Internationalisation dans le champ éducatif (18e – 20e siècles) Internationalization in Education (18th – 20th centuries) Genève / Geneva, 27-30 juin / June 2012


Panayotis PAPADOURIS, Faculty of Humanities and Social Studies, University of Patras, Greece



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Panayotis PAPADOURIS, Faculty of Humanities and Social Studies, University of Patras, Greece

In this study we focus our interest on the critical thinking of the Primary School Teachers’ Federation (DOE) with regard to the fight against illiteracy in Greece. We consider that the DOE is an institutionally recognized intellectual collective, expressing and representing primary school teachers. Teachers, due to the nature of their daily professional involvement know and can evaluate major educational problems responsibly. The research is based on the DOE from its re-establishment, after the Second World War (1946), until the imposition of the seven-year dictatorship (1967) in Greece. During this historical period the percentage of illiterate Greeks was reaching 40% as a result of the war, German occupation and the devastating civil war that followed in Greece. All the information used for presenting and understanding the critical thinking of DOE comes from primary sources: "Didaskaliko Vima", the formal newspaper of DOE, the transcripts both from the General Assemblies and the Administrative Councils. Our approach was predicated upon the methodological tool of quantitative and qualitative Content Analysis. Our research focuses on answering the following questions: • What were the main lines of critical thought developed by the DOE in the fight against illiteracy and what factors (political, economic, social, etc.) were involved in the shaping of it? • What was the relation between the DOE’s discourse and the state education policy on the issue of illiteracy? • Had the DOE’s occupational and financial claims and interests prevented it from thinking critically? Did it react with responsibility when the state policy on this issue was applied? Our analysis concluded: The DOE showed strong interest in the fight against illiteracy. Illiteracy appeared, for the first time in 1951, among the major topics within its framework of demands. The Federation supported, with detailed arguments, the necessity of the state’s taking measures in order to reduce or eliminate illiteracy. It also made concrete proposals for establishing an organized system of Popular Education in Greece, contributing to the general debate. The first legislative effort to combat illiteracy in Greece was implemented in 1954 with the law 3094/1954. Our analysis concluded that there is no evidence to certify that the DOE had any involvement in the shaping of this Law which envisaged the establishment of the Central Committee of Anti-Illiteracy and a branch of this Committee in each Prefecture with the responsibility to establish and run nightly primary school. Teachers themselves were asked to support the newly established institution of Popular Education. Their role would be decisive for its successful implementation. Since this law was enforced, the DOE proceeded to its examination, submitted it to the requirements of rational argumentation, tested it, and after considering all viewpoints, finally expressed scepticism for its effectiveness. Our study points out that the DOE, through its criticism, seemed to be aware of the particular characteristics of adult education that distinguishes it from conventional education. It appeared to formulate innovative, coherent, convincing and reliable discourse with sufficient scientific documentation, which exuded a deep knowledge of that issue.

Antoine Prost: une pensée critique



Bruno POUCET, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, France

Antoine Prost n’est pas seulement le grand historien de l’éducation que l’on sait, il est aussi un militant qui a exercé des responsabilités syndicales au niveau national au sein du SGEN-CFDT dans les années 1960-1970 en tant que membre et responsable de la commission socio-pédagogique. Il a ainsi été amené à procéder à une analyse critique du système éducatif. Il a formulé nombre de propositions originales. Il m’appartiendra de préciser le contenu de ses propositions et comment elles ont irrigué non seulement le débat syndical, mais également la pensée du chercheur qui publie en 1968 une Histoire de l’enseignement en France (A. Colin) alors même qu’il exerce pleinement des responsabilités nationales. Les sources d’archives convoquées seront, si la consultation m’est autorisée le fonds privé A. Prost (AN), ainsi que le fonds du SGEN, voire celui de la FEN.

