Internationalisation dans le champ éducatif (18e – 20e siècles) Internationalization in Education (18th – 20th centuries) Genève / Geneva, 27-30 juin / June 2012


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Vendredi / Friday 8:30 - 10:30 Room: 5389

4.6. L'internationalisation des théories pédagogiques: élaboration, diffusion, appropriation / Internationalization of pedagogical theories: elaboration, diffusion, appropriation

Chair: Edwin KEINER

Translation, reception and re-contextualization: the Circulation of Dewey’s work across Brazil and Portugal



Ana Isabel MADEIRA, Instituto de Educação da Universidade de Lisboa, IEUL, Portugal

In this presentation I will analyse the trans-continental circulation of John Dewey’s philosophical and educational ideals between Brazil and Portugal, exploring the international circulation of pedagogical models by means of the translations into Portuguese language of Dewey’s works between 1920 and 1950/60. Up to now, research related to the reception in Portugal of the ideals of North-American pragmatism, and of Dewey’s New School conceptions, has centred on the analysis of manuals for normalists and on the pedagogical press. It eluded what we may call, in foucaultian terms, the Archive, ie, the ensemble of Dewey’s works translated to Portuguese that circulated between the two countries from the 1920’s to the mid 20th century. The main objective of this paper is to bridge this gap by identifying the selection mechanisms that operated in Brazil and in Portugal, in order to understand, within a configuration of countries speaking the same language, the disparate cultural traditions and socio-political conditions that channelled the adoption, interpretation and appropriation of Dewey’s ideas in each nation. We may therefore be able to understand what Burke & Hsia (2009) have termed as the “political economy of translation”, that is to say, the construction of an author’s image or representation by the translation culture, alien to the original system of scientific production within which the works were originally integrated (Lefevere, 1992; Bourdieu, 2002). A reception theory must then highlight the genealogy of the translations produced: which papers are first translated; which parts of the author’s Archive is translated; what is the flow of re-printing; what is the diffusion process of the material. This is tantamount in order to understand the “regimes of translation” during the time spam analysed (1920-1950/60), and in order to answer a set of primordial research questions: Who translates? With what purpose? What is translated? For whom? In what way? With what consequences? (Burke & Hsia, 2009: 17). Moreover, a translation is surrounded by a number of intertextual events, a field inhabited by a number of discourses (prefaces, afterwords, prologues, footnotes, endnotes, epigraphs, illustrations, book flaps, covers, autographs, inscriptions, etc.) that offer important signs in order to understand the processes involved in the reception of an author’s work: the political and cultural circumstances of translation, its circulation, and the pragmatic dimension of the work, ie, its effect upon the reader (Genette, 1982: 9-10). The methodological tools offered by translation theories thus play an essential part in the more broad inquiry into the mechanisms of cultural transfer, as well as in relation to the problems of interpretation and signification accorded to pedagogical concepts and ideas in differing contextual conditions. This is all the more the case as social science knowledge is closely linked with vernacular or national language and the layers of meaning embedded in, and the world views conveyed by, this language (Bruno-Jofré & Schriewer, 2012: 4).

La réception de l'oeuvre de Comenius au XIXe. Le rôle du Dictionnaire de Pédagogie et de l'Histoire Critique des Doctrines de l'Education



