Internationalisation dans le champ éducatif (18e – 20e siècles) Internationalization in Education (18th – 20th centuries) Genève / Geneva, 27-30 juin / June 2012


Guilherme ALCÂNTARA, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Brasil



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Guilherme ALCÂNTARA, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Brasil

The objective of this work is to investigate Jean-Jacques Rousseau first as a subject in his writings; and, second, how such writings can be seen as dispositives of ruptures in the educational, philosophical, political and juridical fields in the XVIIIth century. I propose the analysis of three works of Rousseau: "Social contract", “New Heloísa” and “Emílio or of the Education”. As methodology, I uncover the enunciation context of the production of these writings, framed in the institutions and in the debates of his period. The option for using as source the own production of Rousseau is justified for the fact that his books offer elements, both in form and in content, to rethink the subject's singular experience and the tensions of the social relationships. The historical approach on the itinerary of Rousseau doesn't seek to establish a causality relationship, but to evidence singularities and discontinuities of a life that is representative of important ruptures in the educational, philosophical, political and juridical thoughts of the period. The discontinuities can be observed not only when the great events of the life of the subjects are considered, but also in elements considered less important. For example, a discontinuity can be observed in the fact that Rousseau was a Protestant, in a Calvinist circle, but that he states that "the man is born good, but the society corrupts" him. For the Protestant Calvinist, in the interpretation of the biblical text (Psalm 51.5, for instance), every man is already born in sin. The two points of view lead to different conceptions of humanity, education, politics, laws. However, it should be noted that, with the mentioned example, I don't intend, when analyzing the works of Rousseau, to look at the subject's unit, the coherence or homogeneity of his speech; but rather I will analyse the tensions, uncertainties and possibilities amid which the subject is constituted and how it constitutes a way of seeing the world.

Lectures de Rousseau en Italie dans la première moitié du XXème siècle



Filippo SANI, Università di Sassari, Italie

Le mythe de Rousseau qui traverse l’Europe au XIX siècle est parmi les moteurs des processus historiques qui conduisent à la globalisation de la culture pédagogique à l’époque de la Nouvelle Éducation. La constitution des grands instituts internationaux à l’époque de Ferrière, Claparède, Montessori se nourrit d’exigences mytho-poïétiques qui relancent l’image de Rousseau dans le panorama international. Actuellement, après les études de L. Mall e C. Martin, on constate que la lecture de l’Emile dépasse les bornes de l’éducation et tend à entrer dans le champ littéraire, mais beaucoup de travail reste à faire au sujet de la fécondité scientifique ainsi que de l’herméneutique politique des usages mythologiques de Rousseau. En Italie, dans le cadre de la définition, tout à la fois positiviste et post-unitaire de la pédagogie comme science, se constitue une tradition faite de “Classiques de la pédagogie” avec lesquels vont se mesurer les différentes tendances de la culture italienne de l’époque. Parallèlement à la naissance et au développement de la profession d’enseignant du primaire, à travers les écoles normales pour la formation des instituteurs, naît l’“Histoire de la pédagogie”. En 1886, grâce à l’édition Trevisini (notes et préface de Pier Antonio Vizzotto), l’Emile de Rousseau sera considéré comme un classique au sein de la pédagogie universitaire tout autant que de la culture plus typiquement scolaire de l’Italie post-unitaire. Commence alors la longue période faste de Rousseau “pédagogiste” malgré lui. En effet, l’ensemble de l’œuvre rousseauienne subit un processus de morcellement, qui s’opère à travers les savoirs spécialisés positivistes qui mettent au premier plan le Contrat Social et l’Emile. Cette transformation va au détriment de tous ces ouvrages de Rousseau qui se révèlent à partir de ce moment difficilement encadrables dans les limites de la culture positiviste comme de la successive hégémonie néo-idéaliste. Dans le sillage de la Réforme Gentile de 1923, l’Entre-deux-guerres est marqué par une pléiade d’études sur l’Emile qui devient un domaine de combat. L’usage de l’Emile pour justifier ou pour rejeter les réformes scolaires du Fascisme a des conséquences sur l’image de Rousseau et de ses idées éducatives. On renforce ou on repousse la représentation de Rousseau comme “philosophe et pédagogiste naturaliste” qui, dans une optique néo-idéaliste, est envisagée dans une acception négative. En même temps, on consolide l’idée de l’«éducation négative» comme précurseur de l’«autoformation», ce qui est, au contraire, un concept bien accueilli dans les milieux activistes, néo-idéalistes et parfois catholiques. À cette époque, il se révèle difficile de sauvegarder la complexité de l’éducation négative même dans le cas de sa règle fondamentale, «ce n’est pas de gagner du temps, c’est d’en perdre». Tout cela passe au second plan. Dans ce cadre interprétatif dans lequel on confirme Rousseau plutôt dans le rôle de “grand precurseur”, nous avons examiné, en particulier, deux moments spécifiques: l’édition de l’Émile de 1926 pour La Nuova Italia par Giovanni Modugno et le Rousseau de Calogero Angelo Sacheli de 1941.

