International Organizations and Economic Development



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International Organizations and Economic Development

Education and Leadership (EDLS) 3460 – 02

Human and Organizational Development (HOD) 2780 - 01
Fall Semester, 2003

Wednesday 4:10 – 7 PM


Stephen P. Heyneman

Professor

International Education Policy

Department of Leadership and Organizations

202 Payne Hall

Tel: (615) 322 – 1169

Fax: (615) 343 – 7094



s.heyneman@vanderbilt.edu

The number of international organizations has proliferated since WWII, and their functions have diversified. Some are altruistic. Others are regulatory. Some serve as forums for debate, others as instruments for military action or enforcement of international agreements in diverse fields of health, labor, agriculture, education, human rights, environment, culture and of course, trade. Some organizations are macro economic in their focus, others are limited to particular sectors or issues.


How are these organizations financed? How are they governed? How have their mandates shifted over time? What impact have they had on economic development? Why have some managed to generate political controversy? What is the nature of this controversy? And how will the debates influence their future?
This class will cover several issues. First it will review the legal mandates and organizational structures of the major international organizations --- the IMF, World Bank, the U.N. specialized agencies, and the major regional authorities. At the end of this section, students will be expected to have an understanding of the different organizational structures and their operational purposes.
Second it will cover issues of human capital and the World Bank. This topic will be used as an illustration of wider organizational issues. This section of the class will commence with a review of the development mandate of the bank as originally interpreted in the 1960s and the various challenges to that mandate beginning in the 1970s and ending with the current shift from human to social capital. At the end of this section of the course students will have an overview of the kinds of internal debates within the bank, and the way internal debates are affected by external influences, both scientific and political.
Third, the course will cover some of the controversies and debates over globalization and the role of international organizations in general. Topics will include the process of globalization, the role of capital and the debates over the nature of the international regulatory environment. Discussions will draw on recently published materials from the academic world.
Fourth, the class will cover the current debates over the future of international organizations. Materials will be drawn from recent congressional and journalistic reports as well as the responses from the organizations themselves.
Objectives
Students who take this course can expect to emerge with a working understanding of the legal structures of the major international organizations, the organizational complexities of the World Bank and its particular intellectual history in the field of human capital. From the readings on globalization, students can be expected to utilize this basic understanding to place the role of international organizations in their own particular context and hence to be better able to judge the strengths and weaknesses of various arguments for reform.

Requirements
This class is designed for graduates and advanced undergraduates interested in organizational theory, development economics, human capital and the general debates over the role of private and public foreign assistance to education in middle and low income nations. Class meetings will often be divided into lecture, small group discussion and general debate. Readings will be divided into required and recommended categories.*
Topics include issues which are controversial. Students will be expected play an active role in class discussions but at the same time will be judged on the degree to which they demonstrate an ability to listen to and appreciate alternative views.
Grades will be based on the following:
Written and/or oral report describing an international organization 15%
The quality of class discussion 15%
Term paper 35%
Final Examination 35%

The sessions on January 22nd and 29th will be dedicated to understanding the origins, mandates, governing structures, and sources of finance for international organizations, both national and multi-lateral, public and private. Each student will be expected to choose randomly from a list provided at the first class meeting on January 15th , given a set of search instructions, and be prepared to report. Class sessions will generally be divided into three unique partials beginning with a presentation, continuing with small group discussion, and ending with a plenary summary discussion.


Term paper: Each student will be asked to select an important policy paper or loan program in a specific country. Each will be asked to analyze it in terms of the mandate of the agency and the principles learned in the course concerning the political economy of international organizations. Final examination. Take home or in class examination formats will be offered. Readings are divided between required and recommended. There is a list of policy papers and examples of loan documents on reserve. More are available.
Questions and logistical problems? Ask:
Natasha Rumyantseva n.rumyantseva@vanderbilt.edu
Marisa Pelczar Marisa.p.Pelczar@vanderbilt.edu

Class Schedule



Section One: Mandates and Governance of International Organizations
August 27 Introduction
September 3 Multilateral Development Agencies

Issues


Student Reports

Discussion and conclusions


September 10 Bilateral and Non-Governmental Development Agencies

Issues


Student reports

Discussion and conclusions



Section Two Human Capital and the World Bank

September 17 Early Human Capital Rationales and Measures


September 24 Policy Distortions
October 1 Internal Debate and Control
October 8 New Concepts and Measures: Social Capital
October 15 How Does the World Work (Paper Topics Due)

