Internationalisation dans le champ éducatif (18e – 20e siècles) Internationalization in Education (18th – 20th centuries) Genève / Geneva, 27-30 juin / June 2012


Schaffrath MARLETE, Faculdade de Artes do Paraná / Pontifícia Universidade Católica Do Paraná, Brésil



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Schaffrath MARLETE, Faculdade de Artes do Paraná / Pontifícia Universidade Católica Do Paraná, Brésil

Cette communication est issue de la collecte de données et de la recherche de Doctorat que je réalise à l’Université Catholique de Parana – BR. Les thèmes centraux sont les manuels didactiques utilisés à l'École Normale du Paraná entre les années 1880 et 1928. Au Brésil, les écoles de formation des enseignants ont été créées à partir de 1835 mais les livres et les manuels scolaires d’éducation ayant circulé en Europe ont commencé à être adoptés plus largement dans l'instruction publique brésilienne seulement à partir 1869. Au Paraná, l'École Normale a été créée en 1880 dans la capitale, Curitiba. Outre les manuels adoptés par l'école, il existait également une série de livres qui composaient le processus de formation du savoir de ceux qui s’intéressaient à l'enseignement ou à l'éducation. Dans ce texte, nous soulignons en particulier le dossier de prêts de la Bibliothèque de l’inspection Scolaire de Curitiba, Paraná (BR). La collection de cette bibliothèque était composée par de titres liés à l'éducation, à la psychologie de l'enfant, aux thèmes de l'éducation de la petite enfance, de l'éducation scolaire ainsi que des méthodes d'enseignement. Ce qui a attiré notre attention sur les prêts de titres étrangers dans les trois premières décennies du XXème siècle, ce sont les oeuvres françaises, surtout celles de G. Compayré (L’Education, Psycologie, Organisation Pedagogique)), A. Binet (L’âme et le corps), E. Rayot (Précis de Phychologie), L. Poitrinal (Pédagogie pratique) et d'autres auteurs européens dont la lecture était constamment demandée à en juger par le nombre d’emprunts. Notre recherche a montré que les livres utilisés dans les écoles et ceux disponibles dans les bibliothèques expriment les marques de différentes déterminations: l'idéologie, le marché, les conditions politiques et culturelles de certaines sociétés à chaque époque historique. D'autre part, ils contribuent à dessiner la trajectoire de l'école en tant qu'institution ainsi que les enseignants et les étudiants qui se sont forgés par les lectures, les interprétations et les pratiques sugérées par ces livres. Les discours pédagogiques les plus significatifs au Brésil à la fin du XIXème siècle et pendant la première moitié des années 1920 ont été imprégnés du discours de la modernité sous l'égide de la science. L'enseignement des sciences par exemple, se développait à l’appui des théories, des méthodes et des expériences scientifiques. Notre thèse est donc que ces livres étaient utilisés comme un outil important dans la formation des enseignants. Et tous ces livres circulaient dans les écoles et les bibliothèques publiques et privées, en tant que processus d’éducation du peuple définies par les autorités scolaires, surtout par les gouverneurs des Etats. Ces autorités politiques recommandaient l’utilisation de ces oeuvres ayant comme but celui de former un professionnel de l’éducation avec un profil déterminé comme nous pouvons le percevoir par l’analyse des rapports des inspecteurs scolaires ainsi que par la législation de l’enseignement issue du gouverneur de l’État (Paraná). Ainsi cette thèse n’est pas seulement notre point de départ mais aussi le guide théorique de nos recherches fondées sur un référentiel critique qui prend en considération le contexte historique. Les lectures autorisées et les apprentissages qui en découlaient étaient limités par le pouvoir d'Etat, mais ils étaient encore attachés à l'utilisation que l’on en faisait pour construire une société dont les autorités politiques voulaient qu’elle (la société) soit modelée par l'école, suivant les modèles européens de civilité. Les œuvres étrangères mises en avant ici sont discutées en soulignant la paternité, le temps historique, les concepts de base et les liens possibles avec l'école brésilienne et du Paraná pendant la période d'étude.