Humboldt reading Rousseau: Germany and France as dynamic educational models in 19th century



Fabiano BRITTO, PUC-Rio, Brazil

In the beginning of the 19th century in Germany, educational reforms took place, but not in the same sense other European states were leading themselves towards a new scientific and technical level through modernization of universities. In fact, under the lash of Napoleon’s army in its territory since 1806, Germany could barely consider itself a nation: with no centralization of power or territory, no homogenous language, and with economical seizures imposed by French emperor, Germans could not jump in the race for industrialization that rose amid the late 18th and early 19th century most prosperous states in Europe Thus, Kultur became the only paradigm Germany could handle in order to build to itself a transcendent criteria of national identity. In this sense, the way Germans dealt with the question of its unity as a people could not rely, as in France or England, in the promise of a future progress for civilization. Prussian state had to propose a reform of educational system in order to create this metaphysical idea of the origins of the culture. Within this ideological horizon, educational reforms in Germany assumed a very specific characteristic: education – reformulated in the hard to translate concept of Bildung – was not the promise of a brilliant technical evolution, but on the contrary, it meant the rescue of a lost identity, a humanism defied by civilization. German university model is, thus, opposed to the French one, but, when closer analyzed, this shows some inconsistencies. Wilhelm von Humboldt, as a major figure in the process of modernization, as both a philosopher and a State servant, discusses in his writings on educational reforms, an appropriation of Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s ideas. His main target was, as he himself literally stated in some of his reports to ministers Hardenberg and Stein, to make the Émile and the institutionalization an organic whole. Humboldt, as a reader of Kant and, at the same time, as a friend of important thinkers of the early German romanticism had the same temptation as them to appropriate some of Rousseau’s ideas and imagery: solitude, return to nature as a healing from civilization’s maladies, expression of individuality and geniality. These dimensions in Rousseau’s work were specially suitable in a political atmosphere where France civilization’s figure is dramatically opposed to national identity. Humboldt’s reading of Rousseau makes the opposition between French and German models more relative. And when, in late 19th and early 20th century, German model had become an efficient and successful humanist model for universities throughout Europe, France had to make the reverse path and appropriate some of its main dimension in order to think its own identity in the turn of the technological era. This paper intends to investigate and demonstrate how Humboldt’s appropriation of Rousseau’s thought within German education reforms in the early 19th century could be seen as a complex international and intellectual relationship that defy the static and merely oppositional constitution of two conceptual and institutional models, as usually historians try to see.

Vendredi / Friday 8:30 - 10:30 Room: 1130

4.13. Symposium. L'Institut Jean-Jacques Rousseau et l'internationalisation du réseau d'Education nouvelle en Europe et au Brésil dans les travaux de la psychologue russe Helena Antipoff (1892-1974) / The Jean-Jacques Rousseau Institute and the internationalization of the New School network in Europe and Brazil in the work of Russian psychologist Helena Antipoff (1892-1974)

Coordinator(s): Regina Helena FREITAS-CAMPOS

Discussant: Martine RUCHAT

In the year of the centenary of the Rousseau Institute, founded in Geneva in 1912 by Édouard Claparède and Pierre Bovet with the purpose of building the science of education and promoting educational innovation, it is relevant to investigate the network of educators and professionals in the social and health sciences that followed their leadership and disseminated their ideas in the first decades of the 20th century. The trajectory of the Russian psychologist and educator Helena Antipoff (1892-1974) is an important example of the ideas and views in education that inspired the Rousseau Institute since its inception. Antipoff’s education and work were at the crossroads of new educational and scientific psychology trends of the early 20th century: the Nobel Prize granted to Ivan Pavlov, the Russian scientist living in Saint Petersburg, her city; the Binet-Simon laboratory in Paris, where she learned about intelligence tests; the Rousseau Institute, where she acquired a sound scientific training and became acquainted with the principles of functional education proposed by Claparède; the St. Petersburg Psychoneurological Institute and the centres for popular education where she worked in Russia during the troubled years of the Communist Revolution; the building of the Brazilian systems of public education and of special needs’ education in which she participated from 1929 onwards, electing Brazil as her home country. In all those experiences Antipoff was in a permanent dialogue with the European network of psychologists and educators linked to the New School movement. In this symposium, these dialogues and their consequences for the history of education and educational psychology in the 20th century will be addressed. Invited speakers from France, Switzerland, Brazil and Russia will discuss their recent researches and sources focusing trends in the educational innovation movement in Europe, Russia and Brazil, the network of psychologists and educators that contributed to its internationalization, the institutions that promoted their views and practical recommendations in educational psychology, school organization, intelligence evaluation and measures, special education and professionalization of educators. The consequences of those ideas and practices for the history of the organization of public education and of the sciences of education in the 20th century will be evaluated.