Ioana UNGUREANU, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, France

La réception de l’œuvre de Comenius en France au XIXe siècle retrace l’histoire de la constitution du système éducatif français et celle de la constitution d’une discipline scientifique nouvelle: la science de l’éducation. Notre recherche s’inscrit dans le domaine de l’histoire de l’éducation et elle porte sur la manière dont l’œuvre de Comenius a été lue et commentée par les universitaires dans ce champ disciplinaire et la manière dont elle a influencé la formation des instituteurs en France au XIXe siècle. Nous tenterons de répondre aux questions suivantes: Comment Comenius, un pédagogue décrié au XVIIIe par Pierre Bayle, devient un des auteurs de référence dans la pédagogie du XIXe? Est-il assez connu au XIXe siècle au point de pouvoir affirmer qu’un mythe s’est créé un autour de son nom, sa pédagogie et sa méthode? Y a-t-il quelque chose dans ses textes et dans sa personnalité qui le fait spécialement apprécier par les universitaires au XIXe siècle au point d’en introduire son étude à l’université et dans la formation des instituteurs? Quel rôle ont joué les introducteurs de son œuvre dans la construction de sa renommée? Afin d’essayer de répondre à ces questions, nous avons établi un corpus de recherche constitué de publications de Comenius et sur Comenius en France. Nos résultats préliminaires nous fournissent quelques indices quant à l’internationalisation de la formation des instituteurs de l’Europe du XIXe siècle et plus précisément l’importation du modèle allemand en France. L’usage fréquent des exégèses et des traductions en allemand de l’œuvre coménienne servant comme base de travail des introducteurs, montrent une unité dans la conception de la formation des instituteurs dans les deux pays voisins. Nous avons pris en compte la bibliographie dont se sont servis les grands introducteurs de Comenius en France: Ferdinand Buisson et Gabriel Compayré. Le rôle joué par ces personnalités dans la constitution du système éducatif français et dans la formation des instituteurs, tout comme la constitution de la science de l’éducation comme discipline, peuvent expliquer partiellement la renommée de Comenius et de sa méthode au XIXe siècle. Une autre explication est apportée par l’essor de la pédagogie, suite au développement de l’instruction, et le besoin d’organisation de l’école élémentaire. L’usage des idées coméniennes était de plus en plus large car il était perçu comme «défenseur de l’éducation naturelle adapté au développement spontané de l’enfant, l’inventeur des méthodes intuitives et actives, le partisan d’un enseignement populaire généralisé» (Hubert, 1949, p. 245). La modernité de ses conceptions et leur adaptation aux besoins de l’époque faisaient de Comenius un pilier historique de base dans la constitution du système éducatif national français au XIXe siècle.

Derivation of German Educational Philosophers’ ideas about the Notion of Upbringing for the Implementation of some Social Concepts in Latvia in 1920s-1930s

Iveta OZOLA, University of Latvia, Latvia; Zane AKITE, University of Latvia, Latvia

The notion of upbringing (German, Erziehung) was among the key concepts of educational philosophers to be discussed in Europe during the interwar period. It was in the peak of debate because of the topical antinomy between the individual (German, Individuum) and society (German, Gesellschaft), i.e. tension between interests of a single individual and society as a whole. The notion of upbringing was closely associated with the necessity to solve various social, economic and political problems and educational philosophers’ understanding of necessary preconditions to achieve state and social objectives. The leading Latvian education and philosophy professors of 1920s-1930s similarly to their European colleagues also dedicated time and work to the notion of upbringing, since pedagogy was developed as a scientific discipline at the newly founded University of Latvia (1919). The Latvian professors had obtained or complemented their education in different European universities (Berlin, Tartu, Lille) which contributed to the process of internationalization of knowledge and influenced the derivation process of various ideas. For instance, the Latvian educational philosophers explicated the notion of upbringing with the concepts which derived from German philosophers and educators ideas and made particular references to their works. Amongst most referred German philosophers and educators the following can be mentioned - Friedrich Wilhelm Förster “Politische Ethik und politische Pädagogik”(1920), Eduard Spranger “Lebensformen: Geisteswissenschaftliche Psychologie und Ethik der Persönlichkeit” (1925), Theodor Litt “Die Philosophie der Gegenwart und ihr Einfluss auf das Bildungsideal” (1925), “Geschichte und Leben” (1925), “Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Pädagogik. Abhandlungen zur gegenwärtigen Lage von Erziehung und Erziehungstheorie” (1926), Ernst Krieck and his works “Philosophie der Erziehung” (1922), “Menschenformung. Grundzüge der vergleichenden Erziehungswissenschaft” (1925), etc. Moreover, some ideas of these authors were included also in the teacher training curriculums in Latvia, accordingly, promoting adoption of these ideas also in Latvia. The following goals were set up for the research: 1) Highlight the influence of interwar period economic, political and cultural situation of Latvia on the preconditions for derivation of German philosophers and educators’ ideas. 2) Expose German philosophers and educators’ reflected and derived ideas to implement some social concepts in Latvia. 3) Describe a scope of social life problems used to interpret the notion of upbringing by Latvian educators. The studies were based on the works of German philosophers and educators (Förster, Spranger, Litt, etc.), literature (books and press) written by Latvian educational researchers of 1920s-1930s and unpublished resources, i.e. letters, of Latvian academics.