De la quête du modèle pédagogique au sein du mouvement altermondialiste: une analyse des apports de la pensée de Bernard Charlot

Oussama NAOUAR, Université Lumière Lyon 2, France / Universidade Federal de Recife, Brasil

Dans le prolongement des travaux que nous avions consacrés à la construction des modèles pédagogiques dans le mouvement altermondialiste, nous continuerons d’explorer la question décisive des contenus de pensée déployés dans ce dernier. Nous avions déjà posé l’interrogation suivante: quand interviennent au nom du FME notamment des universitaires, des enseignants, eux-mêmes porteurs d’une pensée originale concrétisée dans une œuvre, quels rapports peuvent s’établir entre cette pensée et cette œuvre d’une part, et les interventions militantes d’autre part? Dans le cadre de ce questionnement, cette étude se centrera sur les liens théoriques et conceptuels qui se tissent entre les travaux de Bernard Charlot sur le rapport au savoir et la pensée critique qui s’élabore au sein du FME. En effet, le FME se révèle être un lieu nouveau d’effervescence de la pensée pédagogique et du voyage des idées éducatives. Il a su devenir, au fil des années, un lieu de rencontre, d’échanges mais aussi de négociations d’idées et de concepts impliquant le monde académique et le monde militant. Historiquement, Bernard Charlot est l’un des membres initiateurs du Forum Mondial de l’Éducation, il a su occuper une place importante dans le mouvement, implication qui est aujourd’hui renforcée par son statut de chercheur visitant au Brésil, au sein du CNDCT (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnologico). Nous avions déjà montré comment, malgré une forte tendance à la décentralisation, le FME est encore fortement lié au Brésil, entre autres, du fait de l’implication importante de l’Institut Paulo Freire. Par ailleurs, il semble que nous pouvons retrouver au Brésil une convergence d’initiatives locales inspirées du FME qui semblent travailler à faire émerger une pensée radicalement critique et féconde de par la production d’idées ou de structures d’idées dans un cadre mixte impliquant théoriciens, militants et praticiens.



Samedi / Saturday 8:30 - 10:30 Room: 5389

7.1. La formation des migrants: un pari éducatif / The training of migrants: an educational challenge

Chair: Damiano MATASCI

From the FSU to Israel: Russian Educational Philosophy, Pedagogy, and Strategy in Israeli Schools



Tamar HOROWITZ, Ben Gurion University, Israel; Zinaida ILATOV, University of Haifa, Israel; Shmuel SHAMAI, University of Haifa, Israel

Transnational migration is characterized by the flow of both population and ideas’ (Appadurai, 1996; Robinson, 2007). The case of massive immigration to Israel from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in 1990s represents an interesting case when transnational migration has intensified the influence of “travelling ideas” on local educational system. The direct encounter of different ethno-cultural groups caused to the internationalization and implementation of some educational ideas and practices brought by immigrants from the FSU, in the Israeli education system. The immigration to Israel from the FSU was unique. One million people, rich in human capital, arrived in Israel during the 1990s. Among them were 60,000 teachers. Russian-speaking immigrants found different educational values in Israel to those they believed in (Epstein & Kheimets, 2000). The educational arena became the front line of collision between the two educational traditions - the local one and the imported one from the former Soviet Union (2007; Shamai et al., 2009). The local tradition has been more focused on the psychological well-being of the students, while the imported tradition is more focused on educational achievements. This paper is based on quantitative and qualitative studies, and it diverges from the view of ethnic minorities as educationally deficient, and illustrates how an immigrant group, in this case from the FSU, can be a change agent in the educational sphere. The Russian-speaking immigrants’ contribution has been in the following areas: a. Establishing 105 voluntary associations whose chief aim has been to nurture culture and education, both Israeli and Russian. b. Creating educational frameworks to implement and practice their ideas. c. Strengthening the study of math and music. d. Establishing an Olympics in math and physics. e. Establishing the first school in Israel modeled after the P.M.S. (physics-mathematics schools) in Russia The research has identified three kinds of educational frameworks created by new immigrant teachers (Horowitz et al, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2010; Shamai et al, 2010): 1. Supplemental frameworks: learning centers, mainly in science, mathematics, and music, which have been part of the school continuum, not extracurricular activities for leisure time. 2. Frameworks which have tried to change the Israeli system within mainstream schools by creating special classes for highly motivated students in mathematics within the Mofet framework. 3. Creating alternative schools for Russian immigrants to ease the pangs of migration, for example, for dropout students. These have included schools for students whose parents wished them to have a Jewish education but not as demanding as the ultra-orthodox schools. The three frameworks above share common characteristics: - The student body is highly motivated. - All teachers have at least a master’s degree. - Teachers teach the discipline they were trained in. - Continuity between elementary and middle school studies and high school. - Emphasis on development of cognitive skills. - External and internal monitoring. Altogether these frameworks have managed to challenge and to a certain degree of change the Israeli educational system. The Russian-oriented classes, teachers and educational methods have become a brand name for a quality educational products and for a more achievement-oriented pedagogy.

