Internationalisation dans le champ éducatif (18e – 20e siècles) Internationalization in Education (18th – 20th centuries) Genève / Geneva, 27-30 juin / June 2012


Anne MONNIER, Université de Genève - IUFE, Suisse



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Anne MONNIER, Université de Genève - IUFE, Suisse

Cette contribution cherche à mettre en lumière comment et pour quelles raisons, dès 1934, dans les recommandations du Bureau International de l’Education (BIE), s’opère le passage de l’idée d’une instruction destinée à former «une élite» à l’idée d’une instruction destinée à former «diverses élites», c’est-à-dire à élever la culture générale de l’ensemble des individus en fonction de leurs possibilités et leurs besoins. Elle tente ensuite de mesurer l’impact des Recommandations du BIE entre 1934 et 2008 à propos de cette question sur les contenus d’enseignement d’une insitution locale du secondaire à Genève, dont le concept éponyme est justement celui de culture générale. Par rapport à la voie gymnasiale issue d’une longue tradition, l’Ecole de Culture Générale (ECG) apparaît dans le panorama du système scolaire genevois en 1972, avec l’objectif de permettre à des jeunes gens entre 16 à 19 ans qui ne se destinent pas à l’Université de perfectionner leur culture générale avant d’entamer une formation professionnelle. Elle n’est cependant pas créée ex nihilo, mais résulte de la fusion de l’école professionnelle et ménagère (EPM) créée en 1897, et de la section de culture générale de l’Ecole supérieure de jeunes filles (ESJF) qui date de 1936. Nos questions de recherche sont donc les suivantes. Quel est l’impact des recommandations d’un organisme international sur l’évolution des contenus d’enseignement d’une institution locale, l’ECG: a-t-on affaire dans les trois cas à une traduction, voire à une réinterprétation des recommandations successives du BIE par l’ECG ou le concept éponyme de cette institution, qui s’incarne dans les contenus d’enseignement de celle-ci, évolue-t-il en parallèle des recommandations du BIE à propos de la culture générale, dans le respect de la tradition locale? En vue de répondre à cette question, nous jouons avec les échelles d’observation et les niveaux d’analyse. A l’aide d’une carte conceptuelle de la notion culture générale qui nous sert d’outil de lecture, nous croisons une analyse des archives internes et externes à l’ECG – plans d’études et programmes successifs de l’école, procès-verbaux de la direction et des groupes de disciplines, mémoriaux du Grand-Conseil genevois – avec une analyse des diverses recommandations du BIE entre 1934 et 2008 – en accès libre sur internet – qui abordent la question de la culture générale.

Aux sources des premières politiques internationales d’éducation en Afrique coloniale: acteurs et débats dans les années 1920

Hélène CHARTON, CNRS Laboratoire Les Afrique dans le monde, France

La communication proposée vise à revenir sur les processus précoces d’internationalisation des politiques d’éducation dans un contexte colonial. Plusieurs auteurs ont mis en évidence le poids de la Première Guerre mondiale dans la mise en place d’une réflexion internationale sur l’éducation (Fuchs, 2007) et souligné dans le cas de l’Afrique, le rôle des territoires sous mandat dans la mise en œuvre de ces politiques. En revanche peu de travaux ont cherché à montrer comment s’était constituée une expertise éducative internationale spécifique sur l’Afrique dès les années 1920. C’est précisément l’objet de cette étude. La mise en place des politiques d’éducation dans les colonies au lendemain de la Première Guerre mondiale a fait émerger une réflexion inédite sur la nature de l’éducation à donner aux populations africaines en situation coloniale. Celle-ci s’est développée selon des modalités variées, parfois selon une échelle continentale comme avec la création de l’African Committee on Education in the colonies (ACEC) créée par le Colonial Office en 1923 (Whitehead 1983). Avec la création en 1926 de l’Institut international sur les langues et les civilisations d’Afrique à Londres, l’expertise devient résolument internationale. Ces instances réunissent des acteurs très variés (administrateurs, missionnaires, savants) dont le point commun est précisément leur capacité à formuler un discours expert à partir de leurs expériences du terrain africain qui se déclinent de manière très diverses. L’enjeu est ici de revenir sur le processus de création de ces différents espaces afin de montrer comment ils ont contribué à consolider cette expertise nouvelle sur l’Afrique. Les outils qui sont alors mobilisés par ces différents acteurs comme les grandes tournées et enquêtes (dont le modèle du genre sont celles initiées par le comité Phelps Stokes dans les années 1920) (Kuster 2007) mais également les conférences internationales ont nourri la réflexion sur l’éducation. La circulation des idées, et des pratiques d’éducations mais également des acteurs de l’éducation en Afrique ont contribué à la formulation de modèles d’éducation pour les populations africaines dans les colonies et qui ont à leur tour influencé les politiques coloniales. L’un des maîtres-mots de ces modèles est l’adaptation des programmes et des pratiques scolaires à l’environnement social, politique et économique colonial qui puise précisément ses références dans la «science indigène» de l’époque (Bude 1983). Cette étude s’efforcera de croiser des travaux menés sur différentes aires culturelles ou sur certains acteurs de manière à mettre en évidence les fortes connexions et la circulation de ces modèles. Elle sera également étayée par un travail d’archives mené à Paris (archives nationales, à Rome (archives de la propagande de la foi) et à Londres afin de mettre en évidence l’identité et l’action des principaux acteurs dans ce processus d’internationalisation des politiques d’éducation en Afrique.