Internationalization of pedagogical theory and reflections on the Greek case, 1830-1930

Vassilis FOUKAS, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

In Greece, Pedagogics, as a theory and as a science, from 1830 to 1930, is affected by the extent to which Greek students, educators and teachers are trained or study at French, German and other European universities and, upon returning to Greece, apply these theories within the educational policy framework as well as in teaching practice. Thus, during the 19th century, F. W. Fröbel plays an important role in the pedagogical constitution of preschool education and its distribution. F. W. Fröbel’s ideas become known in Greece after 1860 through Ifigenia Dimitriadou, who translates Marie Pape-Carpentier’s method and introduces it in the preschools of the “Filekpaideutiki Etaireia”. Aikaterini Laskaridou is also particularly important for the transmission of the Fröbelian method: from 1880 she focuses on the transmission of this method through lectures, articles and practical application in her girl’s school. In primary school education, the Lancasterian teaching method (monitorial system) is dominant (until 1880), transferred through I. Kokkonis from its French version through his translation of Ch. Sarazin’s work. At the same time however, at the Normal School of Athens (from 1837) German Pedagogics are taught. G. Pagon translates and teaches the pedagogical works of D. A. H. Niemeyer. The influence of German Pedagogy, and particularly Herbart and his students (W. Rein, T. Ziller), is strong during the final quarter of the 19th century, on Greek Pedagogical thought in Primary, Secondary and Higher Education. From 1880 onwards, an important number of Modern Greek educators are trained at German universities and transfers, through translations, original articles as well as teaching practice, the principles of Herbartian Pedagogy. Christos Papadopoulos, and especially, Nikolaos Exarchopoulos, professors of the Faculty of Philosophy of Athens, assume a decisive role. This dominant positioning lasts for about fifty years and is questioned during the beginning of the 20th century by Greek Educators that, again, study or train in the German area (A. Delmouzos, D. Glinos, M. Papamaurou). During the first decades of the 20th century, in preschool education, Fröbelian Pedagogy is criticized and gives way to M. Montessori’s method. In the other stages of education, the liberal views of “Progressive Education” or the “Laboratory School” are initially adopted, mainly by the demoticistics educators (A. Delmouzos, D. Glinos, M. Kountouras, M. Papamaurou) and progressively assume wider acceptance. The pedagogical principles of E. Spranger, G. Kerschensteiner, P. Natorp, H. Lietz, among others, are transmitted through their students in Greece and create a new Pedagogical orientation. The present paper thus, aims to explore these influences on Pedagogical theory and science in Greece, positioning them within the wider framework of the internationalization of pedagogical theory during the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century.

The modernization of spanish education in the first third of twentieth century

Teresa GONZALES, Universidad de La Laguna, España

Spain did not remain outside the educational renewal or new methodologies. Some sectors of Spanish society were attentive to the development of scientific pedagogy and international developments and were receptive to new educational ideas circulating in Europe and America. Since the last decades of the nineteenth century, a number of leading figures in active pedagogy were highlighted, favored by the Free Institution of Education, labor movements, the Catholic movements and groups regeneration. Modernizing approaches are disseminated through publications and courses among groups of teachers and scientists as an approach to international educational circles. The academics generated a series of knowledge that were applied in the training centers. The creation of the Ministry of Public Instruction and Fine Arts in 1900 was instrumental in the renewal of educational policy. Since the early twentieth century the cultural environment was transformed and the statistics of illiteracy began a steady decline. The middle classes were the stars of the intellectual movements in contrast to the poor results in education policy among the popular sectors. The need to modernize the nation's education thus explain the creation of institutions that led to contact with other professionals from various countries. The expanding Board of Studies, created in 1907, had a considerable influence in different fields. Europeanization and regeneration prompted Spanish through a policy of scholarships for the training of teachers abroad. Many intellectuals transcended the geographical boundaries to get in touch with the currents and on their return to expand modernizing education in Spanish, eager for progress and renewal. People of his time, of progressive and innovative spirit, set out for Europe and came into contact with educational institutions and professionals who drove a new school culture. Switzerland, Italy, Belgium, England, France were some of the places frequented by intellectuals driven by advances in scientific pedagogy. They received training and visited new schools, vocational schools, boarding-schools and farms. The reception of the various educational streams culminated in the Second Republic which have earned the epithet of the Golden Age of Spanish Pedagogy. It aimed to bring European influence, the receipt and application of modernizing ideas that transformed the pedagogical thinking and teaching activities in Spain during the first third of the twentieth century. In this approach we paid particular attention to the professionals who moved to Switzerland. In this country they not only studied and investigated but were also associated with prestigious professionals in the so-called School of Geneva.