Labour Market Migration and Education. The Example of a Vocational School for Italian Migrants in Zurich (1970s-1980s)



Philipp EIGENMANN, University of Zurich, Switzerland

The history of education rarely takes international migration into consideration. This fact may surprise, as migration is one of the crucial factors for internationalization in education in the post-war era. From a migration-centred perspective, internationalization in education is rather a diversification (Bukow et al. 2011) than a harmonization of educational subjects and systems, as several studies suggest by analysing either the state or inter- and supranational players. My case study of a vocational school for Italian immigrants illustrates that – if internationalization is framed as a “bottom up” process – migration may indeed diversify education. In spring 1974, an association was founded in Zurich for the purpose of providing immigrants with vocational training and language courses. This association ran between 1974 and 2003 a private, but state-approved school called “Scuola Professionale Emigrati” (SPE). However, some of the courses taught in the school had already existed before. As a consequence of the labour market migration agreement between Italy and Switzerland (Piguet 2006), Italy had provided several centres of vocational training (ENAIP) for Italian workers in Switzerland since 1963. In March 1974, the ENAIP-centre in Zurich had to shut down its courses within a single week due to failing payment of the Italian government. Nevertheless, the Italian labour market immigrants in Zurich requested an appropriate vocational training in order to avoid unemployment (Meyer-Sabino 2003). Therefore, teachers and students of the ENAIP founded the SPE association to uphold the courses as far as possible. The teachers’ deep involvement with the school can be illustrated by the fact that they even temporarily abandoned their salary. My paper focuses on the interdependence of the founders of the SPE, Zurich’s authority who approved the school shortly after its foundation, and the public that discussed the issue of migration controversially in the 1970s. The sources for the reconstruction of the foundation and the first decade of the SPE include protocols, correspondence, educational documentation, and guidelines of the SPE as well as governmental documents. I will focus particularly on these sources referring to the socio-economic and political conditions under which the examined vocational school was considered as a necessary addition to the existing state-run vocational education. Moreover, the example of the SPE illustrates the major referential contexts of a migration-centred history of education. On the one hand, it is important to point out the specific situation of labour market immigrants in post-war era with its indecisiveness between temporary sojourn and permanent establishment (Geisen 2005). The political debate on migration, on the other hand, was influencing the relation of migration and education as well. Particularly the notion of “Überfremdung” was predominant during that time (Buomberger/Kury 2005), and made it impossible for schools and educational policy to handle the issue of vocational education for immigrants and their children more soberly.

Effects of the Migratory Process: Analysing Games played by Children and Mothers



Maria Apparecida MAMEMDE-NEVES, Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Brazil; Stella Maria PEDROSA, Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC- Rio), Brazil