Section Three Globalization

October 22 How Does Culture Work


October 29 How Do Economies Work
November 5 How Does Globalization Affect Us
November 12 U.S. Congressional Views

Section Four Current Debates

November 19 NGO views/ World Bank responses


November 26 Thanksgiving brake
December 3 Summary (Final Papers Due)
December 10 Final Examination

Syllabus



Section One: Mandates and Governance of International Organizations
August 27 Introduction
September 3 Multilateral Development Agencies

Student reports

Issues

Discussion and conclusions


September 10 Bilateral and Non-Governmental Development Agencies

Student reports

Issues

Discussion and conclusions



Section Two Human Capital and the World Bank

September 17 Early Human Capital Rationales and Measures

*Jones, Philip W. World Bank Financing of Education: Lending Learning and Development, Routledge, London, 1992.
*Psacharopoulos, George, Tan, Jee Peng, and Jimenez, Emmanuel Financing Education in Developing Countries: An Exploration of Policy Options. Washington D.C.: The World Bank, 1986.
*Heyneman, S.P., “Development Aid in Education: A Personal View, “International Journal of Educatinal Development 19 (1999) 183-190. .
September 24 Policy Distortions
* Heyneman, S. P., “Comparative Education: Issues of Quantity, Quality and Source,” Comparative Education Review 37, (November, 1993), pp. 372 – 88.
* Heyneman, S. P., “ Economics of Education: Disappointments and Potential,” Prospects XXV No. 4, (December, 1995), pp. 559 – 83.
* Heyneman, S. P., “ Diversifying Secondary School Curricula in Developing Countries: An Implementation History and Some Policy Options,” International Journal of Education Development 5 No. 4 (1985), pp. 283 – 88.
* Heyneman, S. P., “Curriculum Economics in Secondary Education: An Emerging Crisis in Developing Countries, “ Prospects 18 No. 1 (1987), pp. 63 – 74.
* World Bank, Priorities and Strategies for Education: A World Bank Review. Washington D.C., World Bank, 1995.
* World Bank, Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: Policies for Adjustment, Revitalization and Expansion. Washington D.C.: The World Bank, 1988.
October 1 Internal Debate and Control

* Mande Barlow and Heather-Jane Robertson, “Homogenization of Education” pp 60 – 71 in Jerry Mander and Edward Goldsmith, The Case Against the Global Economy: and a Turn Toward the Local. Sierra Club: San Francisco, 1996.


*David Ashton and Francis Green, Education, Training and the Global Economy, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited: London, 1996. Pp. 1 – 11; 69 – 117; 173 – 193.
* Heyneman, S. P., "The History and Problems in the Making of Education Policy at the World Bank: 1960 - 2000" in David Baker and Darcy Gustafson (eds.) International Perspectives on Education and Society Oxford: Elsevier Science,(forthcoming); also to appear in: International Journal of Education Development 23 2003, pp. 315 - 337.

October 8 New Concepts and Measures: Social Capital

* Heyneman, S. P., “Economic Growth and the International Trade in Education Reform,” Prospects XXVII No. 4 (December, 1997), pp. 501 – 31.
* --------------------------, “From the Party/State to Multi-Ethnic Democracy: Education and Social Cohesion in the Europe and Central Asia Region, “ Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 22 No. 2 (Summer, 2000), pp. 173 – 91.
* -----------------------------“ A Renewed Sense of Purpose of Schooling: Education and Social Cohesion in Africa, Latin America, Asia and Europe and Central Asia (co-authored with Sanja Todoric Bebic) Prospects XXX No. 2 (June, 2000), pp. 145 – 66.
* ---------------------------------, “Education, Social Cohesion and the Future Role of International Organizations,” Verinte Nationen (United Nations) Bonn: Vol. 50 No. 1

(February, 2002), pp. 16 - 20 (in German); republished in English. Peabody Journal of Education 2003 (forthcoming).




