Internationalisation dans le champ éducatif (18e – 20e siècles) Internationalization in Education (18th – 20th centuries) Genève / Geneva, 27-30 juin / June 2012


Susan BERGER, Northeastern Illinois University, U.S.A



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Susan BERGER, Northeastern Illinois University, U.S.A.

As worldwide, historical phenomena, clandestine curricula of resistance take on individual identities, dependent on their historical and geographical contexts. During World War II, the Jews of Warsaw, Poland were incarcerated behind tall brick walls topped with barbed wire and shards of broken glass, in what was the Warsaw ghetto. Women and children were crucial to the formation of numerous resistance groups, including those with educational purposes. While done clandestinely, this curriculum of resistance in the Warsaw ghetto was quite successful during its duration and done so with the very real threat of death and retribution if discovered. Similar clandestine acts of educational resistance have occurred throughout history, across continents and cultures, including the centuries encompassing American slavery. Prior to emancipation, thousands of slaves learned and passed on their knowledge to others, while constantly understanding if caught, they and their families would be killed. Recently, Afghan women and children displayed their strength and defiance to Russian and then Taliban rule, creating educational spaces in spite of the very real threat of death. While there are numerous examples throughout history and around the globe, highlighting the Warsaw ghetto, a specific war-torn site, demonstrates how through the theoretical framework of a clandestine curriculum of resistance operates and exists in order to create educational opportunities. Almost immediately following the invasions of Poland, Jewish historian Emmanuel Ringelblum began chronicling daily life for Warsaw’s Jews. At his encouragement, many other Warsaw and Polish Jews clandestinely began doing the same. Their instinct for survival was almost as strong as their will to live. Educational opportunities were recorded in testimonies, documents, written words, and other artifacts. Viewed as attempts to make sense of both the genocide they were surrounded with and to challenge each individual to make sense of his or her own life in a rapidly changing atmosphere, they are also personal remembrances of individuals and their lived lives. This inquiry utilizes a variety of qualitative research methodologies, (historiographical, sociological, biographical, autobiographical, and philosophical) in order to understand the meaning of experiences that learning and schooling offered to its participants, a population unsure of its future. While education has been around since the beginning of time, the passion and determination with which some have pursued it is remarkable. In spite of being held in bondage, incarcerated behind brick walls, or hidden beneath the burqa, the need to learn and to educate has been timeless and universal. Maintaining these clandestine curricula of resistance is a testament to maintaining the culture, history, and meanings of each group. Refusing to forget the past, each entity has resisted its erasure. Acting in the present, they hoped for the future, when one day the oppressors would be gone. Thus, they learned so they would have a future. In this spirit, we as educators need to recognize these examples of clandestine curricula of resistance as a testament to the power of education.

Children and War



Eulàlia COLLELLDEMONT, Universitat de Vic, Spain; Josep CASANOVAS, Universitat de Vic, Catalunya (Spain); Antoni TORT, Universitat de Vic, Catalunya (Spain)

This paper presents an analysis of a series of drawings that form part of the collection of the Institut Municipal d’Educació de Barcelona. The drawings were produced by Barcelona schoolchildren during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). The historical analysis is based on the children’s depiction of aspects and scenes connected with the war, and of the consequences of the conflict in their everyday lives. Specifically, the elements selected for observation and interpretation were: - representations of the impact on everyday life - representations of war. Taking as its starting point this collection, the paper sets out to identify elements which allow a comparison with other similar documentary collections dating from periods of war in the first third of the 20th century in Europe. Three cases are: the collection of the Biblioteca Digital Hispánica held in the Spanish National Library (Madrid), made up of refugee children’s drawings also produced during the Spanish Civil War, the collections produced during the National Socialist period held in the Pictorica Paedagogica Online (Germany) and the collections held in the Musée National de l’Éducation (Rouen). Such a comparison allows us to attempt to understand the shared experiences of schoolchildren as both victims of, and witnesses to, war, experiences they reflected in drawings that have become fragments of the cultural history. This paper aims to contribute to the process of converting visual memory of education into an object of study, as suggested in various studies into educational images and their creation, diffusion and perception (Grosvenor, I., 2007) – which, in turn, coincide with the ‘normalising’ of the study of “visual culture” (Smith, M, 2008; Tomaselli, KG & Scott, D., 2009). The images become direct sources for research and offer the chance to learn about hierarchies of values and cultural constructions that differ from those of our time. As Viñao (2000) has pointed out, images are charged with a historicity that allows the educational memory to be transmitted down the years. The results of our analysis allow us to identify elements of continuity, elements that run through from peacetime, in the everyday lives of the children, visible in the graphic representations of schoolwork and of their lives as inhabitants of a city. However, at the same time the drawings also enable us to recognise the ruptures that war imposes, and open up the possibility of cataloguing which elements of life in wartime were highlighted by the children in their drawings.