The influence of Enlightenment on the development of ethical thought in Greek education as observed in handbooks during the 18th and 19th centuries



Efstratios VACHAROGLOU, Faculty of Philosophy, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece; Yannis BOUNOVAS, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Ioannina, Greece

Ideas on ethics and their implementation have formed an important axis of thought when examining the state of current educational processes. During the Enlightenment, the subjects concerning the dignity of the individual, as well as the position of the individual in society, mainly dominate the ethical discussion at the end of the 18th century in Europe: the problems of the survival and self-sustainment of the individual, his/her freedom and his/her gradual positive development, are viewed in correspondence to the institutions of society. The acts of the individual acquire an ethical basis, according to the societal code of conduct, which is formed through the combination of ethics and politics. At the end of the 18th century we come across, in Greece, politics as a worldly ethic, since for Greek scholars of the time there is no discrimination between private and specific ethics. These worldly ethics appear as a guide of good conduct for citizens within society (virtuous citizens within society). The notion of this type of politics corresponded to the need of the neo-hellenic society at the end of the eighteenth century, which is reorganized and orientated towards a more worldly-political type of ethics than those taught by the church: not the happiness of the Christian for the reign of God but the “happiness”- the “well-being” of the individual in society. The educational reforms of the 18th century have been interpreted within this framework, that is, as agents of transmission of the new kind of governing, of the transformation of subjects into citizens and of the creation of new connections between the individuals and the state. The schools were to be one of the main means of the national cohesion in the framework of the “creation” of the citizen who values himself/herself in relation to the nation –state and serves the legalization of the political and cultural homogeneity. The teaching of political ethics within the school contributed towards this purpose. Such ideas were the object of a series of new publications that saw the light of day during the 18th and 19th century, such as “Guides of Ethics” or “Handbooks of Morality”. The scholars of the Renaissance adopt ethics free from metaphysical and religious conceptions, which goes together with rational thought and with the rejection of fanaticism and superstition, and they include them in their wider plan for the education of the nation. These publications played an important role in spreading the word and of educating the public, helping to promote the notion of the enlightened subject of the times. A historical reading of the developments they introduced both in the theory and the practice of ethics in Greek thought during that period, can provide us with interesting observations concerning the changes in Greek education and the shaping of ideas of autonomy in both male and female students.



Jeudi / Thursday 14:30 - 16:30 Room: 4193

3.2. Jeux d'échelles et configurations connectées / Contrasted scales and connected configurations

Chair: Bengt SANDIN

International Cooperation of Baltic Teachers: Institutional Aspect, 1900-1930



Vadim ROUK, Tallinn University, Archival Museum of Estonian Educational Culture, Estonia

María del Mar del Pozo Andrés distinguishes between national and transnational forms for the circulation of pedagogical ideas that cut across national boundaries. As an example to that idea this paper explores joint contacts of teachers of the Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania (Baltic States) and Finland and analyses their relationships with other European countries in the three first decades of the 20th century, when New Education principals were implemented. There are several examples of our schoolteachers who worked and studied in other Baltic, Nordic (especially in Finland) or Western European, mostly in German-speaking countries. Following issues will be discussed: Which were the factors for predisposing teacher’s exchange and international contacts? What did characterize the contacts with other European teachers? How did Baltic teachers socialize internationally at the beginning of 20th century? As Estonia and Latvia were until 1917 united in Russian Empire into common territory called Livonia, the posting of Estonian teachers to Latvian territory or conversely was a normal practice. In the years of the First World War many Latvian schools were transferred to Estonia, thus pupils from both nationalities got educated which is a good example of transnational educational cooperation. In 1922 by the initiative of Riga’s Teachers’ Association the first conference of the teachers of Baltic States and Finland was held. At the end of 1920s teachers’ conferences were organized in every Baltic state. In addition to that another format of meetings was introduced – Teachers’ Association of Baltic States which conducted many teachers’ congresses. In 1930s these kinds of activities ended, because Latvian Teachers’ Association was closed and Lithuanian fell apart. The events accentuate the importance of cross-border relationships and international communication and creates new geographical axis in education. Baltic teachers’ associations were members of the International Federation of Teachers’ Associations (FIAI), the International Federation of Secondary Teachers (FISO) and International Trade Secretariat of Teachers (SPIE). Many teachers, future academicians, rectors and ministers of education participated in the European congresses, courses, schools exhibitions and international pedagogical weeks, where problems of New Education, comprehensive school, innovation and alternative education were widely discussed. For example Latvian educator Isaac Rabinovič, who popularized the didactic system of Ovide Decroly, which will be scrutinized thoroughly in the presentation. The paper relies not only on secondary sources and pedagogical press of the period, but on archive materials as well from the collections of Archival Museum of Estonian Educational Culture and Latvian and Lithuanian State Historical Archives. It certainly gives value to this research because using archival materials as a basis diversifies existing knowledge and broadens approaches to the topic of cross-border educational relationships. Disserting such topic is a good example of history constructed teachers’ exchange between nations, which certainly enriches the understanding of historical events of the viewed period in the Central and Western European educational spaces. This research also led to the idea that schools’ friendship and teachers organizations’ relations in the Baltic countries should nowadays be more frequent and active.

