Internationalisation dans le champ éducatif (18e – 20e siècles) Internationalization in Education (18th – 20th centuries) Genève / Geneva, 27-30 juin / June 2012


Maria João MOGARRO, Institut de l’Éducation de l’Université de Lisbonne, Portugal



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Maria João MOGARRO, Institut de l’Éducation de l’Université de Lisbonne, Portugal

Avec cette communication on souhaite analyser, réfléchir et appréhender le processus de circulation des modèles culturels et pédagogiques qui ont influencé la construction de la modernité scolaire au Portugal. Nous allons concentrer notre attention sur les livres étrangers des bibliothèques constituées par Adolfo Coelho (1847-1919) dans le cadre de son activité comme professeur et pédagogue, ainsi que sur les matériels didactiques qu’il mentionne dans ces textes. Autodidacte, Adolfo Coelho a été fortement influencé par des auteurs Allemands (langue qu’il maîtrisait) dans ses études en linguistique, ethnographie, anthropologie et pédagogie. La lecture de ces mêmes auteurs a largement contribué à la construction de sa perspective critique sur l’enseignement au Portugal et, simultanément, il a formulé plusieurs propositions de réformes éducatives comprenant les différents niveaux d’enseignement. Adolfo Coelho a été professeur au Cours Supérieur de Lettres et à l’École Normale Supérieure de Lisbonne, ayant occupé plusieurs fonctions de nature éducative. Il a reçu le doctorat honoris causa par l’Université de Göttingen, Allemagne, et a été directeur du Musée Pédagogique Municipal de Lisbonne (qu’il a organisé) et de l’École Primaire Supérieure Rodrigues Sampaio, deux institutions créées en 1883 par la municipalité de Lisbonne. C’est comme directeur du Musée et de l’École qu’Adolfo Coelho a constitué ces bibliothèques, dont les chemins se confondent parfois, et où les pédagogues étrangers (français, allemands, anglais) ont une présence significative. Ainsi, il est donc important d’analyser les auteurs, les thèmes et l’idéaire éducatif sous-jacent à ces livres sélectionnés par Adolfo Coelho, qui révèlent, non seulement les connaissances actualisées qu’il possédait de la production internationale comme sa capacité de mobiliser ces moyens (livres et matériels didactiques) pour les locaux (la bibliothèque et le musée) où ils pourraient être utilisés dans des travaux scolaires et pédagogiques. On est donc devant une organisation des connaissances dans les bibliothèques portugaises qui se situaient dans un contexte de processus culturels de diffusion et appropriation de modèles pédagogiques produits en d’autres espaces géographiques, de ce fait le concept de “traveling library” (T. S. Popkewitz) assume un sens parfait. L’appropriation de cette matrice pédagogique n’est pas faite de façon solitaire, mais dans un contexte d’un réseau international de sociabilités auxquels Adolfo Coelho appartenait, interagissant avec d’autres pédagogues de l’époque que, comme lui, étaient porteurs d’un projet de modernisation pédagogique. C’est dans les années 80 que ce projet regagne un nouvel élan dans le pays, avec la politique éducative développée par la commune de Lisbonne. Les textes publiés par Adolfo Coelho révèlent la corrélation de sa pensée pédagogique avec celle de ses pairs, l’inscrivant dans le mouvement rénovateur international, élisant Froebel comme la grande référence tout en maintenant des contacts réguliers avec des figures internationales, en particulier avec Giner de los Rios e Cossío. Dans ce contexte c’est essentiel un regard sur les livres et les matériels étrangers qui ont composé la (les) bibliothèque(s) et le musée de Adolfo Coelho et qui sont parvenus jusqu’à nous, comme des collections historiques.

Lectures recommandées aux élèves-maîtres dans les écoles normales de São Paulo (Brésil) et en France au 19ème siècle



Thabatha Aline TREVISAN, Université de l’État de São Paulo (UNESP-Marília/SP-Brésil), Brésil; Bárbara Cortella PEREIRA, Université de l’État de São Paulo (UNESP-Marília/SP-Brésil)/École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, Paris, France / Brésil