Jeudi / Thursday 11:00 - 13:00 Room: 4389

2.3. Femmes et éducation: observatrices et actrices / Women and education: observers and actors

Chair: Rebecca ROGERS

Gender and Pedagogy: Greek Women pedagogues – Between East and West



Katerina DALAKOURA, Department of Philosophy and Social Sciences, University of Crete, Greece

The proposed paper examines the role of Greek women pedagogues, as meaningful actors in transferring educational knowledge and practice from western countries, diffusing and applying them to the Greek education system -and more precisely to women’s education- during the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th. The paper is based on the study of three celebrated Greek women educators, namely Sappho Leontias (1832-1900), Aikaterini Laskaridou (1842-1916) and Kalliopi Kechagia (1839-1905) - though the paper’s position is supported by references to other women educators as well, whose educational activity transcended the boarders of the Greek state, influencing and shaping Greek women’s education system in both, the Greek state and the Greek communities within the Ottoman Empire. More precisely S. Leontias turned out a leading figure for Greek women’s education within the Ottoman Empire (by influencing women’s education in general, through her own educational works and translations, her textbooks and articles on education, and the schools she organized). Aik. Laskaridou emerged as an innovative figure for the education system in Greece (by introducing preschool education and preschool teachers’ education based on Frobel’s principles). and K. Kechagia was a prestigious and powerful educator in both spaces (she run the most prestigious Greek school for girls in Ottoman Empire, the ‘Zappeion school for Girls’, and the first woman inspector for the secondary schools for girls in the state) The paper focuses on the historical conditions of the two spaces, within which the aforementioned women pedagogues performed their activity. It explores the parameters which affected their educational ‘choices’, and the forces and constrains that structured their practice, as both, educational theory and practice transferred was different in the two spaces. Mme Necker de Saussure’s and Marie Pape Carpentier’s works and education systems were mediated and diffused in the Greek communities, whereas Froebel’s theory and education system was applied in preschool education in Greece. The paper argues that a) the different historical conditions in Ottoman Empire and Greek state (the first, a state in administrative, economic and social reforms, based on western models, since 1839, and -particularly talking about the Greek community - with cultural, educational and economical connection with most of the European countries. A state with an ethnocentric culture and solely oriented to German speaking countries for its educational models, the latter); and b) the women pedagogues’ gendered social ideology and their emancipatory/antiemancipatoy position, strongly affected their educational preferences with regard to the European pedagogues, whose theories they mediated and transferred.



The Diary of Helena Morley: a Writing in the Boundaries between Generation, Religion and Culture (Brazil/1893-1895)

Maria Cristina GOUVEA, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil

The construction of subjectivity, connected with the knowledge about reality is a mediated process. Specially in the use of a private written, as diaries, the individual constructs sense about the self inside a social world. At the same time the private written constitutes a source that provides a vision about the past, from common people in their daily life. According to that, this paper will focus the book:” The diary of Helena Morley” . That diary was written by a Brazilian girl: Alice Dayrell Caldeira Brant, between 1893 and 1895. She started to register her daily life when was 13 years old, finishing with 15. The author published the diary in 1942. The book experienced successive editions in Portuguese, being translated to English and French. Alice lived in the city of Diamantina, the worlds most important producer of diamonds during the XVIII century. With the decrease of the extraction during the XIX century, the town decayed, and most part of population lived in conditions of poverty. A large segment were black or mixed raced, providing the city with a strong presence of African culture and oral tradition. Considering the broader context, Brazil was experiencing the transition from a slavery society to a free citzen country (slavery was abolished in 1888). At the same time, the transition from a monarchical regime to a republic nation, after 1889. The family background provided the autor with cultural and social different references, resulting in an original view about that society. On the father side, she was a grand-daughter of a literate English protestant immigrant, who installed himself in Diamantina on the first half of XIX century. Her father, living in poor conditions, worked with diamond mines. At the same time, he transmited cultural references, related to English culture. On the mother side, she became from a catholic brazilian traditional and “rich” family, with distinct social background and cultural values. In this context, Alice was studying in a Normal School, preparing to be a teacher, the only professional alternative to a women from her social class. In this paper we focus, firstly, the motivation to the production of the diary, according to a father suggestion, to “talk to herself, instead to talk to others”. In this sense, there was a connection with a English cultural reference, related to the construction of intimacy and private life into a written society. Secondly, we will discuss the contribution of diary to the history of education. In that case, it helps us to understand the different spaces and strategies of education in a stratified society, according to an adolescent perspective. Thirdly, we focus the subject of that diary: a reflection developed by an author situated on the boundaries between different cultures (English and Brazilian), generation (adolescence and adult), religion (protestant and catholic), social class and relation with language (oral and written culture). That position provides an outside view about society, showing its tradition and contradiction.