Comparing state tools in the configuration of secondary education: an analysis of the Encuesta Naón (1909) in Argentina and the Enquête sur l'enseignement secondaire (1899) in France



Felicitas María ACOSTA, UNGS/UNLP/UNSAM, Argentina

On the basis of comparative historical methodology, this work sets out to reflect on the role of secondary school in the process of configuring modern educational systems. In particular, it deals with the comparison between the organization of secondary education in European Western countries and Argentina. In the late 19th century, the status of existing educational institutions was similar in most of the more advanced European states: elementary schools; gymnasiums, grammar schools and lyceum schools; and universities. As schooling became more widespread thanks to the expansion of elementary schools, there was growing pressure from middle social sectors to further their education after elementary school. Two processes took place at that juncture: State intervention that was able to position a certain type of educational institution as the model (the grammar school, the gymnasium, the lyceum school); and the binding of this type of institution to the ability to enter the university (in fact, those institutions prepared students to take exams that certified the end of one educational cycle and the possibility of being granted access to another). In other words, once regulation had been imposed for the sake of expanding mandatory elementary education, the dynamic entailed differentiating on the basis of secondary education not only in terms of number of years of schooling but also specific curricula that prepared students to occupy different positions in the social world (the university– the world of work). In this work we propose to analyze the aforementioned process in the context of XIXth century Argentina. What kind of local interpretations/ translation of this international phenomenon took place during the configuration of Argentina’s secondary school? A quick overlook shows that the organization of secondary school in Argentina also partakes of the configuration of Western national educational systems and their contexts. Starting in 1860, the nature of this segment of the future educational system was clearly and decisively defined. The origin of secondary school education in Argentina began with the creation of colegio nacional (national secondary schools) during the second half of the 19th century by the State. The colegio nacional was responsible for training the ruling class and preparing its students for the university. These institutions were selective and the content of their curricula humanistic. Since the beginning, this model of secondary school education has been prestigious on the social level. Similarities between the process followed in Western Europe countries and the Argentinean case are remarkable. One way to analyze possible foreign influences is through the study of similar State tools to asses secondary education. In Argentina in 1909 the State undertook an inquiry addressed to professors at the colegio nacional. This inquiry was inspired on the Enquête sur l'enseignement secondaire developed by the French state in 1899. An in depth analysis of these state tools provides a better understanding of the interaction between international processes of educational systems organization and regional/local characteristics.

