Internationalisation dans le champ éducatif (18e – 20e siècles) Internationalization in Education (18th – 20th centuries) Genève / Geneva, 27-30 juin / June 2012


Rosalia MENINDEZ, Universidad Pedagógica Nacional, Mexico



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Rosalia MENINDEZ, Universidad Pedagógica Nacional, Mexico

The decades of the eighties of the nineteenth century show an important interest by the government of Porfirio Diaz to promote the new hygiene conceptions entering the country from Europe; as part of its modernization project the government provided the necessary facilities for the implementation of innovative projects that would improve school hygiene. The year 1882 was key to the hygiene in Mexico, as the first hygienic-pedagogic congress was organized. From this moment on, an intense participation of teachers, doctors, architects, engineers, and other professionals was generated at meetings, conferences, and international events, with the idea to exchange and discuss ideas and knowledge on major theoretical developments and materials on the topic of school hygiene. The government allocated resources in order for Mexican researchers to participate in exchange programs, to attend international forums, to familiarize with the advances related to health and hygiene, to acquire medical or educational material, to build relationships and contacts, but most importantly it seemed like an excellent opportunity to promote Mexico's image of being a modern country. The aim of this paper is to study the internationalization of these Mexican professionals interested in school health of Mexican children in the late nineteenth century.



Jean Le Boulch et la psychocinétique: internationalisation et diffusion d'une éducation par le mouvement (1984-2001)

Blaise DESPLECHIN-LEJEUNE, Université Joseph Fourier de Grenoble, France; Pierre-Alban LEBECQ, Institut Libre d’Education Physique Supérieur, Cergy-Pontoise, France; Jean SAINT-MARTIN, Université Joseph Fourier de Grenoble, France

Jean Le Boulch (1924-2001), professeur d’éducation physique et sportive (EPS) et médecin français, développe une méthode éducative: la psychocinétique. Son rayonnement est international, comme en témoignent les différentes associations suisses et italiennes de psychocinétique ou le collège qui porte son nom au Pérou. Il définit cette méthode comme une science du mouvement humain appliquée au développement de la personne conçue dans sa globalité, de la naissance à l’âge adulte. Pour lui, le mouvement est le moyen fondamental d’éducation autour duquel se forge l’unité de la personne corporelle et mentale. Si, à l’origine, sa méthode s’adresse aux instituteurs et aux professeurs d’EPS, elle s’adresse aussi à ceux qui s’occupent de l’éducation ou de la rééducation des enfants handicapés. Comment expliquer la diffusion transnationale de cette méthode? Quels en sont les supports, les vecteurs et les acteurs associés? Quelles sont les stratégies opérées par Jean Le Boulch? Existe-t-il une ou plusieurs diffusions, un ou plusieurs aspects de la psychocinétique selon le pays concerné? Le modèle d’Hagerstand (1953), identifie quatre phases dans la diffusion: la première est une amorce à partir des centres produisant l’innovation. La seconde est celle de l’expansion. La troisième est celle de la condensation, traduisant une recherche d’efficacité et d’adaptation au nouvel environnement. La dernière est une phase de saturation, synonyme de disparition ou de nécessaires transformations. Travailler sur les processus de diffusion revient à envisager simultanément et dialectiquement trois approches: historique, sociologique et géographique (J. Bale et J. Maguire, 1994), afin d’identifier les contextes limitant ou accélérant la diffusion, la singularité des lieux et milieux de diffusion, les acteurs associés ou opposés à celle-ci. Notre étude repose sur une analyse des supports de diffusion qu’utilise Jean Le Boulch (articles, ouvrages, communications, formations), mais aussi sur les champs et les secteurs de diffusion (scolaire, universitaire, associatif, médico-éducatif, professionnel), ainsi que sur diverses archives écrites et orales (entreprises, associations, organismes, privées). Résultats et interprétations: C’est entre 1984 et 2001 que Jean Le Boulch va s’orienter vers une autonomisation et une structuration de la diffusion de sa méthode au plan international. La publication de ses articles s’effectue certaines années exclusivement à l’étranger et on observe la même dynamique pour ses communications. Cette phase de condensation se construit aussi grâce à des expérimentations, comme avec l’Union nationale italienne des professeurs d’EPS, soutenue par le ministère de l’Instruction publique, sur l’enseignement de l’EPS à l’école primaire. Jean Le Boulch multiplie ses champs d’actions et contribue à la création d’associations ou d’écoles formant à sa méthode comme l’«Institut de Sport éducatif Dr Jean Le Boulch» à Neuchâtel (Suisse) en 1986 ou l’«Ecole Jean Le Boulch de psychomotricité fonctionnelle» de Florence (Italie) en 2001. C’est aussi le passage d’une diffusion européenne à une diffusion internationale, Jean Le Boulch multipliant la promotion de sa méthode en Argentine, au Brésil, au Mexique et au Pérou.