The construction of informal feminist knowledge in a local and global context. The debate about women's roles in the Hungarian feminist movement at the turn of the 19th and 20th century



Orsolya KERESZTY, Eotvos Lorand University Faculty of Education and Psychology, Hungary

The Hungarian feminist movement at the turn of the 19th and 20th century was strongly embedded and therefore could only be understood in a wider international context. The International Council of Women (ICW) was founded in London in 1888, and in 1906 the International Woman Suffrage Alliance (IWSA) was formed. After the Compromise in 1867 Hungary, while belonging to a European Great Power, struggled from autonomy from this Great Power and sought more independence within the international system. For this reason the women's movement's orientation toward the international women's movement, which were promoting the “rationalization” of women's movement across countries, was of special importance. Hungarian women discovered early on that women in other countries had to deal with very similar issues. They also discovered that women had already built versatile local, national and international networks to address these problems, especially in para-European states. These networks provided the Hungarian women's movement with a strong incentive and they soon became an example to follow. Through their connection to the transnational women's movement, the Hungarian opinion leaders could feel themselves part of a powerful international movement. Collective and individual experience played a decisive role in the development of the Hungarian feminist movement, but at the same time, the transnational homogenizing processes limited its perspectives and models of action to a large extent. The organizations assumed that women faced the same problems and perspectives throughout the world. Local differences were marginalized in a specific way: the obvious differences and inequalities in the structure and character of the women's problems in individual countries were regarded as simple chronological displacements/delays in their evolution. One of the main tasks of the national Hungarian women's movement was to positively influence the pace of development, that is, to catch up with para-Europe. The number and influence of the feminists grew rapidly in the first two decades of the 1900s not only in the capital in Hungary, but in the country as well. At this time the scope of their interest became suffrage mainly, leaving the other issues behind. In their arguments they used the 'traditional', 'mother-based' and the social-democratic reasoning as well. By the 1910s the feminist demands were visible and acceptable in the political arena, and one manifestation of this was the international conference of IWSA held in Budapest in 1913. I will show how the official journal of the Hungarian feminist movement “Woman and Society” (1907-1913) functioned as a means of informal adult education. Based on the analysis of the texts of the journal and the related letters and notes of the activists and theoreticians it can be argued that on a meta-level a clearly visible feminist knowledge was constructed and transmitted. It was what we would call now a feminist education of those who actually read the Hungarian and foreign articles of the journal about local and global events and attended the meetings organized by the Feminists' Association.

Women teachers in Greece, Bulgaria and Turkey during the 19th century: Parallel journeys and interactions



Christos TZIKAS, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece; Sidiroula ZIOGOU, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece; Vassilis FOUKAS, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

The Greek, Bulgarian and Turkish residents of the Balkan, despite their cultural or religious differences and despite their relations of dominance and subservience, live, for a long time, not only in the same geographical area, but under the same state agency. In this way, they influence each other in a series of issues relating to social, economical and cultural life. Progressively, they begin to shape different national ideologies; they become more autonomous and constitute different national and state entities. Their interactions, however, are observed not only during the first period of non-dispute of Ottoman dominance, but they continue to exist in the 19th century, the century of divulsions and nationalistic antagonisms. Further, in this period in which the national educational systems are formed and the role of religious and monastery schools is being diminished, the interactions and influences are more distinct: a) in the pedagogical perceptions (for example, in Bulgaria Najden Joanovic translates the writings of D. Darbari, Antonij Nikopit translates the writings of K. Vardalachou, and Neofytos Rilski uses in Pedagogy Kokkonis’ writting for the monitorial system. In Turkey also, during 1897 Ayse Sidika Hanim, a graduate of Zappeion Girl’s School in Constandinople writes the first book of Pedagogical science); b) in the educational organization (for example, schools for girls are founded in all three countries approximately in the middle of the 19th century, at first as Girls schools and at the end of the 19th and the beginning of 20th century as Gymnasiums for Girls; and c) in the context of schools. Also, during the 19th century the first public schools for girls and the associations of women are founded (for example in Bulgaria in 1866 the Association "Maternal Love" and in Greece in 1873 the "Women's Association for education of women" found and organize schools for girls. The same period the first women's magazines are being published (for example in Turkey in 1869, in Bulgaria, in 1871 and in Greece in 1877). The profession of woman teacher appears and is established as a public profession for women in the 19th century (when Normal Schools for girls are founded in Greece since 1842, in Bulgaria since 1862 and in Turkey since 1870). The emergence and recognition of women teacher's profession through the acquisition of equal education, working conditions, payment and official development like men teachers is a long story. In Greece, Bulgaria and Turkey we observe a common development concerning to the appearance the profession all the way to its social acceptance. In this way we observe a time deviation along these three countries. The women teachers’ education and the first women teachers appear at first in Greek population, which is the first who developed national conscious and western and urban attitude. The aim of this paper is to research the way that women teachers are being educated in these three countries during 19th century and to detect the common courses and interactions in education’s organization and content in the specific, social and economic framework.