Section Three Globalization

October 15 How the World Works (Paper Topics Due)


*Diamond, Jared, Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fate of Human Societies New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1999.
*Friedman, Thomas L., The Lexus and the Olive Tree: Understanding Globalization New York: Ferrar, Staus, Giroux, 1999.
October 22 How Cultures Work
*Huntington, Samuel, The Clash of Civilizations: Remaking of the World Order
*pp. 2 – 80 on ‘Culture and Development’, Harrison, Lawrence E and Huntington, Samuel P. (editors) Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress New York: Basic Books, 2000
October 29 How the Economy Works
*Vasquez, Ian (editor) Global Fortune: The Stumble and Rise of World Capitalism. Washington D.C. The Cato Institute, 2000
*Soto, Hernando de The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else. New York City: Basic Books, 2000
November 5 How Globalization Affects Us
*Giddens, Anthony Runaway World: How Globalization is Reshaping our Lives. New York: Routledge, 2000


Section Four Current Debates


November 12 U.S. Congressional Views
US General Accounting Office, The World Bank: Management Controls Stronger, but Challenges Remain. Washington DC, April, 2000
*Eichorn, Jessica, “The World Bank’s Mission Creep,” Foreign Affairs 80 No., 5, pp. 22 – 35

*The International Financial Institution Advisory Commission (The Meltzer Commission) Report. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office, March, 2000.


November 19 NGO views/ World Bank responses
*John Cavahagh, Daphne Wysham and Marcos Arruda (eds.) Beyond Bretton Woods: Alternatives to the Global Economic Order, Pluto Press: London, 1994. Pp. 109 – 174
* World Bank, The Quality of Growth Washington D.C.: World Bank, 2000
* ---------------, World Development Report 2000/2001 Attacking Poverty. Washington D.C.: World Bank, 2000
* ---------------, World Development Report 2000/2001 Attacking Poverty. Washington D.C.: World Bank, 2000
*Kenneth King and Lene Buchert (eds.) Changing International AID to Education: Global Patterns and National Contexts Paris: UNESCO/NORRAG, 1999
*Herman E. Daley, “ Sustainable Growth? No Thank You,” pp. 192 – 97 in The Case Against the Global Economy edited by Jerry Mander and Edward Goldsmith. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1996
Narayan, Deepa Voices of the Poor: Can Anyone Hear Us? London: Oxford University Press, 2000
James Goldsmith, “The Winners and The Losers,” pp. 171 – 83 in the Case Against the Global Economy edited by Jerry Mander and Edward Goldsmith, San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1996
November 26 Thanksgiving brake
December 3 Summary (Final Papers Due)
December 10 Final Examination

International Organizations and Economic Development

EDLS 3460 – 02, Winter/Spring, 2001

Readings

Required readings have an (*) and (a date) by which students will be expected to have read them.