International patterns in the construction of the Hungarian tripartite secondary school system (1921–1924)

Zoltán András SZABO, Eötvös Loránd University, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Hungary

After the Trianon Treaty (1920), which significantly reduced the territory of Hungary, the new government tried to find international support for recovery. This situation accelerated the decision-making processes in the political field. The attitude was the same in the control of public education: from 1921 the discussion about the reform of the Hungarian secondary school system became more and more intensive. Finally, Count Kuno von Klebelsberg, the Minister of Religion and Education, introduced a bill about the installation of tripartite middle school system. His efforts resulted in the Act XI of 1924, which is one of the most important components of Hungarian educational law in the 20th century. The parliamentary debate of the secondary school act (1924) – which established a new school type (the Realgymnasium) in Hungary – has a plenty of references to the secondary education of other countries. Although – since 1849 – the Hungarian secondary school system had followed the Prussian-Austrian model, the newly introduced tripartite middle school system had a lot of distinctiveness (role of Greek and Latin, administration, curriculum, etc.), and was influenced by other international tendencies. My research aims at revealing the spectrum of the referred international patterns. I focus on the following three questions: the function of the references (rhetoric, legitimacy, etc.), the relationship between the mentioned foreign models and political orientation, and finally, the differences and similarities between the German-Austrian concept and the Hungarian adaptation. The research source is an online database: the "Országgyűlési dokumentumok" (Documents of the Parliament) contains the digitalized documents of the Hungarian Parliament between 1861 and 1990. The corpus was created with a special portable document file technology: the upper page shows the original black-on-white image, the lower page (due to optical character recognition) contains the electronic translation of the scanned document. The analyzed period covers the tabling and the discussion of the bill (from 11th March 1924 to 4th of April 1924). In my research, I would like to analyze the parliamentary debate of the secondary school act from the viewpoints of graph theory and text mining. The first one – with the utilization of directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) – makes it possible to examine the qualitative and quantitative features of the interactions among the members of the parliament, the second method enables the comparative analysis of the different parts of the document by representing that in a matrix or in a multidimensional vector space (MVS). Text mining – as a novel method in the field of History of Education – aims at deriving information and exploring hidden nexuses from unstructured text. In the first phase of the research, I developed a database which contains the quantification of the speeches of the deputies: this data file was an indispensable requirement of building combinatorial models (principally DAGs). In the second phase, I created a hierarchical category system for content analysis as a basis of multi-perspective classification and similarity-based clustering.

Vendredi / Friday 8:30 - 10:30 Room: 4193

4.11. Entre standardisation et innovation: écrire l'histoire de la globalisation en éducation / Between standardisation and innovation: writing narratives of globalization in education

Chair: Damiano MATASCI

Les différents moments du processus d´internationalisation de l´éducation au Brésil



Lindomar WESSLER BONETI, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Brésil; Maria Lourdes GISI, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Brésil; Ana Maria EYNG, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Brésil