Test Prime – circulation of knowledge in education between France and Brazil in the early twentieth century

Carolina MELO, École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, Paris, France

The appropriation of French psychology applied to education in Brazil is analyzed, based on the adaptation of the Binet-Simon Intelligence Test by psychologist and educator Helena Antipoff (1892-1974). In 1911, Antipoff was a trainee at the Laboratory of Psychology founded by Alfred Binet at the Sorbonne, and participated in the first essays for measuring intelligence in children at the time. In 1931, as the chair of the Laboratory of Psychology at the Belo Horizonte Teachers College, in Brazil, she made one of the first adaptations of the Binet-Simon tests for Brazilian children, aiming at the assessment and measurement of children’s and youngsters’s intellectual capacities. The instrument was named 'Test Prime'. Three groups were evaluated: a group of illiterate children between 6 and 8 years old, a group of fourth graders aged between 11 and 12, and a group of illiterate girls working in domestic service. From the results of her Test Prime, Helena Antipoff obtained a database to develop a concept of intelligence that was different from what she had learned in Binet’s Laboratory in Paris, since it included the influence of social environment in the development of cognition. The influence of Binet’s work on Antipoff’s practices can still be perceived when, following the prescriptions made by the 1927 Regulations of Primary Education issued by the state government in 1927, she proposed the organization of special classes for retarded children in the same model recommended by Binet to French schools in the beginning of the 20th century, with the introduction of “mental orthopedics” exercises and of specific programs of study for the development of basic skills in language and arithmetic. Alfred Binet is one of the ten most cited authors in the five volumes of the Coletânea das Obras Escritas (Collected Works) of Helena Antipoff. Contemporary researchers of the history of science have been privileging the study of works in which can be identified the emergence of an hybrid knowledge, originated by the exchanges made between different researchers worldwide. In Antipoff´s formation a scientific attitude and the belief that through science it would be possible to solve problems and improve education were emphasized. This was a lesson that she brought from the contact with researchers from other countries, including the work of Alfred Binet and Théodore Simon in Paris.

Helena Antipoff (1892-1974) in the crossing of New Education trends in Europe, Russia and Brazil – circulation and internationalization of knowledge

Regina Helena FREITAS-CAMPOS, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil

Helena Antipoff (1892-1974), Russian educator who migrated to Brazil from 1929 onwards, played an important role in the elaboration and consolidation of a sociocultural perspective for the understanding of human development and educational processes, with a large influence on Brazilian psychology and education. This thesis examines the building of this perspective, stemming from her training in psychology and education obtained in Europe and from her work in Brazil. A sociocultural perspective is defined as an approach to psycho-social and educational phenomena that emphasizes human development as a process that takes place in communities socially and culturally organized, so that it only can be understood taking into consideration its context of cultural and communitarian traditions, in constant transformation. The sources for the research were identified in Antipoff’s writings, as well as in references of the authors she quoted and in unpublished manuscripts kept in the archives of the Center for Research and Documentation Helena Antipoff. The method of analysis considered contextual data and the comparison between her writings and the references she quoted or studied. The results show that the main sources for her proposals can be identified in the works of Alfred Binet (1857-1911) and Théodore Simon (1873-1961), at the Laboratory of Psychology situated at the Grange-aux-Belles street, in Paris, beginning in 1905, for their emphasis on obtaining empirical data and submitting them to experimental treatments; in the works of Édouard Claparède (1871-1940) and Jean Piaget (1896-1980) at the Institut Rousseau, in Geneva, in the first half of the 20th century, informed by a functional and interactionist approach to psychological and educational phenomena. A third source of strong influence on Antipoff’s thought may be identified in Soviet psychology, especially the emphasis on Lazursky’s (1874-1917) “natural experimentation”, meaning that the study of psychological and psycho-social processes must be done in the natural context where they take place, and the idea that cognitive functions must be considered as built through the action of society and culture on human beings. Antipoff’s work in Brazil, in the areas of basic education, special education and rural education reveals the marks of her experience, but faced with the need to propose alternative practices, she was led to create new syntheses. Therefore, her work is characterized both by theoretical density and a pragmatic spirit, testing new procedures and analysing their results to propose renovated forms of action.