*Ashton, David and Francis Green, Education, Training and the Global Economy, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited: London, 1996. Pp. 1 – 11; 69 – 117; 173 – 193. (February 19).
*Barlow, Mande and Heather-Jane Robertson, “Homogenization of Education” pp 60 – 71 in Jerry Mander and Edward Goldsmith, The Case Against the Global Economy: and a Turn Toward the Local. Sierra Club: San Francisco, 1996. (February 19)
*Cavanagh, John, Daphne Wysham and Marcos Arruda (eds.) Beyond Bretton Woods: Alternatives to the Global Economic Order, Pluto Press: London, 1994. Pages 109 – 174 (April 16)
*Daley, Herman E., “ Sustainable Growth? No Thank You,” pp. 192 – 97 in The Case Against the Global Economy edited by Jerry Mander and Edward Goldsmith. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1996. (April 16)
Delors, Jacques et.al. Learning: The Treasure Within Report to UNESCO of the International Commission on Education for the 21st Century. Paris: UNESCO, 1996
Department for International Development (DFID), Departmental Report, 1999 London: The Stationary Office Ltd., 1999
*de Soto, Hernando. The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else New York City: Basic Books, 2000 (March 26)
*Diamond, Jared, Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fate of Human Societies New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1999. (March 12)
Education International (EI) Education is a Human Right: Barometer on Human and Trade Union Rights in the Education Sector, Education International: Brussels, 1998
*Eichorn, Jessica, “The World Bank’s Mission Creep,” Foreign Affairs 80 No., 5, pp. 22 – 35 (April 9)
Fiske, Edward B., and Barbara O’Grady, Education for All: A Global Commitment. A Report of the United States to the International Consultative Forum on Education for All. Washington D.C.: The Academy for Educational Development, January, 2000
*Friedman, Thomas L., The Lexus and the Olive Tree: Understanding Globalization New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 2000 (March 12)
*Giddens, Anthony, Runaway World: How Globalization is Reshaping our Lives. New York, Routledge, 2000 (April 2)
*Goldsmith, James, “The Winners and The Losers,” pp. 171 – 83 in the Case against the Global Economy edited by Jerry Mander and Edward Goldsmith, San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1996 (April 16)
Haddad, Wadi D., Martin Carnoy, Rosemary Rinaldi, and Omporn Regel, Education and Development : Evidence for New Priorities. Washington D.C.: World Bank, 1990
*Harrison, Lawrence E and Huntington, Samuel P. (editors) Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress New York: Basic Books, 2000 (March 19)
Hawes, Hugh, Trevor Coombe, Carol Coombe and Kevin Lillis (eds.) Education Priorities and Aid Responses in Sub-Saharan Africa London: International Develolpment Administration, 1986
*Heyneman, S. P., “Comparative Education: Issues of Quantity, Quality and Source,” Comparative Education Review 37 November, 1993, pp. 372 – 88. (February 12)
*---------------------, “ Economics of Education: Disappointments and Potential,” Prospects XXV No. 4, (December, 1995), pp. 559 – 83. (February 12)
----------------------, “Educational Choice in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union: A Review Essay,” Educational Economics 5 No. 3, December, 1997, pp. 333 – 9.
----------------------, Educational Cooperation Between Nations in the Next Century,” pp. 61 – 75 (in English and French) Education for the 21st Century: Issues and Prospects. Paris: UNESCO, 1998.
*-------------------------, “Economic Development and the International Trade in Education Reform,” Prospects XXVII No. 4 (December, 1997), pp. 501 – 31. (February 26)
*--------------------------, “From the Party/State to Multi-Ethnic Democracy: Education and Social Cohesion in the Europe and Central Asia Region, “ Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 22 No. 2 (Summer, 2000), pp. 173 – 91. (February 26)
*--------------------------, “Development Aid in Education: A Personal View, “ pp. 132 – 46 in Kenneth King and Lene Buchert (eds.) Changing Aid to Education: Global Patterns and National Context Paris: UNESCO, 1999. (February 4)
---------------------------, “In Defense of American Education: View From the Outside,” International Journal of Leadership in Education 2 No. 1 ( 1999), pp. 31 – 41.
----------------------------, “The Sad Story of UNESCO’s Education Statistics,” International Journal of Educational Development 19 (January, 1999), pp. 65 – 74.
*-----------------------------“ A Renewed Sense of Purpose of Schooling: Education and Social Cohesion in Africa, Latin America, Asia and Europe and Central Asia (co-authored with Sanja Todoric Bebic) Prospects XXX No. 2 (June, 2000), pp. 145 – 66. (February 26)
------------------------------ (co-authored with Aklilu Habte and George Psacharopolous) Education and Development World Bank: Washington D.C., 1983
------------------------------- (editor). Education and the World Bank Canadian and International Education 12 No. 1 (1983)
*-------------------------------, “ Diversifying Secondary School Curricula in Developing Countries: An Implementation History and Some Policy Options,” International Journal of Education Development 5 No. 4 (1985), pp. 283 – 88. (February 12)
------------------------------, “Investing in Education: A Quarter Century of World Bank Experience,” World Bank: Washington D.C., 1986
*-------------------------------, “Curriculum Economics in Secondary Education: An Emerging Crisis in Developing Countries, “ Prospects 18 No. 1 (1987), pp. 63 – 74 (February, 12)
-------------------------------, “Education Sector Training to Include ‘Quiver of Arrows’,” EDI Review (April, 1988), World Bank: Washington D.C., 41-8
*-------------------------------, “The History and Problems in the Making of Education Policy at the World Bank: 1960 – 2000”, in International Perspectives on Education and Society edited by David P. Baker and Darcy Gustafson, Oxford, U. K. : Elsevier Science, forthcoming ( February 19)
*---------------------------------, “Education, Social Cohesion and the Future Role of International Organizations,” Verinte Nationen Bonn, forthcoming (February 26)
*Huntington, Samuel, The Clash of Civilizations: Remaking of the World Order London: Touchtone Books, 1997 (March 19)
ILO, International Labour Report: Employment and labour Incomes Government and Its Employees. Geneva: ILO, 1989
*The International Financial Institution Advisory Commission (The Meltzer Commission) Report. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office, March, 2000 (April 9)
*Jones, Philip W. World Bank Financing of Education: Lending Learning and Development, Routledge, London, 1992 (February 4)
*King, Kenneth, and Lene Buchert (eds.) Changing International AID to Education: Global Patterns and National Contexts Paris: UNESCO/NORRAG, 1999 (April 16)
Narayan, Deepa, Voices of the Poor: Can Anyone Hear Us? London: Oxford University Press (on behalf of the World Bank), 2000
Oxfam, Education Now: Breaking the Cycle of Poverty Oxford: OXFAM, 1999
Patrinos, Harry Anthony and David Lakshmanan Ariasingam, Decentralization of Education: Demand-Side Financing. Washington D.C.: The World Bank, 1997.
*Psacharopoulos, George, Tan, Jee Peng, and Jimenez, Emmanuel Financing Education in Developing Countries: An Exploration of Policy Options. Washington D.C.: The World Bank, 1986. (February 4)
Tomasevski, Katarina. Annual Report of the Special Raporteur on the Right to Education,

August 12, 2000.