Dans cette communication nous présentons des résultats de recherches sur les différents moments du processus d´internationalisation de l´éducation brésilienne. Différents événements internationaux (politiques, économiques etc culturels) s’étendant sur différents moments historiques ont contribué aux modifications significatives des politiques scolaires, en particulier de leurs buts et leurs significations. Nous constatons que dans le cas brésilien ce phénomène s´exprime par trois principales manières: 1) transfert culturel. Jusqu´aux années 1930, l´éducation était associée à l´idée d´évolution sociale en s´appuyant sur la culture bourgeoise et le modèle rationnel européen comme paramètre civilisatoire et fin scolaire. Ce modèle d´éducation a été importé initialement par les oligarchies agricoles. Durant cette période, le modèle scolaire brésilien a adopté un concept scientifique de culture en instituant de mécanismes institutionnels d´accès à l´éducation restreints aux classes dominantes; 2) la préparation pour la vie productive et la construction d´un projet de nation. Durant la décennie 1930, avec la «révolution bourgeoise brésilienne», du passage du modèle agricole pour l´industriel, des événements nationaux et transnationaux apportent de nouvelles significations et buts à l´éducation, ainsi que la transmission de la culture requise pour l´évolution sociale, pour la préparation à la vie productive. Ainsi se destitue le modèle culturel bourgeois comme le seul synonyme de courtoisie. Avec l´avènement de l´urbanisation affleurent des différenciations de groupes sociaux distincts en adoptant une nouvelle notion de culture, celle de l´expression de la vie; 3) l´Éducation dans le contexte de la pluralité des savoirs, les traces culturelles et ethniques. Spécialement dans les dernières décennies du XXème, au Brésil en phase avec le monde international, deux dynamiques qui s´entrelacent donnent lieu à des modifications substantielles sur la collectivité, déterminant des nouvelles pratiques sociales ainsi que nouveaux savoirs et aprentissages. D´une part, affleure la question de la singularité et de la différence, en fragilisant ainsi la règle de l´homogénéité en tant que base institutionelle classique de l´éducation, pour tenter d’ajuster le processus éducatif aux différences culturelles, sociales et ethniques; d´autre part, des idées libérales arrivées du monde européen ont généré un projet d´État recommandé au pays par des institutions multilatérales comme le FMI, en minimisant la responsabilité de l´État par rapport au citoyen, en associant la citoyenneté à la «compétence» de l´individu pour la conquête des droits et des espaces sociaux et produtifs. Dans le contexte de cette dynamique s´associe la «bonne éducation» à l´«école produtive», à l´excellence de gestion de l´institution scolaire et de l´évaluation de leurs résultats.

Education Right affected by Educational Reforms: comparative and internacional analysis

Guillermo RUIZ, Buenos Aires University, Argentina; Antonio GARCIA ALVAREZ, Autonomous University of Madrid, España

The historical development of education systems has been intertwined with further discussions and agreements embodied in diverse regulations and documents. Those, which have high impact, have reconfigured the characteristics of education as a social and collective advocacy. Consequently, centrality acquired the elucidation of the scope of the education right for contemporary educational politics analysis as it allows evaluating the scope of the purposes and objectives of the educational policies implemented by the State. In several countries such as Argentina, Spain and Sweden, after the implementation of profuse educational reforms, which have done major changes among key aspects such as the forms of government and academic structure of educational system, it is relevant to investigate the scope of the education right. In international law of human rights are a network of treaties and declarations that regulate education and allow for minimum standards that should be met to allow the enjoyment of this human right. Analysis proposed here through public policies on education in terms of accessibility, affordability, acceptability, adaptability, equality and respect for diversity. This selection of these countries is relevant because it is national contexts that have made strong commitments to the international perspective on human rights. In this paper, we focus on the partial results of a research that takes the academic structure of educational system as an object of inquiry from an international and comparative perspective. Through this analysis (of recurrent educational reforms) is to raise discussions on the acquisition and maintenance of rights of access, retention and graduation from the different educational tracks in countries with have different levels of socioeconomic development, such as Argentina, Spain and Sweden. This article develops a presentation on the topic of regulation in each country case studies and educational projects advocated into their recurrent cycles of educational reforms, over the past four decades in the national context.

The critique of the educational institutions in the 1970’s as an historical event within the configuration of the liquid social imaginary in the 21st century

Xavier LAUDO CASTILLO, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain; Jon IGELMO ZALDIVAR, Spain

