Internationalisation dans le champ éducatif (18e – 20e siècles) Internationalization in Education (18th – 20th centuries) Genève / Geneva, 27-30 juin / June 2012


Braulio SILVA CHAVES, Centre Fédéral d’Éducation Technologique de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Université Fédérale de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Brésil



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Braulio SILVA CHAVES, Centre Fédéral d’Éducation Technologique de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Université Fédérale de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Brésil

Le travail a pour but l’approche de la trajectoire de l’enseignant et écrivain argentin Luis Reissig, né en 1897, dans une confluence de ses idées avec le mouvement des intellectuels de l’éducation au Brésil, notamment les pionniers de l’Éducation Nouvelle. En plus de participer aux plus importants forums de discussion sur l'éducation en Amérique Latine dans les années 1940 à 1960, l'intellectuel argentin a été éditeur de la revue La Educación, liée à l’Organisation des États Américains (OEA), et auteur de plusieurs ouvrages sur le rôle de l’éducation. Un des fondements de sa pensée est la compréhension de l’enseignement comme moteur du développement, dans un ensemble d’idées qui accomplit une appréciation de la triade science/technique/éducation. Nous utiliserons comme support théorique les discussions de l’Histoire et de l’Historiographie à propos des intellectuels. Nous partons de la conception de l’intellectuel comme un sujet qui s’intègre à la scène publique, à partir d’une autorité qui lui est accordée – de parler à la société, de proposer le débat public sur des thèmes qui intéressent à la nation et de soulever de la polémique –, en plus de sa capacité à faire circuler ses idées dans divers contextes et espaces. C’est dans ces voies que s’inscrivent plusieurs auteurs – comme Christophe Charle, Jean-François Sirinelli, Jean M. Goulemot et Carlos Altamirano, à partir des analyses différenciées sur l’histoire intellectuelle. Il est usuel dans l’Historiographie de l’éducation brésilienne d’évoquer la dualité entre le modèle français et le modèle américain parmi les intellectuels de l’éducation du XXeme siècle. Ces modèles sont guidés, respectivement, par l’idée de centralité de l’éducation et par la perspective pragmatique de l’enseignement – très influencée par les conceptions de théoriciens de l’éducation comme John Dewey. Cependant, la fin des années 1950 et les années 1960 reflètent un nouveau moment de cette mobilisation des auteurs de l'Education Nouvelle brésilienne, où le choc de forces impose des réarrangements et des changements de perspective. Le national-développement s’ajoute comme un fait nouveau aux soi-disant pionniers de l’éducation brésilienne. Le Segundo Manifesto dos Pioneiros Mais Uma Vez (1959) indique ces transformations. Ce travail avance l'hypothèse que, face aux adversités historiques brésiliennes par rapport aux modèles étrangers – américain et français – ces auteurs sont allés chercher chez leurs voisins argentins des possibilités d’appropriation des idées des deux modèles, en prennant en compte l’expérience réussie de l’Argentine en ce qui concerne l’universalisation de l’enseignement et la concrétisation d’un projet d’éducation populaire à niveau national. En s'inspirant de l'Argentine, que, de manière sui generis, les intellectuels se sont munis de nouveaux arguments et de nouveaux alliés, à la fin des années 1950, et ont posé la question de l’éducation en tant qu’un débat public – ce qui contribuerait aussi à leur légitimité dans le contexte de nouvelles demandes guidées par le développement industriel et de la lutte entre divers projets éducatifs.

Une exemple de transfert international de compétences: Louis RAILLON, passeur d'éducation nouvelle entre la France et le Québec