Sports at Brazilian Religious Schools (1920-1930): the Case of St Gertrudes Academy



Maria Helena LIRA, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Brasil

This study is a reflection on the school situation, based on questions of historical, regarding the relationship between sport, physical education and school in Brazil, and aiming to understand the influence of sports phenomenon in the early twentieth century. To this end, we launched an investigation into this matter highlighting some specifics of the school routine through documents collected as research for Masters programs held between 2007 and 2009. The basis of the investigation were the archive files of the Catholic school St. Gertrude Academy, founded in 1912 in the city of Olinda-PE/BR by the Benedictine Sisters Mission, a German Religious group. In the archives of this institution we found records on the school building and on the daily lives and routines of pupils and teachers at the school. Documents investigated allowed for the visualization of actions that permeated from the early years of the intervention of the Benedictines. However, we draw attention to the 1920s and 1930s, as the period where it was possible to find the largest number of records of physical practices that have brought evidence of customs involving routine and doctrinal education of the students of the Academy. Among the records found in this file are the chronicles, written by the Sisters themselves, in the form of diaries and photo albums showing notes of activities which go beyond the teachings of the domestic or "fitness" with sewing needles, which was conventional for girls’ schools of that period. Some photos show a preoccupation with recording practices such as dance, gymnastics and even sports that were not very common among the female population of that period, such as basketball. We know that the Brazilian schools received significant influences from European institutions, who brought their models of school education, curricula, and physical practices - especially in the transition from the nineteenth to the twentieth - with respect to denominational schools. These influences revealed structures that show a mutual acceptance between Brazilians and immigrants in which physical exercise, through the years, was occupying rooms, courtyards and squares of the schools. An important point in this relationship of acceptance refers to the way in which physical education was being justified: the hygenic nature of the activites would enable the formation of healthy men in habits, customs and thoughts. It is possible that this is an indication of the inclusion of physical education in school curricula, considering that this argument was accepted and received by the Brazilian population. According to Lucena (2001), the early twentieth century shows evidence of sport as a common practice among the Brazilian population, and may even be perceived as an element that allows the explanation of the civilizing process in Brazil. It is possible that this practice had become established among the population as a social practice - for Brazil’s playful nature - taking the streets, squares and the schools themselves, and later becoming a legal practice.

Samedi / Saturday 8:30 - 10:30 Room: 4393

7.7. Méthodes en mouvement: la circulation de modèles éducatifs (19e-20e s.) / Moving methods: the circulation of educational models (19th-20th cent.)

Chair: Anton COSTA

Le tour de la nation: l´adaptation d´un modèle français de lecture au Mexique à la fin du XIXème siècle



Lucía MARTINEZ MOCTEZUMA, Instituto de Ciencias de la Educación de la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Mexico