Otto Anderssen and pedagogical realism in Norway



Kaare SKAGEN, Oslo University College, Norway

This paper sketches the personal and professional life story of Norway’s first professor in education Otto Anderssen (1851-1922). Anderssen was director at a teacher training institution in Oslo from 1907, and professor at the University of Oslo 1909-1922. Anderssen is only rarely and very briefly Anderssen’s life story (Knudsen, 2008). This paper will discuss some of the main features in Anderssen’s life story in the light of contemporary historcial (emerging empirical psychology, school development, school policies) in order to start a construction of his life history. The available materials from Anderssen’s personal and professional life offer a possibility to study his life story by drawing on theories about life stories and life histories (Goodson, 1992) and the construction of “subjective educational theories” (Kelchtermans (1993). Goodson makes a distinction between “life stories” and “life histories”. Life stories or “life as told” consist of personal perspectives (thoughts, values, convictions, meanings) while life histories “allow us to see the individual in relation to the history of his time” (Goodson, 1992:244). The period 1900-25 in Norwegian academic pedagogy was dominated by historical disciplines. while didactics was mostly experience-based . The rapid expanding psychology had not yet reached the field of didactics, and teaching was to a large degree regarded as personal knowledge-based (Dale, 2000). Anderssen was a critic of the new experimental psychology which he felt had too strong didactical ambitions. Anderssen’s subjective educational theory orientation may be described as pedagogical realism both philosophically, pedagogically and with regard to contemporary school reforms. His academic works may be divided into four main parts: historical works, history of pedagogical ideas, teacher training and didactical themes. This paper present some findings concerning Anderssen’s personal and professional perspectives that contribute to his life story. Anderssen spoke of himself as a teacher during his whole career, even after he became a professor. He did not see himself as part of the academic community (Anderssen, 1922:132, 137). In academic pedagogy Anderssen placed himself in a middle position between the traditional German Herbartian tradition and the fast growing child-centered or progressive educational theory (Anderssen, 1922:40-49;Darling, 1994). Anderssen criticised the Herbartian tradition for beeing abstract, pretentious and too fond of abstract concepts that had no relevance for teaching. The upcoming experimental psychology, Anderssen argued, would be able to explain fully the deepest truths about teaching and learning. Anderssens’s personal view was that the excellent teacher was constituted by inner qualities of a specific value. As a school reformer Anderssen engaged himself on a Nordic level by participating actively in the regularly arranged school meetings in the 1880s that gathered more than three thousand participants. Anderssen’s profile as an academic and intellectual is within the movement of Nordic modern realism with its well-known authors Henrik Ibsen and Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson. Anderssens’s international work in research, school development and teacher training that must be examined closer in relation to contemporary cultural, institutional and political levels to construct his life history.

Globalization of an Educational Institution: Historic and Cultural Transformations of the Soviet Workers’ Colleges



Ingrid MIETHE, University of Giessen, Germany

The “rabfaks” (Russian: рабочие факультеты, “Workers’ Faculties”) were founded in the 1920s in postrevolutionary Russia for the purpose of preparing working-class youth for university studies quickly. In this way the children of working-class families were to supplant the children of traditionally educated classes in the universities, and contribute to the reformation of Russian society as a whole. Thus the rabfaks had a dual purpose: they were intended to provide greater equality of opportunity, and at the same time to fulfill a political function by instating a generation of working-class youth as a new social elite that would be loyal to the regime, thus consolidating its power. In response to social demands, such as changing patterns of employment, the rabfaks underwent a variety of transformations, including a transition to daytime and evening instruction, teaching in shifts, etc., before being closed down in the 1940s. Furthermore, the Soviet rabfaks served as a model for several other socialist countries. Similar institutions were established after 1945 on the Soviet model in several Eastern Bloc countries, including East Germany, Poland and Czechoslovakia. The largest and longest-lived of these national institutions was the ABF (Arbeiter- und Bauern-Fakultäten, “Workers’ and Farmers’ Faculties”) in East Germany (1949–1961/62). At the same time, the concept of such institutions was also transfered to developing countries that followed the socialist path: schools modeled after the Soviet rabfaks were founded in Vietnam and North Korea. In Vietnam, the institutions were known by the abbreviation BTVHCNTƯ (for Trường bổ túc văn hoá công nông trung ương, “Supplementary School for Workers and Peasants”) in the period from 1955 to 1964. The rabfak concept was also transfered indirectly, via the East German ABF, to Cuba, where the institutions known as Facultades Obreras y Campesinas (FOC) were founded in 1969 and still exist, although in modified form, today. The present paper shows: 1. How these institutions were related in content, structure and staff: in other words, what common traditions and references can be documented. 2. How the same basic idea — preparing workers and peasants for higher education — was transformed in keeping with the specific cultural and historic conditions of each country, and where continuity can be discerned in spite of such marked differences. 3. What concepts of education underlay the different institutions. This issue is examined primarily with reference to the relations between general, vocational and ideological education.