Dans le but de contribuer à la production de l’histoire de la fomation d’instituteurs au Brésil et à la compréhension du mouvement de circulation des idées et de modèles pédagogiques et culturels, ce texte présente les résultats de deux recherches de Doctorat en Éducation (Bourse CAPES/PDEE) et (Bourse FAPESP/CAPES-PDEE). Ces recherches sont liée aux lignes “Histoire de l’Alphabétisation” et “Histoire de la Formation de professeurs” du Groupe de Recherche “Histoire d’Enseignement de Langue et Littérature au Brésil” (Gphellb), coordonnés par le professeur Maria do Rosário Longo Mortatti. Par une approche historique, centrée dans la recherche documentaire et bibliographique, développée à l’aide de l’utilisation de procédures de localisation, récupération, réunion, sélection et ordonnancement de références de documents relatifs à la formation des instituteurs et de lecture de la bibliographie brésilienne et française spécialisées sur le thème. On focalise les lectures recommandées à formation des élèves-maîtres dans les Écoles Normales du Brésil, notamment dans l’État de São Paulo et en France, à partir d’un éclairage sur la discipline Pédagogie où sont indiqués la majorité des contenus pour la formation de futurs maîtres préparés à apprendre la lecture et l’écriture aux enfants. Pour atteindre cet objectif, nous sommes en train de développer l’analyse de la configuration textuelle de sources documentaires considérées comme représentatives de ce sujet: liste des boîtes de matériaux acquises par Paulo Bourroul, directeur de l’École Normale de São Paulo, lors d’un voyage à Paris, en 1883; liste de livres contenus dans les rapports des directeurs de l’École Normale de São Paulo (1894-1896); et les catalogues de les bibliothèques des Écoles Normales en France, publiés par le Ministère de l’Instruction Publique, dans les dernières décennies du XIXème siècle. L’analyse de la configuration textuelle, qui consiste à focaliser les différents aspects constitutifs d’un texte, a permis, à ce jour, de repérer d’importants aspects relatifs à «apprendre à apprendre» la lecture et l’écriture au Brésil et en Franc, dérivés aussi de la circulation d’idées et de modèles pédagogiques; comme par exemple, la corrélation entre ces deux pays, leurs différences et similitudes dans le procès de construction de savoirs considérés nécessaires pour l’enseignement initial de la lecture et l’écriture dans les Écoles Normales, à partir aussi des idées disséminées dans la discipline Pédagogie, moment où les élèves-maîtres vont recevoir plus de connaissances pratiques sur les méthodes pour cet enseignement, au fil du XIXème siècle.



Samedi / Saturday 8:30 - 10:30 Room: 4389

7.3. Idéologies nationalistes et internationalistes dans les manuels / Nationalist and internationalist ideologies in textbooks

Chair: Ana Isabel MADEIRA

Making new friends and forgetting old enemies: Evidence of internationalization in primary school textbooks during the late Franco regime (1959-1975)



Kira MAHAMUD, Spanish National University of Distance Education, Spain; Cecilia MILITO, Spanish National University of Distance Education, Spain

The Franco regime continues to be a very popular, intriguing, and rich historical period of time to examine and revise. Historians of Education perceive that there is still much to discover, especially through the various new lines of research which are being triggered, such as the study of school culture, the reconstruction of teachers’ personal and professional lives, and the study of school didactic resources. We shall be delimiting our study to the final fifteen year time-period (1960-1975) of the regime, from the double stand point of the gradual internationalization of the dictatorial regime which started in the previous decade and the end of its pedagogical backwardness, focusing on one of the most relevant didactic tools, namely, the school textbook. The first Agreements with the United States of America (USA) and the Concordat with the Vatican took place in 1953; Spain became a member of the United Nations (UN) in 1955, and a member of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) in September 1958. Furthermore, in 1959, Franco inaugurated the "Valle de los Caídos" (on the 1st April) and launched the National Plan of Economic Stabilization (on the 21st July), two actions which show the coexistence of a strong feeling of Patriotism and the confirmation of the economic opening of country. However, Spain’s application to become a member of the European Communities was rejected in 1962, and not achieved until 1985. Similarly, it was not until 1977 that Spain was accepted in the Council of Europe. Are these international achievements and defeats portrayed in primary school textbooks or influence primary school officially established knowledge in any way? The paper will consist of two objectives: firstly, to examine the impact, influence, and transposition of Spanish international affairs on the 1970 General Law on Education, and on the ministerial curricular documents of 1965, the second "Cuestionarios Nacionales". Secondly, we shall be analyzing up to what point and the way in which the evolution of Spanish international affairs was being incorporated in the social sciences primary school textbooks. Which international facts and events, such as the visit of President Eisenhower in 1959, were introduced in school textbooks as knowledge to be learned? What was the representation and depiction of the contents of the internationalization process? Did it imply a change in the perception of old enemies and the making of new friends? What did it mean for the "madre patria"? How was the turn from isolation to internationalization explained within the still living patriotism and ideology? Which internationalization area is given more priority: International Organisms, the United States of America or Europe? Hence, we shall be paying attention to discourse, justifications, descriptions, and implications of such a new course just as we shall take into account possible signs of caution: ambiguities, shallowness or even silence and omissions regarding the matter.