Fabienne SERINA-KARSKY, Université Paris 8 - Vincennes - Saint-Denis, France

En 1966, dans le cadre de l'accord de coopération franco-québécois sur l'éducation qui marque l'entrée du Québec sur la scène diplomatique internationale, Louis Raillon, qui dirige alors aux côtés de Roger Cousinet la revue “Education et développement”, est invité à partager son expérience au sein de la Commission des écoles catholiques de Montréal (CECM), l'organisme scolaire le plus important de la province de Québec, comme il en fait part dans cette lettre à Marie Rist, directrice de l'Ecole nouvelle d'Antony: «Chère amie […] Il est extrêmement important que des centres de recherche comme le vôtre puissent montrer la voie. En attendant que l'on se décide en France, vous n'ignorez pas que certains pays étrangers s'intéressent vivement à nos recherches. Ainsi le Ministère de l'Education de Montréal vient-il de m'inviter à aller parler de nos travaux, dans quelques semaines, aux directeurs d'école de la province de Québec. Je compte vous en parler lors de notre prochaine rencontre et vous demander si vous accepteriez éventuellement de recevoir des stagiaires canadiens.» Alors que la démocratisation de l'enseignement apparaît nécessaire d'un côté comme de l'autre de l'Atlantique, l'Éducation nouvelle peine à s'implanter dans l'enseignement public en France, tandis qu'au Québec, la «grande charte de l'éducation», impulsée par la «Révolution tranquille» se tourne vers des méthodes modernes essentiellement actives. En offrant à l'Education nouvelle une visibilité qui lui fait défaut sur la scène française, Louis Raillon participe ainsi à son implantation dans les écoles de la «nouvelle France», puis dans le domaine des loisirs et des sports lorsqu'il accepte la fonction de directeur de programmes et de l'action culturelle de l'Office franco-québécois pour la jeunesse (OFQJ), poste qu'il occupera jusqu'en 1980. Imprégné à son tour des expériences québécoises, Louis Raillon leur offrira une tribune de choix dans sa revue. Afin de rendre compte du rôle joué par Louis Raillon dans l'internationalisation de l'Education nouvelle dans les années 1960-70, cette communication s'appuiera sur les textes fondateurs de la coopération franco-québécoise mis en place par les délégations, sur des témoignages écrits (archives de l'Ecole nouvelle d'Antony) et oraux (témoignage de Mme Madeleine Raillon), ainsi que sur des numéros de la revue “Education et développement”.



Vendredi / Friday 11:00 - 13:00 Room: 3393

5.8. Pédagogues, ambassadeurs, chargés de missions voyageurs / Travelling pedagogues, ambassadors and missionaries

Chair: Ian GROSVENOR

Cossío’s European tours between 1879 and 1889



Eugenio OTERO-URTAZA, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain

Manuel Bartolomé Cossío (1857-1935), was Educational Museum director in Madrid and the first university professor of pedagogy in the Spanish University. In addition, he was president of Patronato de Misiones Pedagógicas [Board of Trustees of the Educational Missions], rector of the Institución Libre de Enseñanza [Free School], and an art critic, who rediscovered El Greco to the contemporary world. Cossío is the most important reference point to understand the educational reforms in Spain from 1883 to 1931. His role in the introduction of European educational trends is emphasized throughout this paper. This role is well-known because of the various trips he took from 1879 to 1889. The importance of his network of contacts to help him established educational reforms is also analysed as well as teacher training and school uses in his country. These trips helped him become an inspirational source for a lot of colleagues in other countries. In November of 1879 he travelled to Bolonia, remaining in Italy until the month of July of 1880. From there he moved to Brussels (visiting previously Zurich and Paris) to participate in the Congrès International de l'Enseignement. In 1882 he went on a forty-day tour round several European countries (France, Switzerland, Austria, Czech Republic, Germany and Belgium). He returned to Spain with abundant information about pedagogical museums and the applications of the intuitive education that were being carried out in these countries. In 1883 he travelled to Lisbon, where he met Teófilo Ferreira and Feio Terenas. In 1884 he arrived in London for the first time, accompanied by Francisco Giner. He participated in the International Congress of Education, and met Lyulph Stanley among others. In 1886 and 1889 he would return again to Paris, accompanied by Giner and other professors of the Institución Libre de Enseñanza, to participate in the congresses that examined Julles Ferry’s school reform as well as the commemoration of the centenary of the French Revolution. In these trips they went back to visit Brussels and London. In 1888, he moved to Zurich to participate in the International Kongress für Ferienkolonien, where he presented the first Spanish experience of ferienkolonien that he had directed the previous year. His dissertation filled Edmond Cotinett with enthusiasm. He considered Cossío’s report as the most complete of all the congress. In these trips he met a lot of great educators. He would correspond with some of them in later years: Pietro Siciliani, Julia Salis Schwabe, Thomas Davidson, Heinrich Morf, Alexis Sluys, Henriette Breymann, Friedrich Dittes, Adolfo Coelho, Emili Davies, E. P. Hughes, John Sparkes, Ferdinand Buisson, Pierre de Coubertin, James Guillaume, Michel Brèal, Henri Marion, Felix Pécaut, Bernardino Machado, William Torrey Harris, among many others besides those mentioned above. As a consequence of the exchange of ideas with these educators, the visits to schools and other educational establishments, Cossío collected an important amount of information with which to tackle the reforms. At the same time it served him to evaluate the scope and originality of the pedagogical practice carried out by the Institución Libre de Enseñanza.