Educating better wives and mothers or female scholars? Analysis of educational discourses from the women’s journal Žena/Woman (1911-1914)



Ana KOLARIC, Faculty of Philology, University of Belgrade, Serbia

The nineteenth century in Europe was marked by the strong women’s movement which was focused on women’s suffrage and political equality. Although most of the movement’s participants and supporters shared the same main goals, their priorities varied among countries, nations and communities. Categories such as the emancipation of women, “women’s question”, and “women’s rights” were taken into consideration in the region of southern Hungary (nowadays Vojvodina) and Serbia in the second half of the nineteenth century. Serbian women, as participants in the national liberation movement, believed that their emancipation and achievement of political equality were in the national interest. In other words, Serbian women thought that as educated women they would be better-equipped for all tasks that were assigned to them, especially for their maternal role. For Serbian women, feminism was a national project as well. This paper explores various educational discourses – which are in many ways related to women’s emancipation, “women’s question”, and “women’s rights” – as they were represented in the women’s magazine Žena/Woman. The aim of the paper is twofold: on the one hand, it attempts to show how certain Western discourses on education influenced opinions and activities of many female authors from Žena/Woman; on the other hand, it tries to explore and explain the dominance and significance of national(ist) discourse for female education. Some of the questions posed in the paper are: Should girls and boys be taught separately? Should they have the same curricula? Should girls be using their education in order to be better wives and mothers or to pursue carriers and get their own voice in the society? All these questions have been debated in Žena/Woman with strong references to aims and achievements of women’s movement in the Europe. This paper also emphasizes the significance of archival research of women’s magazines from the late nineteenth and early twentieth century for establishing and better understanding of the history of female education, its theory and practice.



Jeudi / Thursday 11:00 - 13:00 Room: 4393

2.4. Emergence de la pédologie et des sciences de l'éducation / Emergence of pedology and the educational sciences

Chair: Christine MAYER

Transcending Borders: Psychological Measurement in Spanish Schools



Annette MÜLBERGER, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain; Monica BALLTONDRE, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain; Andrea GRAUS, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain

After the defeat of 1898, a “regeneration-discourse” arose in Spain. Part of the proposals produced by this concern turned towards “new pedagogy” as a way to get the country out of its current crisis, characterized by political and military weakness. Therefore certain groups of pedagogues, especially the group linked to the Institución Libre de Enseñanza, sought contact to foreign experts like Binet, Decroly or Claparède in order to get guidance in their attempt of introducing new pedagogical methods in Spanish schools. The internationalization of science in form of scientific conferences, personal contacts, state promotion of scientific travels, journals and the translation of foreign books helped Spanish pedagogues to get to know the new “science of the child” (pedology), the so-called “scientific pedagogy”, the “psychology of the abnormal” and, finally, mental testing. A lot has been written on the origin of the intelligence test in France and its use in the United States. There are also works dealing with the history of the conjunction between pedagogy and psychology, what nowadays is called “psycho-pedagogy” and on how this field arose in Spain. What is missing is an in-depth study of how the psychological techniques were actually used in several local educational contexts. Who did undertake the psychological measurement in Spanish schools in the nineteen twenties and thirties? For what aim? What happened to the schoolchildren after such measurement? In the present contribution we try to show how the local constrains enforced a certain interest and use of psychological measurement. Psychological measurement like intelligence testing represents an interesting case for such a study because it illustrates the crossing of several borders at the same time. On the one hand a national border, in the sense that it usually meant to introduce foreign devices. On the other hand a professional border, because the initial problem with regard to the detection of the “abnormal” child was an interdisciplinary problem. Therefore we find school physicians, teachers and pedagogues as well as psychologists promoting themselves as experts in the use of these new techniques. It is interesting to study why and how psychological measurement was done in Spain in order to get to know the similarities and differences with regard to what happened in other places like France.



Modes de l’internationalisation par la médiation de l’imprimé: le cas de la Biblioteca da Educação


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