This paper focuses on the 1960’s and 1970’s of the twentieth century, when the spectrum of critical thinking in relation to modern educational institutions was expanded. Our purpose in this work is both to analyze the way in which the social imaginary began to be shaped –then still transitioning to the discursive conception of education which is predominantly in the twenty first century–, and to outline the possible limits for its critique. We claim this transit has not been studied in depth by historians and theorists of education; therefore its conceptual framework of approach may be reconsidered. Two aspects of the analysis are presented as references to study this issue. First we approach the main political, economic, social, cultural or philosophical events that mark historical discursive mutation to the new liquid social imaginary. That is, a new social imaginary, where new meaning is obtained: a) the validity of the truth, b) the consistency of the values, and c) the social interaction. Secondly, we study the works presented by a generation of authors who were critical of educational institutions. For instance, Ivan Illich, John Holt, Paul Goodman, Everett Reimer and Paulo Freire. These authors worked together at the Centro Intercultural de Documentación wich was opened in the Mexican city of Cuernavaca between 1963 and 1976. They internationalized a new approach to education in order to use the discourse as a strategic element within the geopolitical and economic restructuring of the world in the early 1970’s. We argue that the emergence of these ideas regarding education and its institutions can be explained historically because of both the social imaginary shift, and the way in which these ideas were dispersed and contributed to the development and consolidation of this new imaginary. To analyze this mutation within the modern social imaginary we use the post-social historiographical methodology. This school of historiography references the recent works published by Miguel A. Cabrera, Gabrielle M. Spiegel, Patrick Joyce, Lee Paterson, Zachary Lockman, Joan W. Scott and Keith Bajer. They reconsider the way in which individuals undestand and organize the meaning of social reality. As a result, post-social history points out that discourse is not a simple means that allow people to transmit an objective notion of reality without incorporating new meanings. It is an active component of the process of creating these meanings while participating as an independent factor to frame historical processes.

Standardization through Implementation of School Administrators (Schulleitungen)? International Reform Rhetoric and National Federalism in Local School Governance

Christina ROTHEN, University of Bern, Switzerland

In connection with subtheme three, this paper will look at the implementation of an international discourse on site-based-management and its consequences in the Swiss context. In Germany, England and the USA the traditional local school governance was recognized to be bureaucratic, slow and ineffective (Kussau/Brüsemeister 2005; Hoyle/Wallace 2005; Finn 1992). International policy on school governance moved the responsibility and decision-making closer to the classroom based on the idea to strengthen the financial and organizational independency of every school. These new forms of school governance go by various names: ‘site-based management’, or ‘self-governing schools’ and promise to bring relief to the problems of school-governance. This paper will analyze how general reform strategies are implemented in a very specific local setting. Local schools in Switzerland are administered and controlled on one hand by the state government (Kanton) and on the other hand by local authorities. Due to the federal system and its historical background both the state government and the formation of the local authorities varied concerning their institutional conditions and their competences. In the beginning of the 1980s just some of the cantons had school administrators implemented. Nowadays in most cantons of the German speaking part of Switzerland ‘Schulleitungen’ school administrators were initiated. This paper will look at the development of the local school governance in three different cantons (Basel, Bern, Zürich). The main question is, whether the international reform rhetoric about new local school governance led to standardization of the local school governance in Switzerland. The history of the different actors involved in local school governance and the development of some of their competences (teacher election, finances and administration) since 1975 will be focused. The study is based on normative sources. Laws and all other kinds of regulations that were important for the local school governance are included (Gesetze des Kantons Basel, Bern, Zürich). It will be shown that there was standardization in broader sense, due to the fact that in all cantons the school administrators were introduced. But considering the different competences of the school administrators no standardization between the cantons can be ascertained.