Did educational travels influence educational systems in the first half of the 19th century?



Dick VAN GIJLSWIJK, retired (Ministry of Education and Sciences), Netherlands

Research in the origins and development of educational systems has in the recent years brought more insight in the determinants which are responsible for grow and development. Nancy Beadie showed in a recent article that the educational system of the United States developed in a way that must be seen as different from that in European countries. The active role of households laid the fundament for the educational system, the state would contribute later in the extension of the educational system and its financement. But which roles played states in other countries, for example in Western Europe? One of them was to get reliable information over the state of education elswhere. They oriented themselves active in the first half of the 19th century on the pro´s and contras of educational systems elswhere. They instructed respected scholars and-or civil servants to make reports about the condition of the educational systems in different countries of Europe, for example Prussia, the Netherlands, Belgium and France, especially in the years between 1830/1840. The report of Victor Cousin is well known, but also Friedrich Thiersch for the king of Bavaria, Raymond de la Sagra on instructions of the Spanish government and George Nicholls, on behalf of the minister of the English Home Department, John Russell, travelled in the same period through Europe with their own orders and interests. Thiersch was mainly concentrated on secondary and higher education, De la Sagra reported about primary education and prisons in the Netherlands and Belgium. George Nicholls reported twice about the situation of the poor in Ireland but in his third report he visited schools for primary education, gathered information about provisions for the poor and professional education in the Netherlands and Belgium. At last, Petrus de Raadt, owner of the most distinghuised boarding school in the Netherlands and William Chambers, editor of the Chambers Journal in Edinburgh made their own trips and published their experiences. O´Malley made a trip through Holland, Belgium and Prussia on his own initiative in order to know how education could be organised without the predominance of one religion. The amount of these reports and also the traductions suggests that in the period around 1840 governments but also people in general had a considerable interest in questions of education and the arrangements of educational systems. The lecture on this subject has four goals: 1. to present an analysis of the most important gains of this type of travels, made between 1830 and 1840, differences and similarities and important stereotypes. 2. to highlight two special issues that in the reports were seen as important to raise the quality of education: the role of the state and the religion. 3. to answer the question if the gathering of information did contribute to a qualitative change of the educational system in the relevant countries. 4. to investigate if these reports have significance for the research in the origins of educational systems.

Traveling pedagogies. Readings and misreadings of European education in Argentina in the second half of the 19th century