«Energetic, educated intellectuals - Brazil is for you»: From the letters of psychologist Helena Antipoff, circulation of knowledge across frontiers

Marina SOROKINA, Alexander Solzenitcyn Center for the Study of the Russian Diaspora, Russia; Natalia MASOLIKOVA, Solzenitcyn Center for the Study of the Russian Diaspora, Russia

The paper uses new archival sources to give a fuller account of the live and activities of the Russian born Swiss-Brazilian psychologist Helena Antipoff (1892-1974) in 1920 – middle of 1930th , at the time of her search for professional identification and of choice of personal strategy (“family claim,” that is, the obligation to care for family). It focuses both on the social and political context of Antipoff’s emigration and on her selfstory as it appeared in correspondence with the family. While Helena Antipoff, as many others refugee scholars, was searching for professional employment in the changing European environment, Brazil opened a window of opportunities for her and many others scholars and scientists. Sankt-Petersburg – Geneva – Bello Horizonte, Russia – Switzerland - Brazil – these locuses where the Antipoff’s letters had been written marked not only the geographical shift of the émigré scholar positions but reflected the new communications – the ways how the European scholarly approaches and techniques were applied to and adopted by the new auditorium before World War II. The role of the émigré scholars was pioneering in this process. Issues concerning scholars in exile have attracted attention especially in relation to the large emigration wave that hit Europe facing the Nazi regime. This wave has been already well documented by numerous encyclopaedic projects, treated in academic works, and also analyzed from the methodological point of view. In contrast, there has been no scholarly treatment of the Russian academic migration in 1920-1930, that has grappled systematically with the topic on the basis of archival research. For many years refugees, invalids and dissidents were ‘hidden groups’, ignored by the Soviet authorities, civil society, and public memory. Only today historians shifted to the study of those groups and the Antipoff’s life story is very important in this perspective. As such, it contributes to gender and emigration history, to the social history of psychology and human rights. But Antipoff’s story also demonstrates the ways of formation of very strong and persistent transnational or international networks of scholars whose professional biographies on the level of concepts and ideas grew up from multicultural intellectual components and traditions.

Reception of European special needs’ classes in Brazil in the 1930’s as an example of hybridization of knowledge

Adriana BORGES, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil

Primary school regulations of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, issued in 1927I included the organization of homogeneous classrooms by intellectual levels as mandatory. Their implementation started with the arrival in Belo Horizonte of the Russian psychologist Helena Antipoff, who assumed the direction of the laboratory of psychology of the local Teachers’ College and initiated studies aiming at the measurement of children’s mental development using psychological tests. At the same time, special needs classes, present in Europe since the end of the nineteenth century, were also established. The purpose of this presentation is to analyze the process of implementation of those special needs classes as disclosed in the periodical Infância Excepcional, published in the bulletins of the Public Education and Health Secretariat of Minas Gerais government during the 1930’s and 1940’s, and in other articles published about the theme at the time. It also intends to verify how the special needs classes were organized in the Brazilian context, under Helena Antipoff’s guidance. Born in Russia, Helena Antipoff lived in France and was a trainee in Binet`s laboratory in 1911, and then proceeded to Geneva to attend the Jean Jacques Rousseau Institute (1912-1914), where she later became a researcher and educator as Édouard Claparède’s assistant (1926-1929). The hypothesis is that the multicultural formation of Helena Antipoff influenced the way in which the special needs classes were setup in Minas Gerais and, eventually in Brazil, contributing for the creation of an original model aiming at the treatment and education of handicapped children that was latter disseminated in the whole country. At the same time, the context in which she was inserted influenced the way Helena Antipoff systematized her model for the special needs classes and proposed the education of exceptional children in a rural school, the Fazenda do Rosário. Present historiography of science considers that knowledge has to become local to function as knowledge, in a process of hybridization. It is from this standpoint that the implementation of special needs classes in Brazil will be discussed, more specifically in Belo Horizonte. Although deeply marked by her trajectory in Europe, from which she brought significant contributions, it is only from the knowledge of the Minas Gerais cultural context and its specific characteristics that Antipoff could propose an alternative to special needs classes: the rural school.

