 1

history

western


civilization

culture

why study about the past

why study ancient predecessors

six needs common to all people

Stone Age

Paleolithic Period

Chauvet Cave

Çatal Hüyük

Neolithic Revolution

stages of human development

hominids (Australopithecines)

homo erectus

homo sapiens

homo sapiens sapiens

Neanderthals

Cro-Magnon

hunter-gatherers

systematic agriculture

two innovations of Paleothic peoples

tool-making

use of fire

population growth

wheel


divisions of labor

pre-history

writing

six characteristics of civilization

Fertile Crescent

Mesopotamia

Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

irrigation and drainage

Sumer

Ur

ziggurat


theocracy

divine kings

city-states

commerce and industry

social hierarchy

elites


dependent commoners

free commoners

slaves

Mesopotamian Empires



Akkadian Empire

Third Dynasty of Ur

Hammurabi’s Empire

Sargon


Babylon

Ur-Nammu


Semites

Hammurabi (1792-1750 BC)

Code of Hammurabi

polytheism



Enuma elish

An

Enlil



Enki

Ninhursaga

diviniation

cuneiform



The Epic of Gilgamesh

literature

mathematics & astronomy

“The Gift of the Nile”

Egypt

Nile River/Valley



Old Kingdom

Ma’at

vizier


nomes/provinces

nomarch/governor

Middle Kingdom

social/order/economy

nobles and serfs

pharaoh


Atum

Re

Amon-Re



Osiris

Isis


Horus

Seth


pyramids/Giza

mummification



Book of the Dead

Great Pyramid

Egyptian art

hieroglyphics

Hyksos

New Kingdom



Akhenaten

Nefertiti

Tutankhamen

Rameses II

women in Egyptian culture

Hatshepsut

Balkan Peninsula

Neolithic Europe

megaliths

Stonehenge

Indo-Europeans

Hittites


Sea People

Gasga


p. 6 – early civilizations

p. 16-17 – Nile River

p. 52(conclusion) – Christianity/Islam

p. 61 – polis

p. 81 – The Republic

p. 117 – imperium

p. 131 – Roman upper-class women


WHY STUDY THE PAST?



  1. We are all the same species, yesterday and today.

  2. We share a fundamental commonality.

  3. Continuity and change in human affairs proceed together.

SIX NEEDS COMMON TO ALL PEOPLE, AT ALL TIMES, IN ALL PLACES:



  1. survival

  2. social organization

  3. stability and protection

  4. knowledge and learning

  5. self-expression

  6. religious expression

AGRICULTURAL SURPLUSES RESULTED IN:



  1. population growth

  2. growth of trading

  3. divisions of labor

RESULTS OF NEOLOTHIC REVOLUTION



  1. trading

  2. craft specialization

  3. stratified labor

  4. gender roles defined

  5. permanent dwellings

  6. domestication of animals

  7. traditional farming practices

  8. the wheel

  9. writing

  10. metallurgy

CHARACTERISTICS OF CIVILIZATION



  1. urban focus

  2. religious structure

  3. political and military structures

  4. social structure based on economic power

  5. development of writing

  6. artistic and intellectual activity

THREE GOALS OF HAMMURABI



  1. make Babylon secure

  2. unify Mesopotamia

  3. secure the legacy of Babylonians in the Mesopotamian civilization

UNIQUE CHARACTERSTICS OF THE CODE OF HAMMURABI



  1. The law differed according to the social status of the offender. Aristocrats were not punished as harshly as commoners, nor commoners as harshly as slaves.

  2. The punishment was designed to fit the crime.



Ch. 2

Hebrews


Old Testament

Abraham


Levant

Canaan


“Children of Israel”

Egypt


Moses

Exodus


Ba’al

Israelites

Israel

Saul


Philistines

David


Moabites

Jerusalem

Solomon

Temple in Jerusalem



Ark of the Covenant

northern and southern tribes

Israel

Judah


Samaria

Assyrians

Chaldeans

Babylonia

King Nebuchadnezzar II

Babylonian Exile

Persians

Yahweh


monotheism

Hebrew Bible

Pentateuch

Torah


covenant

prophets


Amos

Isaiah


kosher (not in text)

“men of rank and influence”

“people of the land”

Diaspora


patriarchal

polygamy


gender roles

Phoenicians

Byblos, Tyre, Sidon, Carthage

Phoenician alphabet

Assyrian Empire

“the land of Ashur”

Neo-Babylonian Empire

Marduk


Sin

Hanging Gardens

Chaldean Dynasty

Persian Empire

Medes

Cyrus the Great



satrap/satrapy

Herodotus

Cambyses II (530-522 BC)

Darius (521-486 BC)

Great King

Immortals

Zoroaster

Zoroastrianism

Mithra

Zend Avesta



Ahuramazda

good vs. evil

“House of Song”

“Kingdom of Good Thought”