Printed materials, education and internationalization: illustrated magazines in Brazil and in France (1917 – 1939)



Maria Angela SALVADORI, University of São Paulo, Brasil

Throughout the 19th century and during the early decades of the 20th, the cultural relations between Brazil and France were intense, process that can be captured in the study of various objects: fashion, language, customs, architecture, and the literature, among many others. It is possible to say that at that time the French model of civilization was disseminated as the reference by different social groups in Brazil, usually linked to the urban elites. Among many possible objects, aspects of these cultural dialogues can be analyzed through the press and printed materials that circulated ideas, values and cultural practices associated to a sense of modernity present both in their contents and in their form: the cunning of a market in itself modern by the techniques employed, the conflation of the written and the visual, consumerism bias and dissemination of attitudes linked to an ideal of progress. Taking the press as instrument of a wide education of the meanings and behaviors, the present work investigates two illustrated magazines, one from France – "Je sais Tout" – and its Brazilian counterpart, the "Eu Sei Tudo" magazine. Both appeared amidst the expansion of a business conceived in an entrepreneurial mode and presented features that were hard to resist: relatively short texts, light reading, abundant pictures – adequate to be "read" by illiterates – world views, graphical beauty, light information, touches of humor, amongst others. Although they were not "educative periodicals" in the strict sense of the phrase, they undoubtedly had an important role in the dissemination of new knowledges and in the construction of notions such as culture, civility, knowledge, modernity and education. The text represents, therefore, an attempt to understand the devices present in each one of these magazines, which aimed at a vague education of the readers enabling them to be part of a new world characterized by the expansion of the forms of communication, by technique, speed, spectacle, image and urbanization. The research has progressed in the direction of analyzing the role of the illustrated magazines, here and there, in the construction and propagation of a standard of individual and social behavior considered as adequate, especially for the life in cities. A second objective is to perceive the polysemic meanings of this notion of the modern that is being aimed at; in the French magazine modernity appears, particularly in the 1920s, as connected to the ideal of the scientific and technological advancement; in the Brazilian periodical, the emphasis lies on the social behaviors, artistic fruition, and standards of elegance. Lastly, it wants to recognize the editorial strategies employed here and there to attract various readers, since in France the levels of illiteracy were lower than those found in Brazil for the same period. Refuting the perspective of an immediate transposition, the comparison between these periodicals makes it possible to identify the propagation of gestures, tastes and conducts which, although linked to a positivist set of ideas of evolution, are particularized and recreated following both the national and local specificities and the diversity of readers.

On the internationalization in education in case of the textbook for children - mainly “The newest orbis sensualium pictus” in the 19th century



Junzo INOKUCHI, Otemon Gakuin University, Japan

The book “Orbis Sensualium Pictus” (the visible world by the senses) by John Amos Comenius(1592-1670) was printed in the year 1658. It is well known as the first textbook with many illustrations in the world. Therefore there are about more than 260 revised editions after the first publication. The purpose of this presentation is to consider about the internationalization in education in the 19th century in case of the book “The newest orbis sensualium pictus”. It was published many times in the 19th century. In this presentation I refer to “The newest orbis sensualium pictus” in 1843, in 1845 and in 1851. The character of the edition in 1843 is ordered in alphabetical order, and the illustration of the edition in 1845 is separated from the text. The edition in 1851 is increased to 880 pages. The edition in 1843 was written by Huldreich Becher(1795-1849)and Johann Christian Schneemann, and it was published in Meißen. Huldreich Becher worked as tutor in Leipzig, and later he became teacher in Dresden. After 1842 he wrote to the “Deutsche Jugendzeitung”. And Johann Christian Schneemann worked at the tax office in Dresden. He published “Deutsche Jugendzeitung” from 1832 to 1852. I guess that they contacted there. One of the character trends of “The newest orbis sensualium pictus” in 1843 is the arrangement in alphabetical order, and the book was written about the many foreign matters. For example we can see Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Great-Britain, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Russia, Italy, Poland, Hungary, Turkey, Greece, Portugal, France, Switzerland, Japan, China etc. in this book. Then the edition in 1845 was written by A.B. Reichenbach, who was the teacher in the secondary school in Leipzig. The contents contain many countries and people. It continued till to 211 pages. I see the internationalization in education in these books in 19th century. It is different from “orbis sensualium pictus” by J.A.Comenius. I consider particularly the description about Japanese people in this presentation from the viewpoint of internationalization in education in 19th century.