Education History for a World in Motion: Teaching and Learning Outside the Lines

Barbara FINKELSTEIN, University of Maryland College Park, USA

Lurking in the shadows of education history are networks of human interaction, transcultural encounters, forms of global connection, and dispersed sites of cultural teaching and learning that are just beginning to capture the attention of education and childhood historians. This paper constitutes a kind of meditation on the ways in which historians of education and childhood might begin to make historical sense of the evolving world of unrelenting pluralisms, complex border crossings, de-territorialized networks of association, and culturally congested sites of teaching and learning that have emerged in the last twenty-five years. What approaches might we deploy to take account of the emergence of educational contexts of dazzling and unprecedented diversities where encounters between total strangers have become the stuff of daily life in families, schools and communities all over the world; where the contours of community life and bonds of affiliation have become trans-local, poly-focal, and subject to negotiation; where time-honored habits of heart, mind, and association are multitudinous and deeply challenged; where the languages of instruction, communication, and daily discourse are continually shifting and fusing; where designations of insiders and outsiders are manifold and fluid; where community life has become geographically unbound, and disentangled from life in face-to-face communities; where young people have acquired the power to re-fashion social and cultural networks, produce novel communicative and linguistic forms, mobilize world-wide social movements, inspire political action, unravel regimes of governance, and shape the contours of cultural life world-wide. It is just these sorts of questions – about the infinite complexity and variability of global flows of knowledge, networks of association, and massive migrations of peoples that have led me to view the history of education and childhood in relation to the interplay of dislocation and attachment to place and the lived experience of migration, border crossing, cultural encounters, interdependence, the forming of diasporic communities, the making of social identities, and the fate of nation states. The paper is not designed to present a research agenda, a conceptual strategy, nor a theoretical map. Rather, it constitutes an attempt to identify and describe potential sites of historical study that flow across boundaries and borders and reveal the relative perdurability and/or temporality of particular educational configurations. One thinks of educational space, both literal and imagined, where people in possession of alternative habits of heart, mind, and association meet up; where myths and memories are made and unmade; where young people are more or less constrained by tradition; where community boundaries are porous and penetrable; where communicative networks are close-up and far distant; where cultural transmission is conveyed by word of mouth, by the book, or by the image. Whether they are spaces located in fields or streets, classrooms or community centers, ports of call or border police stations, they are what Homi Bhabha has called “spaces in-between;” what others have called borderlands; what still others have identified as frontier communities. They are worth our detailed attention or so I hope to illustrate through a discussion of particular examples.

Vendredi / Friday 8:30 - 10:30 Room: 3393

4.12. Rousseau: un voyageur dans le temps et dans l'espace (19e - début 20e siècles) / Rousseau: a time and space traveller (19th - beginning of 20th cent.)

Chair: André ROBERT

The Tranfer of Rousseau Ideas in the French and Israeli Teacher-Training systems: Durkheim and Segal Compared via the "Dilemmas Approach"



Yuval DROR, School of Education, Tel Aviv University, Israel

In a previous article in Durkheimian Studies, 2 (1996: 133-149) entitled: 'What Durkheim and the Fathers of Kibbutz Education took from Rousseau: A Dilemma Analysis Compares the Evolution of Educational Thought in France and Israel’ I dealt with the educator M. Segal (1903-1991) and the sociologist E. Durkheim (1858-1917), comparing their interpretations to Emile of Rousseau given in their French and Israeli series of lectures to teacher training students that were collected and published. In this paper I am daeling with the two combined research methods that were conducted in the previous article – comparative research via the "Dilemmas Approach"; these are fruitful tools of the history of internationalization that can be used for understanding the history of national education as well. Segal and Durkheim were compared because their published texts were part of series of lectures in teacher training programs in both countries, and they mentioned the same progressive and humanistics thinkers as their sources of inspiration - including Rousseau - and the same thoughts and practices of “humanistic education”. Eight dilemmas were mapped in the Hebrew and French (translated and illuminated into English) texts of Segal and Durkheim on Rousseau: (1) The link between man and nature; (2) "Denature" – how do we change the nature of something?; (3) "Things" – what is the way of emphasizing the reality of the environment in which man is placed?; (4) "Book learning" versus "Natural education"; (5) Between "Man centered" to "God centered" education; (6) Is childhood important in itself, or only as a preparation for adult life?; (7) "Individualism" versus "Socialization"; (8) Freedom versus the restriction of social order. The "conclusions" of the compared dilemmas were that Durkheim tends to see the superiority of nature, both human and social, so that his perception of Rousseau is balanced and ambivalent in a sense. The only point where Rousseau takes a decisive stand, according to Durkheim, is in opposing the written word which, for him, represents the method of religious (Jesuit) education. On precisely this point Segal opposes both Durkheim and Rousseau. He finds the positive element in Jesuit education and favors the transmission of written culture. Nor does Segal hesitate to criticize Rousseau for neglecting the school and ignoring the family and women's education ('Emile and Sophie'). In contrast with Durkheim, Segal emphasizes the superiority over nature that Rousseau grants to man, the preference for society over the individual, the need for clear social goals, and the teacher as a shaper of character by means of lifelong educational process. These parallel but contrary profiles arise from the professional and personal biographies of Rousseau's two interpreters. In this presentation I will focus on the historiographic usage of the compared "Dilemmas Approach", showing two tools of studying the tranfer of European educational ideas in Europe and abroad – and the differences between Durkheim, a theoretican sociologist, and Segal, a kibbutz member, an educational thinker parallely and a practitioner.

Singularities and Discontinuities in the itinerary and in Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Writing




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