Internationalisation dans le champ éducatif (18e – 20e siècles) Internationalization in Education (18th – 20th centuries) Genève / Geneva, 27-30 juin / June 2012


Lucia REILY, Universidade Estadual de Campinas - Unicamp, Brazil



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Lucia REILY, Universidade Estadual de Campinas - Unicamp, Brazil

The aim of this study is to follow threads of various modes of visual representations of microcephaly (in painting, photography, film, posters, drawings) across time and space in order to discuss changes in conceptions of intellectual disability in the nineteenth and twentieth-century. While investigating portrayals of disability in art history, we came across “Pip and Flip”, a curious 1935 painting by Pavel Tchelitchev showing two children with microcephaly. The sitting boy looks feeble, unable to support himself, while the girl stands beside him, with a life-size doll in the background. Tchelitchev’s is an unusual choice of subject matter, since earlier research had shown the paucity of representations of mental disability during the nineteenth and twentieth-centuries (Tupinambá & Reily, 2004). Further investigation led us to the American sideshow tradition (Bogdan, 1990; Adams, 2001). ‘Pip and Flip’ (actually Elvira and Jenny Snow, sisters born in Georgia), were favorites at the Coney Island World Circus Sideshow; along with Schlitze, also a performer, they were part of Tod Browning’s 1932 cast for Freaks (Royer & Royer, 2005). Not only had Tchelitchev seen sideshows, he had admired Freaks (Kirstein, 1994), producing a series of studies of ‘pinheads’. These drawings prepared the way for the large 1938 canvas “Phenomena”, in which he provoked American audiences with his metaphorical discourse on the diversity of human condition, with the ‘More’ and the ‘Less’ polarized on each side of the canvas. In freak show genre, special skills combined with lacking body parts were greatly valued, as revealed by the fascination Prince Randiam, the human torso, generated when he handlessly lit up and smoked. Pip and Flip revisit an earlier nineteenth-century version, the Aztec children. Bartola and Maximo (Rothfels, 1996), the “last Aztec children” performed no tricks, as such; their mystique rested in the tale that accompanied their capture in Mexico, the last remnants of the ancient Aztec tribe, a link between savage and civilized. These Aztec ‘children’ toured Europe, and were especially appreciated in Germany. Visual portrayals of disability such as “Barnum’s Living Wonders” poster of Bartola and Maximo compel us to examine John Langdon Down’s writings presented to the Medical Society of London in 1866. His ten years of experience as a doctor at Earlwood Asylum (1858 – 1868) enabled him to develop several hypotheses about mental deficiency. He is famous for his classification of a group that he called the ‘mongoloid’ type of idiocy. What few know is that he created further ethnic categories for the Earslwood Asylum population: “Malaysian, Ethiopian, Aztec and Caucasian idiots (Wright, 2001, p. 164). Down put on paper ideas already in circulation in Europe among scientists, but a question emerges: Did Down actually witness Bartola and Maximo’s presentation to the London Ethnological Society in the early 1850s? Down’s classification exercise, “Barnum’s Living Wonders” poster of Bartola and Maximo, multiple photographs of ‘Aztecs’ children and young people with microcephaly, the film “Freaks”, Tchelitchev’s painting – all of this speaks across time and space, addressing phallacies constructed about disability associated to ethnicity.

Vendredi / Friday 8:30 - 10:30 Room: 2130

4.8. Symposium. L'établissement de systèmes éducatifs au 19ème siècle: affaire nationale ou internationale? / The erection of school systems in the 19th century: A national or international affair?