Ines DUSSEL, FLACSO, Argentina

The paper discusses the internationalization of education through the analysis of the organization of the Argentinean education system in the second half of the 19th century and its relationships to the European experience. I will look particularly at the work of two very high officers in those years, one Argentinean, Domingo Sarmiento (1811-1888), and one Frenchman, Amadée Jacques (1813-1865), who traveled back and forth the Atlantic Ocean and carried with them ideas, institutions, and even particular technologies that contributed to shaping Argentinean schools. Both had suffered political exiles (were exilés) and knew about displacements and translations. Sarmiento became president of the Argentine Republic but was also head of the Education Department and author of textbooks and of several regulations for primary schools, and was central to the production of a body of institutions of knowledge that would influence strongly the emergence of national statistics, natural science museums, public parks, and public libraries. At his turn, Jacques, more humbly, was the director of the first National Secondary School and the main intellectual influence in the organization of its curriculum. They produced what elsewhere (and with Marcelo Caruso, 1997) I have called traveling pedagogies, which can be considered under the lens of what Schriewer has termed externalization (Schriewer, 1990), Steiner-Khamsi “educational borrowing” (2002), and also in the line of Popkewitz’ notion of the indigeneous foreigner (Popkewitz, 2005). All these concepts help us to point out that it is a particular idea of Europe that Sarmiento and Jacques brought into the local construction of education and that would produce particular effects when put in this context. I would like to debate with some of the tenets of the neo-institutionalist vision of how the process of internationalization took place. For example, in a thoughtful commentary on how global or local schooling is, Ramírez (2003) states that commonalities might be found on broader organizational principles, institutional frameworks and rhetoric of schooling, but that the level of school culture requires more nuanced models that take into consideration the local dimension. Through my analysis of the works of these two officers, I will claim that the school culture was also shaped by international pedagogies, perhaps not in the way neoinstitutionalism claims –isomorphism- but in significant ways that need to be accounted for. In my reading, these two educators exemplify how technologies such as the blackboard, the school desk, the notebook or the grammar methods, were brought not only physically into Argentina but also with a “protocol of use” (Gitelman, 2008) that had considerable influence in the organization of the daily life of schools. Also, they produced what can be called “distorted” or “disrespectful” readings that reorganized hierachies of knowledge and institutional projects for mass schooling. In my approach, instead of conceptualizing internationalization as the expansion of the same grammar of schooling, I will use a Latourian framework (Latour, 2005), which I find more appropriate to understand the complexities of the international flux of ideas and objects as well as their stabilization within national educational institutions.

«Back to work!» The reform of Italian school programs in 1894 between pedagogical missions and the international circulation of theories and models of “practical education” in fin-de-siècle Italy



Elena TABACCHI, University of Florence, Italy

This proposal aims to ascertain the relevance of the international background, which influenced the reform of school programs, established in Italy in 1894 by Public Education Minister Guido Baccelli. Promoting the slogan of “Back to work!”, it introdued several courses of «practical education» in primary schools, with the goal of providing basic knowledge about rural and practical activities to children from the age of six. Practical education had got a long-standing tradition in many European countries, such as German, Sweden and Denmark, and for this reason, Italian Public Ministry charged during the 1880's and the 1890's three main pedagogical missions and Commissions of studying and comparing scholastic systems. In 1887, i.e., a group of teachers and civil servants travelled from Italy to Sweden to collect information about practical education in schools of Switzerland, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Belgium, and, in particular, to study the famous school of Nääs. In the same period other politicians visited school of practical education in France and Germany. Through the analysis of official documents, relations and notes of members of these Commissions and missions concerning practical education, this proposal wants to be a contribution to rethink national public education policies in a larger geographical, political and cultural context; it wants also to provide a better understanding of the new political meaning that “manual work” and “practical education” gained in fin-de-siècle Italy . It may be argued that, on the one hand, according to the idea that first of all the good citizen is a good worker, practical education it had to educate citizens to work from childhood. On the other one, beyond the slogan «Back to work!» of the new school programs, this bill was an attempt to control and limit the spreading of knowledge among the masses, considering that, at the end of 19th century, with the rules against the disregards of school attendance (so called Coppino Bill), the percentage of literate people was slowly increasing in Italy. Dealing with the spread of socialist ideas among the masses, according to Baccelli's political vision, preventing social crises meant maintaining social inequalities and limiting the spread of critical knowledge among the masses: national school system represented a good intrument for this. Even though in 19th century the development of public school systems has been analyzed, in particular, in its national dimension, as well as an agent of national-identity building, this paper focuses on international networks and cultural exchanges in the european scenario.



Vendredi / Friday 11:00 - 13:00 Room: 2193

5.9. Circulation de modèles pour la formation des enseignants (1910-1970) / Circulation of teachers' Education Models (1910-1970)

Chair: António NÓVOA

Policies of Teaching Courses in Brazil: Some Influences from United States Agency for International Development-USAID (1950-1970)



Sarah Jane DURAES, Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros, Brazil