Les résolutions du Congrès d’Hygiène (1882) et d’Instruction publique (1889, 1890) ont soulevé la question de la modernisation de l'école mexicaine. Une des priorités était le développement et la sélection des manuels scolaires. En général, il a été convenu que son contenu soit rédigé par des spécialistes, dans un style simple et selon un programme d'études officiel. De cette façon, les livres subirent une transformation car ils furent adaptés pour le rythme scolaire et se modernisent dans leur présentation; furent inclus des narrations et des images qui renforçaient l'apprentissage de la lecture en vertu des exigences de la méthode intuitive en œuvre dans le monde entier. La rénovation des livres n'était pas seulement un produit de la disposition des autorités, mais aussi des maisons d'édition qui établirent une série de stratégies d'affaires afin de consolider leur marché. Les éditeurs ont constitué une équipe d'auteurs familiers avec leurs lecteurs qui pour la plupart étaient des diplômés de l'Ecole Normale, occupaient des chaires dans la même institution et des positions-clés dans l'administration. Le Mexique n´avait pas d´expertise dans le domaine: «…la Pédagogie chez nous en est juste à ses premiers pas … la plupart des gens qui se sont consacrés à ces études, eurent besoin d'être éduqués dans des textes étrangers et c´est seulement grâce à eux que nous avons appris à connaître l'état d'avancement des préceptes sur l'éducation. Comme ces livres, généralement écrits dans des langues étrangères, ne sont pas disponibles pour les enseignants des derniers endroits, il ne serait pas facile pour eux d'avoir l'argent pour les acheter, ni pour d´autres d´en faire la traduction, ne connaissant pas la langue» (Rapport du 2ème Congrès de l'Instruction publique, 1890:251) Ainsi, le programme a été inspiré par le droit français (1880, 1881 et 1882) qui a mis l'accent sur l'éducation gratuite, laïque, moral, civique, nationale, physique et intellectuel. Furent prises en considération les idées présentées à l'Exposition universelle de Paris (1889) et comme exemple, les publications d'Ernest Lavisse, Récits et Entretien familiers sur l´Histoire de France jusqu´en 1328 et L´année preparatoire d´histoire de France, pour inspirer l'enseignement de l'histoire chez Justo Sierra (Martinez L, 2005: 407-410). En ce qui concerne la lecture les livres de G. Bruno (1887), ils offriront aux petits lecteurs un grand tableau de l´histoire, la science, la technologie et l'industrie car il s´agit d´une période de progrès durant laquelle les travaux de divulgation auront leur meilleur succès (Choppin, 2008:26). Ses textes seront traduits et adaptés en Europe et en Amérique, en vertu des normes internationales qui protègeront les droits de Mme Fouillé et de la Maison d´Edition Belin en France. Cette communication tente de décrire la facette de l'auteur dans son processus d'apprentissage comme un écrivain (Rapport 1890: 136), où l'acte de traduction offre un champ d'analyse pour étudier l'appropriation, lorsque le passage d'une langue à l'autre montre l'horizon de réception d'un texte (Chartier, 1999:90-91); je veux décrire aussi le processus de traduction du point de vue legal, d´un pays à l´autre.

The movement of international models in the school production and Brazilian books for teaching of reading - XIX and XX century



Isabel Cristina Alves da Silva FRADE, Faculdade de Educação - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brasil

Several studies related to literature and publishing indicate that the influence in the ideas produced in France in the Brazilian culture and education reveals itself from the establishment of libraries, by the action of publishers /French booksellers in the Brazilian market in the nineteenth century, the circulation of books, objects and intellectuals. In education, in particular, also we see the search for pedagogical models that will produce the school itself and its methods. Based on studies about the issue on the history of education and literacy, this study sought to identify in reports, instructions in the manuals for teachers, the models of own books and other studies, the brands international influences, especially French in the history of literacy in Brazil since the mid-nineteenth century until the mid-twentieth century. In the province of Minas Gerais and in Brazil in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, there is some influence from countries like Portugal, France, England and the United States in the production of the organization of the school. In the mid-nineteenth century, in the province of Minas Gerais, there is a circulation of reports and rules that intended to promote or implement ways of teaching organizing , and we noted the coexistence of at least two models: the method lancasteriano (English model) and the simultaneous method (French model). The production of books for teaching early reading, in Brazil, it’s also influenced by economic, cultural and educational that can explain the movement of people and educational models that reflect the production of books for beginners.The nationalization of books production, since its beginning is marked by a French or European: a) why a particular author has produced and printed his work in Paris, as exemplified by the case of author Wilbur Cesar Borges b) by printing titles made in Europe in the case of beginning reading books printed in Paris by Brazilian publisher Francisco Alves c) by quoting the names of French authors in the works and prefaces addressed to teachers in the late nineteenth century, d) by evidence of movement of Brazilian materials in universal exhibitions. However, in Brazilian books produced between the late nineteenth and early twentieth-century authors such as Wilbur and Felisberto Cesar Borges de Carvalho mention European trends (methods, books and authors) cannot be said that his works embody these influences. Looking for other influences in Brazilian production of books for beginners that occurs at the turn of the twentieth century with the introduction of the analytical methods (São Paulo), or global palavração for teaching reading (Minas Gerais) there is a greater circulation of people and American reference works that are designed to meet different reforms related to a republican project, which also reflect the teaching of reading and writing. In the mid-twentieth century, in Minas Gerais, there are projects that institutionalize the process of internationalization through training actions and agreements for the production of teaching materials, with a strong American influence.