Coordinator(s): Daniel TROEHLER

Discussant: Moritz ROSENMUND

For a long time the erection and implementation of the school systems in the individual nation-states of the nineteenth century were understood as both, expression and means of nation-building. The formal organization of the school, the curricula, the teaching materials and the respective teacher’s education were interpreted as cultural-political arrangements deriving from nationally taken for granted convictions about the future of the particular nation-state and its ideal citizens. However, recent research has questioned this narrative by claiming an international or even global agenda behind the national endeavors in erecting and implementing a school system. They argue, that the different national systems of mass education had absolutely some differences, but despite of that “were strikingly similar” (Ramirez & Boli, 1987, p. 9). The reason for this perceived similarity lies in the assumption of a harmo-nized “world-society model” that is believed to have shaped “the nation-state identities, structures, and behavior via worldwide cultural and associational processes” (Meyer et al., 1997, p. 173). The two different historiographic narration models – individual-national vs. global-national – provoke more detailed investigation. Therefore, a comparative history of schooling will present findings about the early times of the erection and implementation of school systems in three different countries (France, Luxembourg, Switzerland). The theoretical focus of this comparative historical research is an understanding of modern schooling, that it aims – as school of the nation-state – at forming the future citizens (Tröhler, Popkewitz, & Labaree, 2011). This broad understanding of “citizenship education” as major objective of modern schooling includes the analysis of the whole curriculum rather than of selected subjects or activities. France: In comparison with other European countries of the 19th century, post-revolutionary France can be regarded as a role model and pacemaker for developing a nationwide educational sys-tem. Against this background it is reasonable to assume that this biggest and most populous western European country developed its characteristic school system entirely on its own, without drawing on other sources. Based on several sources this paper will question the national idiosyncrasy of the national narrative. Luxembourg: When the independent nation-state Luxembourg was founded in 1839 it was set up on the basis of relatively small territory, one imagined common culture and two national languages namely French and German. One major task was to establish a school system ensuring the formation of the future Luxembourgian citizen; the whole curriculum aimed, as it is stated in a Memorial of the Grand Duchy, to be the “cradle of the citizen.” Explicit citizenship education was introduced only after 1900 and only for Fortbildungsschüler, the students that had missed out on entering the normal secondary school due to poor school achievement. Switzerland: The idea, that students with poor(er) achievements were in need of more explicit citizenship education than more successful students is widespread in the nineteenth century. In Zurich, Switzerland, an explicit school type for low achievement students was discussed throughout the nineteenth century in order to implement “national virtues”. In contrast, the Canton of Vaud introduced citizenship education in the mandatory curriculum for all elementary students and teacher education. This paper will examine the reason and the public discourse to implement this school type and ask if there is any evidence to see these case studies as part of internationalization.

The Cantons of Zurich and Vaud in the XIXth century



Rebekka HORLACHER, University of Zurich, Switzerland

The idea, that students with poor(er) achievements were in need of more explicit citizenship education than more successful students is widespread in the early nineteenth century. In Zurich, Switzerland, for example, an explicit school type for low achievement students, called civics school (Zivilschule), was discussed throughout the nineteenth century in order to implement “national virtues”. In contrast to Zurich, the French-speaking Swiss Canton of Vaud introduced citizenship education in the mandatory curriculum for all elementary students and teacher education. This paper will examine the reason and the public discourse to implement this school type and ask if there is any evidence to see these case studies as part of internationalization.

Luxembourg’s school of the nation state (1839-1912)

Catherina SCHREIBER, University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg; Ragnhild BARBU, University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg

When the independent nation-state Luxembourg was founded in 1839 it was set up on the basis of relatively small territory, one imagined common culture and two national languages namely French and German. One major task was to establish a school system ensuring the formation of the future Luxembourgian citizen; the whole curriculum aimed, as it is stated in a Memorial of the Grand Duchy, to be the “cradle of the citizen.” Explicit citizenship education was introduced only after 1900 and only for Fortbildungsschüler, the students that had missed out on entering the normal secondary school due to poor school achievement. Up to today, explicit civic education takes place mostly in the less prestigious type of secondary education. Our research focus lies on the development of the relation between the broad, in-explicit and the explicit citizenship education in the multilingual nation-state Luxembourg since 1839, with side glances at the surrounding countries. Selected phases will be analyzed to exemplify, which cultural persistencies can be found in the Luxembourgian curriculum, which curricular reforms and discussions can be identified to be either idiosyncratic or influenced by international trends and reforms.

Le gouvernement des esprits. Primary Education in France (1833-1881)

Peter HOVLAND, University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg

In comparison with other European countries of the 19th century, post-revolutionary France can be regarded as a role model and pacemaker for developing a nationwide educational sys-tem. Against this background it is reasonable to assume that this biggest and most populous western European country developed its characteristic school system entirely on its own, without drawing on other sources. Based on selected volumes of Manuel général de l’instruction primaire and Journal général de l’instruction publique I intend to determine whether the country’s official educational publications have been marked by a purely Franco-French discourse after the adoption of the epochal Primary School Act of 1833, or whether foreign achievements and models were also being discussed and perhaps adapted. The latter would indicate the actual existence of a "world-society-model" (Meyer/Boli/Thomas/Ramirez 1997). The same publications are suitable sources for analysing contemporary concepts of civic education. In France, as in many other European countries, it was assumed until the 1880s (adoption of express civic classes by Jules Ferry, 1883) that primary schools were ef-fectively contributing to the emergence of a civic awareness, in their role as an institution and through their lessons in general.