From Patriotism to Globalism: A continuous social change mirrored in Israeli textbooks

Sara ZAMIR, Achva Academic College of education & Ben-Gurion University at Eilat, Israel

Globalization processes have been accelerating since the early 1990s, and thus, the Israeli society is also experiencing substantial changes. Within these changes, symbols, beliefs, and new values are adopted to replace the old ones. Over the years a significant increase has occurred in the use of international scenery, contrary to the patriotic motifs that guided young Israel. Patriotism is viewed from a psychological-social perspective as an attachment of group members to the group or country to which they reside. In its primary form patriotism increases cohesiveness and dedication, and serve an important function for mobilizing the society members to actively participate, belong and identify with their society (Bar-Tal, 1991). On the other hand, "World culture theory" (Robertson, 1991) a particular interpretation of globalization, focuses on the way in which participants in the process of globalization become conscious of and give meaning to living in the world as a single place. In this account, globalization "refers both to the compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole"; in other words, it covers the acceleration in concrete global interdependence and in consciousness of the global whole (Robertson 1992: 8). In this article, I sought to examine whether this extensive use of global motifs in Israeli society is also evident in the education system that during its early days adhered to patriotic motifs. Hence, 8 junior- high school literary textbooks have been analyzed using the content analysis method: two of them were taught during the 50s and the 60s and 6 of them during the 90s - 3 readers of the general education and 3 readers of the religious education. School textbooks can mold the world view of the learners because the books are perceived by students as authoritative and factual. Teachers rely on them to organize their lectures, demand that students memorize them, and use them as a principal basis for testing students' learning. The research questions included the following: How can we characterize the social change that occurred in the Israeli literary textbooks? Have the global motifs reached Israeli literary textbooks during the 90's? What has become of patriotic motifs of the 50's during the 90's? It was found that the literary textbooks of the 50's and the 60's, when the Israeli-Arab conflict was intractable, conveyed 3 ideological narratives, all relate to the value of patriotism: Zionism, collectivism and Jewish victimhood. On the other hand, literary textbooks of the 90's combine universal values in the literary works in both ways: 1- Glocalization: through merging them with national motifs. 2-Emulation: introducing new values as individualism as well as acquaintance with different cultures and diverse narratives. Moreover: Contrary to the readers of the general education that allow value conflicts, the readers of the religious education veil possible value-conflicts.

Learning Europe: Notions and Educational Concepts of Europe in the 20th century

Norbert GRUBE, University of Applied Sciences Zurich: Teacher Education, Switzerland

In the 20th century different notions and concepts of European community arose. They competed against each other and faded – ideas of a European empire, of Christian unity to defend occidental civilization (Kultur) or Europe as a kind of a third way against Bolshevism and American capitalism and ideas of European diversity as multicultural chance. Various publications presented these concepts that were discussed intensively among intellectuals, politicians and entrepreneurs. I will focus on the question how ideas of European community came into school and which cultural and political conditions influenced the emergence of European topics in German and Swiss German schools. Referring on public, intellectual, and educational debates I will analyse the various aims of “Learning Europe” in a first step. Different national visions and stereotypes of Europe in the 20th century stand in the center of the first part of my paper. A second step will focus on German and Swiss-German textbooks from different decades to analyse various meanings of Europe in the second half of the 20th century that were taught at school. The question is, if there is a change from national concepts of Europe (Europe of fatherlands) emphasising cultural homogenity and dominance of Europe towards a more global and multicultural approach. I will focus especially on history textbooks to analyse consistencies and changes in the manner and method of learning Europe.