French Textbooks in Brazil and their Influence on Secondary School Science Teaching during the Empire, 1837-1889



Karl LORENZ, Sacred Heart University, U.S.A.

This paper examines the role of French textbooks in the development of secondary school science teaching in Brazil from 1837, when the Imperial College Dom Pedro II was founded in Rio de Janeiro, to 1889, when Brazil was declared a Republic. The College was the premier secondary institution in Brazil during the Empire. It was created by the Imperial Government to tend to the children of the functionaries and the ruling elites of the Municipality of the Court, and more importantly, to serve as a model for other secondary institutions in the provinces. The College was intended to be a conduit by which contemporary knowledge was introduced into the secondary schools of Brazil. To this end, and plagued from the beginning by a dearth of textbooks in Portuguese, the authorities adopted foreign textbooks, especially from France. Beginning with the founding of the College, these texts had a special significance in the life of the institution. They transmitted knowledge, exercised influence on teaching methodology, and represented and inculcated the cultural values and ideologies of the time-period of its publication. They also profiled the stage of development of a particular field of investigation. In the case of the sciences, its content included concepts, principles, theories and laws of nature, as well as techniques of investigation adopted by the scientific community. The textbooks were consulted buy professors of the College when crafting individual syllabi or when teaching science concepts, thereby indirectly defining the nature of science instruction in the institution. This paper begins by describing the influence of French educational thought on the debates surrounding curriculum reforms in the College Dom Pedro II. It notes that at different moments during the empire, the perceived role and nature of science teaching in Brazil often reiterated ideas circulating in France. The paper then explores its central theme, that French pedagogical influence was most clearly evidenced in the content of the natural science courses taught in the College. Courses in natural history and the physical sciences almost exclusively adopted French textbooks due to a lack of published science texts in the Portuguese language. The textbooks that were adopted in the institution from 1838 to 1889 were widely-disseminated in France and other European countries. In Brazil, these texts were the primary vehicle for introducing the wonders of the natural world and the nature of the scientific enterprise to students of the Imperial College. They were authored by eminent pedagogues and men of science, and were designed in accordance with the official secondary school programs approved by the Ministère d’Instruction Publique. The paper advances the thesis that the transmigration of French textbooks to nineteenth century Brazil was a decisive factor in the central government’s attempt to guarantee the contemporaneity and modernity of its programs and to standardize secondary science education throughout the realm. By adopting modern French texts, the College ensured that the teaching of the sciences was equivalent to that administered in the French lyceums, and that this would induce the colleges in the province to modernize their science courses by emulating those offered in the College.

Military Drills, Uniforms and Bourgeois Values: Education as Depicted in the Bilingual Korean Newspaper The Independent, 1896-1898