Vendredi / Friday 8:30 - 10:30 Room: 5141

4.7. Importation, imposition de discours bio-médicaux / Importation, imposition of bio-medical discourses

Chair: Catherine KUDLICK

Biotypology as a way of looking: European medical and scientific models and its appropriations by the Brazilian educational field, 1930-1940



Meily Assbú LINHALES, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil; Ana Carolina VIMIEIRO-GOMES, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil; Andre Luiz dos Santos SILVA, Universidade FEEVALE, Brazil

This work deals with the appropriation of medical knowledge from Europe by the Brazilian educational field in order to ground the teaching of physical education during the 1930s and 1940s. In that period this school discipline gained prominence in the pedagogical debates and in the governmental policies. In 1935, the VII National Congress of Education promoted by the Brazilian Association of Education (ABE) took place in Rio de Janeiro and the debates held there pointed out the problem concerned to heterogeneity of the classes: the schoolchildren, arranged by chronological and school age, used to receive similar orientation concerning the body practices. Some educators asked for the promotion of homogeneous groups and, accordingly, they alleged that the procedures should take morphological, temperamental and psychological aspects into account. Those proposals were put forward in accordance with the ongoing movements for pedagogical renovation in the Brazilian educational field. Within Physical Education physicians, educators and army officers mobilized foreign scientific and pedagogical models in order to delimitate and legitimate their propositions for bodily education. Among the foreign models circulating in Brazil, the knowledge and practices grounding biotypology should be highlighted. In medicine this was a field defined as the science of constitutions, temperaments and characters, aiming to determine the biological differences among people pertaining to a specific group. Their knowledge was used to endorse the practices of bodily measurement and classification of the schoolchildren. The main models circulating in the Brazilian textbooks on Educational Biotypology were those from the Italian school (Nichola Pende and Giacinto Viola) and another one from Germany (Eduard Spranger). By appropriating those models, some Brazilian physicians also created and adapted the classifications, indicating an acute way of looking at the Brazilian body reality. Biotypology conceived the body in their organic totality and complexity. Therefore it was applied to education and suggested as being an instrument to understand the children’s personality as well as the changes in their body along the different periods of the biological cycle. The practices of people evaluation were viewed as able to better guide the body education. They were considered one of the strategies for the country modernization, the constitution of the Brazilian people and, thus, the establishment of the nation. The schoolchildren evaluation was a bet in the formation of new generations whose predecessors was represented as archaic, backward, incapable, debilitated, degenerated… The use of Biotypology in physical education was an investment in education to achieve ‘efficiency’, ‘prudency’, ‘balance’, ‘harmony’ and ‘happiness’. Studies on the History of Education in Brazil indicated that such discursive and institutional practices could be understood as moralizing actions. By being scientifically grounded, they were assumed as rational prescriptions guiding the pedagogical instructions, including the body control. The analysis of the textbooks ‘Ensaio de Biotipologia Pedagógica’ and ‘Biotipologia Pedagógica’ published in the 1940s by the Brazilian physicians Everardo Backheuser e João Peregrino Júnior, respectively, indicated particular appropriations of European models for people classification and their use as a scientific ground for school education and for physical education teaching.