This paper has as main theme the effects of migration which happens in different geographical areas and different generational periods of time. The locus of the research is the action of playing, as it considers playing as a social fact, a privileged space for peer interaction and constitution of the subject-child into human individual, product and producer of history and culture. As theoretical framework, this paper is based on Geertz's and Chartier’s formulations concerning the concept of culture; on Denys Cuche's contribution concerning the necessary differentiation between culture and cultural identity; on Candau's studies about multiculturalism and on the contributions of Huizinga, Benjamin and Brougère concerning the action of playing. As methodology of research, it followed the presuppositions of qualitative research, critically reviewing the report of 50 children from a slum in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on how they play, what they play with and who they play. For comparison, the investigation also heard, at the same time, the person who raised them (usually the mother) about how she played in her own childhood lived in rural areas of northeastern Brazil, admittedly places of extreme poverty. The instrument used for data collection was the in-depth interview conducted with both children and their mothers. For the analysis of the collected speeches, the methodology adopted was the one proposed by Bardin concerning discourse analysis. As a result, the comparison between the games played by the children and by their mothers strongly showed the imprint of the rites and practices that happened in the course of history of mankind, regardless of the social wrapping existing in such practices. However, in contrast, the results also raised the effects of migration which act as a differential of life, leading families to embrace some customs of the new area of residence. This embrace allows a symbolic dialogue between the child and the culture which is historically dated, different from their migrant parents. That is, some cultural practices of the area of origin co-exist with those of the current location, producing a social tension that must be understood and respected. In its results, the research reinforced the thesis that it is possible to insert different cultures and strange to the original culture, without letting the essential elements of the original culture, one that is rooted in the previous customs and beliefs, be run over by the latter experienced culture. The research allowed us to go beyond their own limits, providing conditions for the making of a homologous study on the same social tensions present in larger universes such as nationalism and internationalism, which are common these days and have their own settings. In conclusion, the study significantly illuminates the need for education to take into account this double aspect of migration processes, cultural changes and continuities that occurred in groups. It also reinforces the idea that multiculturalism cannot be overlooked by those who think Education nowadays.

L’éducation dans un espace migratoire transnational: la question de l’instruction des filles au sein de la diaspora chinoise au début du XXe siècle (c. 1899 – c. 1930)



Eric GUERASSIMOFF, Université Paris Diderot Sorbonne, France

Partout où les Chinois ont émigré en grand nombre, ils ont fondé des écoles pour instruire leurs enfants. Des données chiffrées incomplètes, établies par le ministère de l’Éducation de la République de Chine font état de plus de 2 500 écoles de langue chinoise en dehors de la Chine en 1935, présentes sur les cinq continents. Cette dispersion a contribué à l’édification d’un espace transnational éducatif, au sein duquel se côtoient une grande diversité d’acteurs, d’initiatives et de légitimités. La complexité de cet écheveau est encore augmentée par l’ouverture internationale des questions éducatives qui est à l’œuvre en Chine (sous la pression des Étrangers) depuis 1842, et qui s’accélère à l’instigation de l’État durant les premières années du XXe siècle. La prise en charge publique de l’instruction des filles à partir de 1907 en est emblématique. L’objectif de cette contribution est de rendre compte du croisement de ces processus, qui opèrent à des échelles différentes, au travers de la question nouvelle de l’éducation des filles. Les «Chinois d’Outre-mer» ouvrent en effet très rapidement des établissements pour instruire leurs filles, à l’étranger comme en Chine, parfois inspirés par la politique du gouvernement chinois impérial (puis républicain), ou bien, en soutenant les initiatives des notables des zones pourvoyeuses de la diaspora en Chine méridionale, ou encore, motivés par les besoins spécifiques de cet espace migratoire transnational. Il s’agira non seulement de rendre compte de la multiplicité des acteurs en lice, de la variété de leurs milieux et espace d’action, mais aussi, de souligner la formulation de stratégies parfois opposées. On s’efforcera de montrer que l’internationalisation de l’éducation en Chine est aussi à mettre en rapport avec la volonté nationale de se réapproprier l’instruction des émigrés à l’étranger. Mais, il y a lieu, aussi, de souligner comment la circulation transnationale (des acteurs, des savoirs et des stratégies) et, dans le cas étudié ici, les rapports de genre et de classe dans un territoire de mobilité, ont contribué à questionner les origines (strictement nationales) des politiques éducatives internationales de la Chine à l’encontre de la diaspora.