Internationalization of Brazilian Education in the Years 1960-1980: The Militarism and Reconfiguration of Ukrainian and German Schools in Southern Brazil

Paula Simone BUSKO, Universidade Católica de Santos UNISANTOS, Brasil

This work aims to demonstrate how school education in southern Brazil was used by the military in a project of internationalization in the years 1960-1980. Although, in the Vargas period, there was a public policy interest on patriotism and the formation of Brazilianness in German and Ukrainian preschools in southern Brazil, the school reconfiguration was guided by the increasing "Americanization" of later decades. The U.S. hegemony over Latin American countries brought new aspects that interfered with children and young European descent education. Not without resistance, but leading on the other hand the emancipation of social groups isolated. By analyzing how the ideas of John Dewey and Anísio Teixeira helped creating new models of teaching, what we seek to discuss is the pedagogical practices which brought a new school culture which was forced to modify according to the dominant interests. The research methodology draws on documentary analysis and reports prepared by politicians, historians and school stakeholders such as teachers and school directors. The implementation of projects of an internationalized education in the South confused and generated a resistance in schools and local communities, especially in the states of Parana and Santa Catarina. Simon Schwartzman (2000) and Otaiza Romanelli (1991) reveal elements that bring this educational and cultural setting which was the Brazilian youth in the years following these changes and political and social struggles that occurred from this decade. In purpose of reconfigure the school during this period, one can not fail to consider the reflection of educational processes in local communities, the change of language and ways of life of these ethnic groups. It can be said based on the results already achieved that school organization in southern Brazil was built by means of transient ideologies driven by political and ethnic background. It is critical to understand the disagreements between practices and discourse, in the shape of school changing, the official conclusions and the school routine that eventually formed a new historiography of the school.



Jeudi / Thursday 14:30 - 16:30 Room: 4389

3.3. Enfants et enfance au-delà des frontières / Children and childhood beyond borders

Chair: Zoe MOODY

The elements of the international life-style reform movements in the construction process of the image of child in the 20th century



Veronika PIRKA, Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary; Katalin KEMPF, Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary

The life-style reform was a "critical catchword" in the 1880’s, which appeared due to the different impacts of urbanization and industrialization in Europe and in the United States. The social and geographical relationships of people, the social structure, the lifestyle and privacy of individuals and groups, the conditions of work and living as well as the social relationships, the spare-time, the dining, the clothing had all changed. This new form of life made people in big cities indifferent, because they diverged from nature, and it ruined all of their conventional relationships. The atomization of society and the impoverishment of the human soul endangered the originality of people, and also the creativeness, which resides in people, and manifests itself in different fields of life. The followers of the life-style reform organized communities, and they strived to find new answers to these radical processes, therefore averting and correcting these social changes. In my presentation, I would like to outline how the elements of the life-style reform emerged in the image of child after the turn of the 20th century in Hungary. In my research, I analyzed three periodicals published in Hungary with a category system that contains 24 codes. These are as follows: child art, coeducation, parent-child relationship, women’s role, arrangement of schools, clothing of children, physical education, juvenile delinquency, open-air school, child-teacher relationship, child and nature, nudity of children, children and natural therapies, vegetarianism, child and music, child and sexuality, child and alcoholism, eugenics, child and religion, child and game, child protection, child and tale, teacher-parent relationship. In my research, I used content and metaphor analysis to reenact the reception of the life-style reform trends in the Hungarian pedagogical public and its impact on the domestic educational reforms at the turn of the 20th century. I examined different life-style reform movements (changes in clothing, body culture and personal hygiene, nutrition, vegetarianism, abstainer movements, movements of (sun)bathers), the inner communication of these trends and the achievement of natural medicine. I also examined the way these movements became the new elements of the era, and how they became an accepted part of the domestic pedagogical approach and the practice of institutional education. The second stream of research focuses on how do this new approach (space, time, body, etc.) became a natural element of the mentality? Finally, how did the different worlds (weekday, child) change? In my research, I found out that the image of child in the examined pedagogical periods had been influenced by the characteristic rhetorical elements of the life-style reform, the efforts of discourse on hygiene, and the results of experimental pedagogy and child study. These former efforts jointly shaped the image of child that was related to the ideological elements and competences of the new knowledge of teachers spread by the pedagogical periods. In this knowledge construction process, the general saving idea of life-style reform remains a basic rhetoric element, but with a pedagogical orientation, it appears as the motive of saving the child.

Teaching child development in the Czech Republic: on the cross-road of path dependency and path departure




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