Vendredi / Friday 8:30 - 10:30 Room: 5189

4.9. Emergence connectée des systèmes scolaires I / Connected emergence of scholar systems I

Chair: Ines DUSSEL

Re-imagining italian education: the foundation of the Italian school system as plot and models of transfers (1859-1879)



Angelo GAUDIO, Università di Udine, Italy

The object of this communication includes topics not unknown to the existing secondary literature but which have never been addressed as a whole as a subject of historiographical debate (Targhetta 2010, Gaudio 2008). The Italian education system is generally considered a centralized system and as such an imitation of the French system. Similarly to what is for italian political culture as a whole that proximity to the French model is attenuated by the ideological fascination for the English liberalism and especially for the recognition of the "impossibility of command", as defined by the historian Romanelli. The importance of transfers in history of education is also well known according an important tradition of comparative studies (Phillips 2009). The foreword to the report to the King introducing the Casati Law (1859) claimed to follow a "average system of freedom" between freedom of teaching, which remained listed as an ideal, and the need to prevent the enemies of freedom, namely the Catholic circles hostile to the new liberal state, ended to take advantage. The German philology and historical linguistics became the model of secondary school programs in the face of previous classical rhetorical tradition. Many of the difficulties stemmed from the lack of teachers with adequate knowledge of new science. (Raicich, La Penna). Dreaming the English and American Freedom Purpose of the communication wants to be to enhance descriptions, often in the form of travelogues, of english and american educational systems by Italian authors such as Pasquale Villari, Dino Carina, Carlo Morelli, Ferdinando Petrucelli della Gattina that call for increased attention to technical education and an increased role of local self-government bodies.

School Group, a New Model of Primary School instituted by State Power in Santa Catarina (Brazil) in the first Decades of the 20th Century

Tania CORDOVA, University Centre Leonardo Da Vinci - UNIASSELVI, Brazil

Understanding the origin of the school allows to decipher the reasons why it came into existence, as well as socioeconomic issues involving the institution and set of values and culture of those involved, including how this is reflected in school practices. The aim of this study is to discuss the deployment of public elementary school graduate in the city of Lages in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil in the early decades of the twentieth century, from the debates and interests that led to its adoption in the country and the state of Santa Catarina. These schools were called School Groups and instituted a draft curriculum and administration. Creating this type of school education had a series where students were distributed evenly under the guidance of one teacher, whose method was intuitive. The Graduate School emerged first in Europe and the United States and then transplanted to Brazil aiming to promote changes and innovations in teaching primary audience, helping to produce a new school culture. The organization's primary public schools in the country under the model of graduate school, is connected to the republican project that moved across the country with unrest related to popular education and that spreaded a speech to modernize education. One of the consistent patterns in modernity is the circulation of ideas; in this sense, it is important that the model of graduate school in Brazil sought to model European and North American references to deploy a public elementary school.The international model school set up a cultural model in circulation that have differentiated appropriations and unequal existence, according to the educational and cultural traditions of the countries, their economic and social development. This paper reviews the literature on public elementary school in Brazil, combined with the results of research sources such as school regulations, the posts of government, the specific legislation for education and journalistic excerpts. The text turns to understanding the reorganization of education initiatives from the internationalization of Santa Catarina, circulation and appropriation of ideas and models in circulation in Brazil. Historical research of the school group in Lages - Santa Catarina identified aspects that made it unique, singular, and also understand the characteristics of education practiced in a given society and its interests, enabling understand how schools serve as disseminators values and power. In the first decades of the twentieth century, the organization of public education was linked to copy methods of European countries that valued a bourgeois ideology.



Mid-twentieth century discourses on rural schooling: the intermeshing of Latin American and Iberian discourses in the political context of Mexico

Elsie ROCKWELL, Centre for Research and Advanced Studies, IPN, Mexico

La Escuela Rural Mexicana became emblematic in official and informal narratives of the post-revolutionary project launched by the new Secretariat of Public Education in México in the 1920s and early 1930s, and much has been written on its various protagonists, its innovative nature, and the influence of international educators such as Dewey and Lunacharsky on its policies. Major works have reconstructed the role of rural schooling in the formation of the Mexican post-revolutionary state (Rockwell 2007) and its cultural impact upon the country’s majority population (Vaughan 1997). Less is known about these schools after 1940, for the “glorious years” of the rural school were soon superseded by other policies. The administration of urban and rural schools was unified, and resources were channeled towards secondary and technical education. However, undercurrents of educational action and discourse continued to focus on rural schools. The conservative governments of the mid 20th century were aware of the need to sustain the network of federal schools as it was closely linked to the governance of the rural population. During the following two decades, the ministry maintained and attempted to reform the Rural Normal Schools, noted for the radical political position of their students (Civera, 2008). Furthermore, “rural education” had become a priority on the international agenda, partly through the influence of UNESCO beginning in 1946. Mexico hosted various meetings, encounters and workshops with the participation of educators of the Latin American and Iberian countries. The promotion of these exchanges was partly due to Mexican educator Torres Bodet, twice Secretary of Education (1942-1946 and 1958-1964), as well as director of UNESCO (1948-1952). Torres Bodet was active in founding two institutions that were particularly significant for rural education, the Instituto Federal de Capacitación del Magisterio (1944), aimed at distance education for non-credentialed rural teachers, and CREFAL, the Regional Center for Fundamental Education in Latin America (1951) which became a focal point for inter-American policy and training of educators, initially centered on rural schooling. In this paper, I examine the political context of these movements and review some of the ideas that were set forth in the discussion on rural schooling among key figures who came together in Mexico during the 1950s and 1960s, participating in conferences, workshops and publications which influenced both policy and practice. The results show a tension between proposals for dealing with pedagogical innovations, particularly those that promoted non-graded education, and a strong trend towards training rural teachers in “community development”. My analysis describes the intermeshing and conflicting ideas and their appropriation and transformation as they were taken up in educational policy and teacher training in Mexico. My discussion situates the government’s policies in the political context of rural Mexico during these post-war decades, marked by growing peasant unrest and mobilization in which rural teachers played a significant role. Thus, my perspective addresses the coexisting temporalities in the social and political environment of rural schooling, as actors and practices forged after the Mexican Revolution were intertwined with international policies and refashioned by educators and rural communities in the following decades.