Samedi / Saturday 8:30 - 10:30 Room: 4189

7.4. Réception et appropriation transcontinentale des théories de l'Education nouvelle / Transcontinental reception and appropriation of New Education theories

Chair: Frank SIMON

Shaping the Hebrew youth paragon with progressive education



Raichel NIRIT, Kinneret College, Education Department, Israel; Talia TADMOR, Ben-Gorion University, Israel

As part of creating the new national identity during the nineteenth century, a new cultural component developed: which included physical health, hygiene, games, dance, taking trips, physical work and self-defense. This revolutionary creation was in line with the approaches of Rousseau, Locke, Pestalozzi and their students who viewed physical culture as an essential component of child development. Jewish national education made use of these components in shaping the desired ideal of a generation of Hebrew children. From 1882-1968, this brought about the creation of the prototype adult who is an independent graduate of Hebrew education who can cope well in his environment and with the challenges of modern society. The Hebrew student should be connected to the landscape and nature by corporeal teaching; the principle of the working school was education through field trips. Various kinds of field trips were held under school auspices – some spontaneous, based on teachers’ preferences, and others dictated by the curriculum as part of nature and homeland studies. Outdoor activities were also an educational means for using the experimental methods according to Dewey’s research approach. Progressive education created the concept of physical work which comes to emphasize the importance of the physical and motor efforts of labor, and viewed it as a required pedagogical means of child development, not only in the cognitive field, because it balances out intellectual activity. This approach also accorded with the Zionist narrative which wished to shape a generation of independent, productive Jews who were not dependant on others. The curricular expression of this is evident in the craft lessons which provided the pupils with basic knowledge of home and yard maintenance. An important aspect of education to productivity directed Hebrew education to agricultural work, where there was a blend of physical work, spending time in nature, an educational environment, and connection with the earth of the homeland. The picture of strapping Hebrew-speaking Jewish boys, working the land, with roots in the soil and whose heads were involved with strengthening and the establishment of the new Hebrew-Israeli society, created a wide public consensus expressed in the writings of the founding fathers, and in the curricula of the first Hebrew teachers from the 1880s up until the 1960s.

New Education and Pan-Asianism: Reformist Educators in Japan's Colonial Education System

Toshiko ITO, Mie University, Japan

In Japan, the era of New Education largely coincided with the country’s colonial period, whose educational policy was characterized by the “assimilation of the colonized” in principle and a “discriminatory and exploitative method” in practice (Pak / Hwang 2011). Japanese educators who supported New Education favoured a ‘child-centered education’ which respected children as individuals – as did their colleagues all over the world (Oelkers 2005) – but they clearly distinguished between children of the colonizers and children of the colonized, in accordance with colonial policy. Masataro Sawayanagi (1865-1927), a pioneer of New Education in Japan, advocated the expansionist dai-nippon foreign policy years before the government adopted it, and sought “educational cooperation” with other Asian countries (Sawayanagi 1917). Kuniyoshi Obara (1889-1977), a reformist educator who devoted nearly six decades of his life to the advancement of New Education in Japan, became increasingly vocal in his praise of Sawayanagi’s politics (Obara 1942), especially once the expansionist foreign policy had been adopted. He also showed great interest in exporting his educational concepts to other Asian countries. Sawayanagi and Obara were no exceptions among Japanese New Education educators in their support for the aggressive expansionism of the Greater Japanese Empire (dai nippon teikoku). The Japanese authorities imposed a colonial education policy with the explicit aim of assimilating the colo-nized to Japanese culture, justifying the practice as a necessary precondition of modernization and industrialisa-tion, for which they believed Japanese culture to be indispensable. Japanese adherents of New Education fully supported this policy, claiming that the Japanese had a duty towards other Asians that was like the responsibility of elder siblings to their little brothers and sisters. Yet the educators did not necessarily support the educational policy of the Japanese Empire in its entirety (Ito 2011). Some of them were primarily interested in the education of other Asian countries as a means of distancing themselves from the educational policy of the Japanese authori-ties: the more rigid the political control of education became domestically, the more enthusiastic they became in their attempt to escape its shackles and find openings outside of Japan to educate children in the spirit of New Education (Isoda 1999). These efforts bore only limited fruit, however, as the reformers were trapped in a binary opposition between “self” and “other” that accorded only very limited respect to children of the colonized as individuals.



For a cooperative and socially committed school: the dissemination and reworking of Célestin Freinet’s pedagogy in Italy


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