Samedi / Saturday 8:30 - 10:30 Room: 5189

7.2. Apprendre à enseigner: influences internationales dans la formation des futurs enseignants / Learning to teach: international influences in teachers' training

Chair: Thérèse HAMEL

The Presence of Pestalozzi and Froebel`s Educational Ideas in Teacher Training at “Escola Normal Secundária de São Carlos”(1911-1947) in Brazil: an analysis of its bibliographical material and documents



Alessandra ARCE HAI, Universidade Federal de São Carlos/UFSCar, Brazil

The aim of this paper is to investigate, analyse and comprehend how Pestalozzi and Froebel`s educational ideas were present in Teacher Training at “Escola Normal Secundária de São Carlos” (1911-1947). Understanding how these authors influenced or not the spread of “New Educational” Ideas is also discussed. In order to do that, Froebel and Pestalozzi`s ideas are reviewed in the way they were presented in Brazil, especially at this educational institution. Furthermore, an attempt is made to grasp the connections between Republican Ideals in Brazil at that time, teacher training and the presence of the authors` educational ideas. The following material was used to research the above aims: school curricula, teachers` registers, students` tests, the minutes of teachers` meetings, bibliographies used in teacher training, two journals produced by school teachers and students entitled: "Excelsior" (1911-1916) and "A Revista da Escola Normal de São Carlos" (1916-1923), and other original sources needed to fulfill the aims of the project. This work is based on Saviani`s work and Ginsburg`s methodology as an effort to understand the circulation of Pestalozzi and Froebel`s writings and interpretations in everyday life of a Teacher Training School. As a conclusion, it can be observed that the authors` educational ideas had a massive impact on the teacher training at that time. Nevertheless, these ideas were not studied in-depth. Rather the emphasis was on the methodological proposal made by Froebel and Pestalozzi intertwined with William James, Eduard Claparède, Decroly and John Dewey works.

To chop and change? The authors of New School Movement in the professional journals for teachers (Spain, 1922-1945)

Fatima ORTEGA CASTILLO, University of Málaga, Spain

The analysis of the textbooks and the professional journals is always a great source of information for historians of Education because they allow us to know the ideas of both authors and society. Through the study and analys of textbooks and journals, we can discover the pedagogical relationship, at a given time, between educational policy and the values transmitted in those sources, too often used as ideological instruments. Thus, referring to those used in Normal Schools, these studies allow us to know what kind of training the future teachers received or it was supposed that they should received. Since the end of the nineteenth century and in the early twentieth century, there was an opening to all that was taking place outside our borders. There was a great interest in bringing to Spain all the advances which were taken place in education, and the Spanish government became specially interested in educational experiences that were being carrying out in Europe for training teachers. The success that pedagogical studies achieved in Spain during the first third of the twentieth century, is remarkable most likely under the influence and prestige of authors associated with the movement of New School and with the Institución Libre de Enseñanza (ILE). But once the Civil War ended, began a process of purification that not only tried to eliminate radically everything close to the republican education, specially the ILE, but also raised new pedagogical alternatives inspired by the official doctrine of the Catholic Church and by the dominant pedagogies in some fascist countries like Italy or Germany. Taking as a source journals published between 1922 (date of the first issue of Boletín de Escuelas Normales) and 1945 (date of the Primary Teaching Law), we have evaluated the presence of a teaching model different from the one reflected on some educational journals in the early twentieth century. The importance of this analysis is determined by the fact that it is focused on the most relevant professional journals intended for initial and continuing teacher training in a decades with heavy censures and repression in all areas of society. We have chosen the names of the most relevant pedagogues as key words and we have compared their presence in those journals. After the Silver Age of the Spanish culture, the censure and the control taken into those publications, offer us some of the keys to understanding their training and the expectations about their future role. The nearly forty years of the Franco regime cannot be considered as a uniform period but we will try to see if these changes in the reception and transmission of the principles and methodology of New School were already evident in the first decade of the Franco period. This work is part of Project EDU2010-19255 financed by the MICINN.



En bâtissant la modernité pédagogique au Portugal: Livres et matériels de l’enseignement dans les institutions de formation (XIX-XX siècles)


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