Klaus DITTRICH, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea

Compared to Japan and China, international research has hitherto rather neglected the Korean history of education. This does not mean, however, that Korea saw a period of stagnation. Between the opening of the country to foreign intercourse in 1876 and its annexation to the Japanese empire in 1910, Korean as well as foreign actors enacted important educational reforms and established new institutions. These changes accelerated with the reform movement of the 1890s. The government proclaimed a comprehensive education system although only some of its provisions were actually implemented. Most prominent was a set of foreign language schools established in the capital Seoul. American Protestant missionaries were extremely influential in establishing schools which developed into modern centres of learning. Moreover, private Korean ‘educational entrepreneurs’ set up their own institutions. In this situation, the newspaper The Independent edited by the Korean reformer Seo Jae-pil who had spent several years in the United States appeared from 1896 to 1898 and was one of the first newspaper in Korea. It was the organ of the so-called Enlightenment Party that fostered reforms modelled on the United States and Japan. The newspaper is a central source for modern Korean historiography. However, its contents with regard to education has never been systematically analysed. As enlightenment reformers saw education as a central means to transform society, it has a key role in their writings. This paper is based on an in-depth analysis of the English edition of The Independent. Firstly – and probably most importantly –, numerous editorials dealt with education and provide insight on educational discourses. Quite surprisingly, military drills, physical exercises and other kinds of sports – as for example the first soccer match in Korea in which the students of the English Language School were involved – played a central role in the newspaper’s reporting on education. This was linked to European-style school uniforms which distinguished them decisively from older Korean dress code. In this sense, education was one of the central issues when evoking the opposition between ‘Eastern’ and ‘Western’ civilizations. Education should help in detaching Korea from Chinese traditions and model it upon American and European examples, as enlightenment reformers suggested. Secondly, the newspaper provides inside in the everyday life of teachers and students and administrative practices. These included strikes of teachers and struggles over the public funding of students’ luncheons. The analysis also permits conclusions on issues such as the instability of teaching staff in government schools. Finally, The Independent also transmitted educational news from abroad which one would hardly expect in a Korean newspaper of the late nineteenth century. This does not only concern the in educational situation in the neighbouring countries Japan and China. Thus, the Korean reader of one of the July 1897 editions could find the information that the Austro-Hungarian Board of Education forbad hand kissing in public schools. One year later the paper announced the opening of a first secondary school for girls in Germany, based on a report from the Boston Globe. In conclusion, this paper expects to contribute to a better understanding of the Korean case in the global institutionalisation of education during the nineteenth century. Or, to reverse the perspective, it hopes to grasp the characteristics of what East Asian actors often referred to as ‘Western learning’.

Pedagogical press, circulation of educational models in Brazil and France (1925-1930): Revista do Ensino and L'Ecole et La Vie



Maurilane de Souza BICCAS, Faculdade de Educação da Universidade de São Paulo, Brasil

This paper examines the “Revista do Ensino”, the most important printed pedagogical material of Minas Gerais (1925-1971), considering the point of view of its materiality, as a support for reading practices and uses at school, addressing aspects of production, circulation, and distribution in what concerns the perspective of teacher education. The emphasis given to its uses shifted the focus from the aspects related to pedagogical models to a number of material devices in which the Journal was inscribed, therefore, as a specific cultural product. Thus the “Revista do Ensino” was analyzed as a product of certain editorial and teaching strategies. On its first phase (1925-1930) the editors of the “Revista do Ensino” suggested for teachers texts from books and international journals, as well as articles published by French, Belgian, Swiss, and American scientists. In what regards the French references, it published articles from journals such as “L'Ecole et La Vie” and “L'Educateur”. Concerning the books, the editors published large lists of titles so that teachers could organize both their private and the school libraries, including the works of Ferrière, under the rubric of the Active School; of the Bibliothèque Scientifique d'Éducation, under the direction of the Abbott Th. Moreaux; and other reference books on the "Decroly Method". The editorial changes that occurred within the Revista do Ensino were part of a set of actions undertaken by Francisco Campos, Director of Public Instruction of Minas Gerais, in the process of implementing his reform; therefore, this moment cannot be analyzed without considering foreign missions, both the one that was undertaken to Columbia University (USA) and the one that was brought from Europe to Minas Gerais, organized by Alberto Alvarez, in 1928. The latter was formed by Theodore Simon, MD, professor at the University of Paris, Binet's collaborator, Jeanne Louise Milde from the Academy of Fine Arts in Brussels; Mm. Artus Perrelet and Leon Walter, from the Institute Jean Jacques Rousseau , from Genève and Hélène Antipoff. Thus, in the context of this reform, the “Revista do Ensino” was formed in a cauldron of circulation of ideas, proposals and pedagogical models. Thus, it is interesting to analyze here the circulation of ideas, pedagogical and experimental models, specifically those undertaken by Theodore Simon, who came in the European mission to Minas Gerais, in 1929. For that, an analysis was conducted of several articles by this author, both published in the magazines “L'Ecole et La Vie” (1925) and in the “Revista do Ensino” (1930-1936). In addition to that, the study included an analysis of the lectures given to teachers and of the records of their visits to public schools in Belo Horizonte in 1929 to conduct pedagogical experiments (Intelligence tests). These actions are the origin of the establishment of the Laboratory of Experimental Psychology of the Escola de Aperfeiçoamento in Belo Horizonte.




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