The Caetano de Campos Primary School and the circularity of political and pedagogical projects in the public school in São Paulo in the 1930’s



Ana Regina PINHEIRO, Universidade Estadual de Campinas - UNICAMP, Brasil

This communication aims at approaching the disputes concerning the educational models circulating in São Paulo in the decade of 1930 included in the teachers’ practices in the Caetano de Campos Primary School and in the organization of groups concurring for the political, educational and economical hegemony in local, national and international spheres during the National Education restructuring. Two aspects are considered in this dispute: a) The scholar culture in the Caetano de Campos Primary School – attached to the Normal School of São Paulo and the teachers’ pedagogic and political practices in this school; b) the threat it represented to the political and intellectual State’s elite and the local colligations on which the regional power organization were based, the adoption of centralizing politics by President Getulio Vargas government after the revolution of 1930. Concerning the state of São Paulo context, I address more specifically, the contradictions presented in the actions of the catholic intellectuals and educators associated to São Paulo public schools as one of the elements of the analysis developed during the doctorate research. Such school practices showed that there was a relative autonomy of the São Paulo educators who performed disputes around political projects, defended by the agents of the schooling process in São Paulo, present in the multifariousness that organized the educational field and the scholar production taken as instances of families, children and youth socialization. This research used a school journal - the Jornal Nosso Esforço (1936-1967) produced by the students of the Caetano de Campos Primary School - as the main source of information. During that opportunity I tried to capture the speeches of the agents manifested in these scholar journals and the main issues emerging from their statements that were composing and reporting the routine at the Primary School. Although they defended the São Paulo traditional educational model, these educators established a profitable dialogue with the educational principles of the new school that, in a certain way, guided the State’s vast scholar production in this period. In this way, São Paulo public schools were able to associate the Christian civism, stimulated by the exhortation of catholic and civic commemorative dates and by the publications by the school journal of biographies that remembered important names of the São Paulo scholar system such as Antonio Caetano de Campos and Padre Anchieta, thus associating the success of this teaching to the production of souls and intelligences for the progress of São Paulo to the renovation of the furniture and the facilities that held the São Paulo scholar project. The analysis about how the São Paulo catholic educators appropriated and transformed the suggestions of education restoration came from Dewey’s conceptions shows the details assumed by the international circulation of the new school in São Paulo during the decade of 1930.

Vendredi / Friday 8:30 - 10:30 Room: 5193

4.10. Structures et acteurs internationaux dans les politiques éducatives / International patterns and agencies in educational policies

Chair: Marcelo CARUSO

The Internationalization of Educational Sciences in Modern China, 1902-1948



Meiyao WU, Department of Education, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Taiwan, R.O.C.

This article will investigate the internationalization of educational sciences in modern China in the light of Niklas Luhmann’s (a German sociologist’s) communication theory. It focuses on the process of selection of the educational sciences worldwide, the dissemination of educational sciences within China, and the growing acceptance of particular educational sciences. The analyzed documents include some significant representatives of the “mass media”—e.g. the Chinese Educational Review (Jaoyu Zhazi), Education World (Jaoyu Shijie), Eastern Magazine (Dong Fang Zhazhi), New Youth (La Jeunesse) etc.—in the first half of the 20th century, which was a crucial period in the development of the modern educational system in China. First I will note which educational sciences were selected, that is, imported from which foreign countries at which historical points, and analyze the social-historical factors influencing this selection process. Secondly, I will investigate the means by which these selected educational sciences were disseminated in China, e.g. through the mass media (textbooks, educational magazines, curriculum), various academic or educational societies, educational organizations or institutions, etc. Finally, I will look at the process by which the selected educational sciences were increasingly accepted within China and further transformed during particular historical periods.

Traduction et réinterprétation des recommandations du Bureau International de l'Education à propos de la culture générale dans une institution particulière du secondaire à Genève



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