“House of Worst Thought”

impact of Zoroastrianism on Christianity




Ch. 3

Greece


its geography

Aegean Sea

Mediterranean Sea

Gulf of Corinth

Peloponnesus

Sparta


Olympia

Attica


Athens

Thebes


Thessaly

Macedonia

Crete

Bronze Age



Minoans

Knossus


Mycenaean

wanax


Dark Ages

Acolians


Dorians

Homer


Iliad

Odyssey

Trojan War

Achilles

Odysseus


Arête

polis/poleis

city-state

acropolis

agora

hoplites


phalanx

colonization

tyrants

Corinth


perioikoi

helots


oligarchy

gerousia


ephors

solon


upward political mobility

archon


Peloponnesian League

Athens as a polis

Pisistratus 560 BC

Hippias


Cleisthenes

demes


Council of Five Hundred

Athenian democracy

demos-people

kratia-power

kouros/korai

Archaic Greece

lyric poetry

Sappho


Lesbos/lesbian

homosexuality

Hesios

Work and Days

aristocrats/commoners

Classical Greece

Asian Minor

Persia

Miletus


Darius

Persian Wars

Themistocles

trireme


Xerxes

Thermopylae

Battle of Salamis

Delian League

Athenian Empire

Pericles


ostracism

jurors


lower-class citizens

First Peloponnesian War

Great Peloponnesian War

decline of Greece

decharchies

Thirty Tyrants

Herodotus

Thucydides

Greek drama

Aeschylus

Sophocles

Oedipus the King

Euripides

Greek comedy

Aristophanes

art

architecture



Doric/Ionic/Corinthian

importance of proportion

Parthenon

Sophists


rhetoric

Socrates


Socratic method

Plato


Ideas or Forms

The Republic

Aristotle

Academy

research and investigation

politics

Greek religion

polytheism

Mt. Olympus

Zeus

Athena


Apollo

Aphrodite

Poseidon

oracle


mystery religion

metics


slavery

economy


family

women’s roles

hetairai

Persia – present-day Iran

Anatolia – present-day Turkey

Canaan – Palestine/Israel

Mesopotamia – Iraq


Ch. 4

Macedonia

King Archelaus

King Philip II

Athenians

Demosthenes



Philippics

Isocrates

Darius III

Thebes


Battle of Chaeronea

Corinthian League

hegemon

Persian Empire



Alexander the Great

Asia Minor

Battle of Issus

Tyre


Egypt

Alexandria

India

Battle of Hydaspes River



Hellenistic Era

Hellenistic kingdoms

Antigonid

Seleucid


Pergamum

Ptolemaic

Celts/Gauls

women’s roles

slavery

slave acquisition



education

gymnasium

libraries

Tyche (not in text)

literature

Menander


Polybius

arts


science

astronomy

Aristarchus of Samos

heliocentrism

geocentrism

Eratosthenes

Euclid

Elements

Archimedes

pi

hydrostatics



Archimedes screw

Hippocrates

medicine

anatomy


dissection

vivisection

Herophilus

Erasistratus

magical cures

philosophy

Epicureanism

Stoicism


religion

mysticism

cult of Isis

syncretism

Jews

origins of Hanukkah




Ch. 5

two periods of Roman history

Republic (409-264 BC)

Empire (31-476 AD)

Italy

Mediterranean climate



Arno River

Apennines

Po Valley

Latium


Campania

Tiber River

Greeks in southern Italy

Etruscans

Etruria

Romans


Romulus and Remus

toga


vault

arch


the Sacred Way

Forum


fasces

Rome


Jupiter/Zeus

Minerva/Athena

Herakles/Hercules

Celts/Gauls

pagan

Roman politics and law



“living documents”

civil law

natural law

universal truths

Twelve Tables

Roman political terms

imperium

patrician

plebeians

senate


consuls

ladder of offices

praetor

dictator


quaestors

aediles


censors

centuriate assembly

Struggle of the Orders

tribunes


nobiles

Rome made Italy

Appian Way

Tarentum


Pyrrhus

Pyrrhic victory

Punic Wars (264-146 BC)

Carthage


First Punic War

Corsica


Sardinia

New Carthage

Hannibal

Second Punic War

Battle of Zama

Third Punic War

Scipio the Younger

Sallust


Marcus Cato

paterfamilias

manumission

Latin


baths

aqueducts

Juno

Mars


Mercury

pontiffs


vestal virgins

Roman Late Republic (133-44 BC)

latifundia

Tiberius Gracchus

Gaius Gracchus

Gaius Marius

proletariat

Cornelius Sulla

Social War

Pompey


Julius Caesar

Rubicon


Spartacus

Marcus Tullius Cicero

First Triumvirate

Cleopatra VII

Julian calendar

Gregorian calendar

Ides of March

Octavian


Second Triumvirate

Battle of Actium

Roman writers/Republic Era

Catullus


Lucretius

Cicero


Sallust

Caesar


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