Transactional Analysis in Italy: the reworking and dissemination of Eric Berne’s psychological model in teaching practice and culture



Patrizia GIORGI, University of Florence, Faculty of Education, Italy

Transactional Analysis became known in Italy with singular and significant timing. Eric Berne, the founder of the movement, saw his work translated and published just after the publication of the original version. This work contributed to the dissemination of a psychological model that, from the language methods and the argumentative forms used, was addressed to a wide audience not only to academic specialists. The first two Italian associations connected to this movement were found during the seventies, in a climate of social, cultural, psychological and pedagogical renewal. These two institutes were “The Turin Institute of Transactional Analysis” (1977) and the "Italian Society of Psychotherapeutic Methods and Transactional Analysis” (Rome, 1979). After a few years, two journals started publication. These aim of these magazines was to disseminate Transactional Analysis and the search for applications not only in the therapeutic field but also in other fields of private and social life with a particularly strong interest in educational matters. This is how the “Journal of Transactional Analysis and Psychotherapeutic Methods” (founded in 1980 by Maria Teresa Romanini) and “Neopsiche” (founded in 1983 by Carlo Moiso) were started. Despite the commitment supported by translations, association activity and the work of some of particularly representative figures, the dissemination of Transactional Analysis still remained limited. This has been accompanied by two particular characteristics of the “Italian” model that are worth noting: firstly maintaining a close and continuous link with the international experience up to present day. Above all, if you consider the constant relationship with the “European Association for Transactional Analysis” and with the “International Transactional Analysis Association”, whose value is reflected from the awarding of the “Eric Berne Memorial Award” in 1987 to Carlo Moiso, in 2003 to Michele Novellino and in 2009 to Dolores Munari Poda. Secondly, we need to highlight the rich reworking of the original model from an educational point of view that is well represented by studies carried out by Ferdinando Montuschi. His academic and psychotherapeutic activity has allowed us to think of education in innovative interpretative and operative ways. His work presents many themes linked to the complexity of the educational situation: the evaluation system, different learning experiences, the teacher-pupil relationship, the use of counselling in the educational field and the importance of parental figures in the school context. The original and important presence of this model in Italy will be shown through analysis of his work as well as the work of other Transactional Analysis scholars: an innovative approach that emphasises aspects of uncommon educational activities that were forgotten in the past and still find it difficult to penetrate into the heart of pedagogical culture today.

At the Margins of Education: Psychiatric Discourse in France, 1945-2010

Anne KLEIN, Universitaet zu Koeln, Germany

How is “normality” shaped by psychiatric discourse? How did conceptual thinking about madness change? Which are the links of this discourse to youth, education and disability? These are the central questions of the proposed paper, which aims at binding together the history of psychiatric discourse and its critique to the image of normality. The geographical and political context seems on the first view to be limited to France, but as we will see, shows off the “travelling knowledge” of an European discourse. Starting in after-War France which its double heritage of the collaborationist Vichy-regime and the Résistance, the main fields and topics of the antipsychiatry movement of 1968 refer to transnational inspirations. The opening of institutions led to a new crisis of professional help and networks in the social life under neoliberalism. Following a classical chronological time line, the workout is primarily based on the ideas of Michel Foucault. This means, on the one side the materiality of the subject-matter is defined by a Foucault'ian view of “madness” and on the other side, the theoretical frame and methodological tools are based on the Foucault'ian discourse theory and analysis. Concerning the choice of sources, they are supposed to show the evolution of intellectual engagement which influenced institutions and conceptions and treatment of “madness”. Some of the intellectuals were active in the academic field and worked in the medical professions; the patients and the people also spoke up with their own voices. They together moved history. So after a period of exclusion by closed institutions in the first half of the 20th century, we find a de-instutionalisation period of communal integration, which nowadays, under the actual neoliberal setting, tends to be seen as a deregulation of help, networks and service. We can observe an ambivalent development. On the one side, psychological knowledge is popularized, in the other side, new forms of “madness” are produced. For example, how can we analyze the situation of the so called hyperactive youth? And how should society react to these new subjectivities? The article argues for the integration of different disciplines (medicine, psychiatry, criminology) under the conceptual roof of a so called “postcolonial ethics” in restoring the knowledge of the “social” as an important system of relations and power. The actual Disability History allows to broaden our understanding on how the discourse on “exclusion” and “exclusion” were shaped by the narratives and imageries of “normal” human beings which is historically deeply linked to ideas and practices of education after the enlightenment. This conference is putting the two lines together thus broadening for new possibilities of inclusion.



The last Aztecs: portrayals of microcephaly from 'Bartola and Maximo' to Tchelitchev’s ‘pinheads’


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