Le Bureau International d'Éducation et la diffusion de l'Éducation Nouvelle - la Fazenda do Rosario comme exemple de ce processus

Silvia PARRAT-DAYAN, Archives Jean Piaget, Suisse

Le BIE (Bureau International d’Éducation) a été créé à Génève comme une institution intergouvernamentale, un centre d’éducation comparée, pour la promotion d’échanges pédagogiques entre les pays et aussi de la paix intenternationale. Le but était de faire connaître les différents systèmes éducatifs et favoriser la diffusion des méthodes de l’éducation nouvelle, surtout l’auto-gouvernement et le travail en groupe, comme le voulait son directeur pendant 40 ans, Jean Piaget. Pendant son travail comme directeur du BIE, Piaget a accompagné des recherches sur de nouvelles expériences éducationnelles dans de différents pays. Dans cette présentation, les relations du BIE avec les expériences éducatives menées par Helena Antipoff, ancienne assistante de Claparède à l’Institut Rousseau, à Genève, comme Piaget, seront commentées, à partir des sources des Archives Piaget.



Vendredi / Friday 8:30 - 10:30 Room: 1140

4.14. Symposium. Textes, images, matériels, spaces: sites locaux, nationaux, et internationaux d'exposition / Texts, Images, Materials and Spaces: Local, National and International Sites of Display

Coordinator(s): Kerstin TE HEESEN, Geert THYSSEN et Karin PRIEM

Discussant: Marc DEPAEPE

In line with the theme of the ISCHE/SHCY/DHA conference, this research panel in-tends to explore the significance of interaction between ideas, images, objects and/or spaces in education on a local, national and international scale. Arrangements of interacting text, imagery and material in time and space encompass strategies of evidence, presentation and representation. Words, pictures, things and places assume meaning within themselves, by being staged and interconnected in culturally loaded temporal-spatial settings. From a didactic-pedagogical perspective, such multi-layered configurations, devised for educational purposes, produce epistemological effects. They stimulate activity and inspire learning, thereby becoming pedagogical agents. Whether it be textbooks, children's poems, charity reports, exhibition sites or photo-documentaries of children; as they circulate and cross borders and play a role in educational settings their meaning changes. The different context(s) in which they appear add meanings that exceed their original intent or any ‘ontological’ nature. Some questions that will be addressed in this panel are: - To what extent do visual orchestrations, spatial arrangements, directions of flow, editing, assembling and archiving procedures and/or cross-border movements provoke experiences that transcend the subjects of these processes? - To what degree do constellations of text, image, material, and space – as wholes, rather than different parts – act as an educative force in (a) particular context(s)? - How can these configurations with an educational dimension be understood? Can they, for instance, be seen as ‘actors’ in a network of meaning-knowledge-making? - In what ways may such multi-dimensional arrangements have acted as didactical-political tools and as instruments of internationalization? In short, this panel will explore the potential significance of both ‘constellation’ and ‘context’ as mediators of educational and social-cultural knowledge in local, national and international settings. It will include the following contributions: Jeroen J.H. Dekker and Sanne Parlevliet (Groningen) On the journey of Enlightenment poems for children from Germany to The Netherlands and back, on the interaction between books as objects, texts and images, and between national and international modes of representation (late 18th century). Ian Grosvenor, Natasha Macnab and Kevin Myers (Birmingham) On the circulation and reception of concepts and images via certain media (photo-graphic material displayed in annual reports of an internationally active charitable institution and an exhibition related to textbook revision campaigns) (late 19th century - 1970s). Kerstin te Heesen, Geert Thyssen, and Karin Priem (Luxembourg) On the educative power of interacting images, material objects, spaces and e-motions in different cultural settings, exemplified by an analysis of the traveling photo exhibition ‘The Family of Man’ (c. 1950s - 1960s). Brit Marie Hovland (Oslo) On world exhibitions and school museums and textbooks as mutually related pedagogical agents, and as ‘world maps of modernization’, projecting a better future (c.1850s - 1930s) and re-narrating history for political reasons. Siân Roberts (Birmingham) On British humanitarian and pedagogical activism in response to textual and visual representations of displaced children in Republican educational colonies in Spain, and on the process from the making to the archiving of texts and images (1930s - present).

Puppets on a String in a Moving Theater? Image, Material, Space and E-Motion in "The Family of Man" (c. 1950s-1960s)




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