Based on literature review and official education data, this proposal analyzes, in general, the link established between education and development. But it intends to discuss specifically some principles that guided the teacher training courses in the Faculties of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters, as well as the expansion of those courses in Brazil during the period of 1950-1970. In that period, these close links were guided by the various agreements executed between MEC, then the Ministry of Education and Culture, and United States Agency for International Development - USAID. This policy was accompanied by creation and expansion of transnational industries, which demanded for skilled labor influenced by the Theory of Human Capital. Whether in regular schools or in higher education, teacher training was a major concern in the agreements between Brazil and United States throughout the two decades after the second war. It was confirmed by the U.S. Operation Mission in Brazil - USOM-B, organized through the Program of American-Brazilian Assistance in Elementary Education - PABAEE, signed on April 11, 1956. After that, different agreements were developed by the Law 4024 (Directives and Bases of Education – LDB), December 20, 1961. Analyzing enrollments in different levels of education (1960 - 1967), it was found that primary education has risen nearly 62%, whereas the growth of secondary and higher education almost reached 130%. The spreading of high school and other similar courses were the most significant reason for the expansion of higher education in Brazil. In that context, the trained teachers were much more a necessity for the schooling of society. Thus, the creation of undergraduate programs - such as Pedagogy, Literature/French, Geography and History - expanded towards Brazil countryside in order to meet the needs of certain areas in which the number of qualified teachers was quantitatively low compared to those in large urban centers. However, even with the expansion of the undergraduate programs, the demand for professionals was still insufficient in primary and especially secondary education. This fact leads the Brazilian Government, as required by the LDB/1961, to grant licenses to non-certificated teachers. This analysis is related to an ongoing research project, funded by FAPEMIG.



Montessori and Schoolteachers Training (Spain, 1915-1970)

Carmen SANCHIDRIAN, University of Málaga, Spain; Francisco MARTIN, University of Málaga, Spain

Montessori’s presence in Spain is in line with the movement of pedagogical renewal which took place in Catalonia, not only during the first third of the XXth century but also after the Spanish Civil War. Centers like the Escuela del Bosque and the Escuela del Mar and the proficiency courses held by the Escola d’Estiu, together with teachers like Juan Bardina, Juan Palau, Rosa Sensat, Alejandro Galí o Pedro Vergés, disseminated Montessori’s methodology. Public organizations like the Ayuntamiento de Barcelona, la Diputación provincial (which promoted the first experience in 1013) and the Mancomunidad gave fresh impetus to the initiative. Because of the important spreading of her method, María Montessori arrived in Barcelona in 1929, working as a consultant in several centres for children (Casa de Maternidad y Expósitos, Colegio Mont d’Or). Therefore we can state that her method was introduced in Spain with authenticity guarantee, for it was her who supervised the first stages. In 1934, she had to leave Italy and went to live in Barcelona with her son, although she left Spain for ever helped by the British government when the Spanish Civil war broke out. It was not until 1956 that she reappears in very specific situations, like the Parvulario Montessoriano (nursery school) conducted by Antonia Canals and in a course held that year for female teachers to learn her method, which represents again “an ordered and systematized way to organise nursery education in view of the prevailing formalist and empty experiences”. In the same year, the Escuela de Jardineras Educadoras was opened and claimed itself to be heir to the Italian educator, to Froebel and to Decroly. From 1965 onwards, the school for teachers Rosa Sensat developed a second revival of Montessori’s method promoted by several groups engaged with that pedagogical renewal, boosting the creation of new schools, female teachers training, etc. During the Franco regime, Montessori is quoted by Aurora Medina or Adolfo Maíllo in publications about infant education, and in stories of the pedagogical thinking, usually together with Decroly since both of them were contemporaries, studied medicine and then started to work in special education and then in education in general. Precisely, the objective of this work is studying the relevance paid to the figure of Maria Montessori and her methodology in teaching handbooks (history of education, general pedagogy, didactics...) and to the most frequently used reference books in the Spanish Escuelas Normales, from the first edition in Spanish in 1915 of her Pedagogía Científica (translated by Juan Palau Vera) to 1970, when the last Franquoist Ley General de Educación was passed. That Law meant some kind of openness to the pedagogical renewal and the modernization of our educational system. It affected teacher training as well (according to this Law, teachers of Educación General Básica). For the first time, teacher training is studied at university and even different specialities are considered, and that is the reason why we think it is appropriate to stop our research at this stage.

The historical models of the Hungarian teacher’s profession and professional knowledge




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