UNDP, Human Development Report 1999 New York: UNDP, 1999
UNESCO The Right to Education: Towards Education for all Throughout Life, World Education Report, 2000 Paris: UNESCO, 2000
UNICEF, Education: State of the World’s Children, 1999 New York City: UNICEF, 1999
UNICEF Education for All? The MONEE Project for the Central and Eastern Europe the CIS and the Baltics Florence: UNICEF, 1998
US General Accounting Office, The World Bank: Management Controls Stronger, but Challenges Remain. Washington DC, April, 2000 (April 4).
*Vasquez, Ian (editor) Global Fortune: The Stumble and Rise of World Capitalism. Washington D.C. : The Cato Institute, 2000 (March 26)
World Bank, Annual Report, Washington DC: World Bank, 2000
-----------------, Entering the 21 st Century World Development Report, 1999/2000 Washington D.C.: The World Bank, 2000
*------------------, Priorities and Strategies for Education: A World Bank Review. Washington D.C., World Bank, 1995 (February 12)

*-------------------, Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: Policies for Adjustment, Revitalization and Expansion. Washington D.C. : The World Bank, 1988. (February 12)


-------------------, Higher Education: The Lessons of Experience. Washington D.C., The World Bank, 1994
*-------------------, The Quality of Growth Washington D.C.: World Bank, 2000 (April 16)
*---------------, World Development Report 2000/2001 Attacking Poverty. Washington D.C.: World Bank, 2000 (April 16)

World Bank Documents


Since 1994, most internal documents of the World Bank are made available to the public. A list of the documents on education will be distributed in class. This list consists of about 600 titles in three categories:


Loan appraisal reports. These are official loan proposals, approved by the government and the Board.
Economic, sector and research documents. These are reports for the generation of discussion on specific issues, but which carry no direct obligation on the bank or its member states.
Policy papers. These are documents, widely discussed with borrowers and other development assistance agencies, and approved by the Board.
Any document can be obtained through the World Bank Web Site under ‘Infoshop’. Documents may be read on line for free, printed out (one page at a time) for free, or ordered at a cost of about $20. If there is any problem in accessing World Bank documents, please contact:
Hanna Jude

Information Officer, InfoShop

World Bank

1818 H Street, N.W.

Washington D.C., 20433

Tel: 202 473 - 1194

Fax: 202 614 – 1194

Email: hjude@worldbank.org


Mention should be made that this is associated with the course at Vanderbilt University taught by Stephen Heyneman.
Examples of World Bank documents have been obtained and placed on reserve. These include:

Staff Appraisal Reports



Higher Education Reform Project, Republic of Hungary, January 30, 1998
Higher Education Reform Project, People’s Republic of China, April 14, 1999
Higher Education Support Project: Development of Undergraduate Education, Indonesia, May 22, 1996.
Higher Education Management Support Project, Republic of Guinea, November 6, 1995
Higher Education Project, Republic of Senegal, May 7, 1996
Reform of Higher Education and Research Project, Romania, August 26, 1996

Economic, Sector and Research Reports

China: Management And Finance of Higher Education, 1986


China: Higher Education Reform, June 27, 1996

Simon Schwartzman, Higher Education in Brazil: the Stakeholders, October, 1998


Michael Crawford and Lauritz Holm-Nielsen, Brazilian Higher Education: Characteristics and Challenges, October, 1998
Thomas Owen Eisemon, Private Initiatives and Traditions of State Control in Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa, January, 1992.
Thomas Owen Eisemon and Lauritz Holm-Nielsen, Reforming Higher Education Systems: Some Lessons to Guide Policy Implementation, April, 1995
Keith Hinchliffe, Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa, August, 1985
Peter T. Knight and Sulaiman S. Wasty, Comparative Resource Allocations to Human Resource Development in Asia, Europe, and Latin America, 1991.
Donald R. Winkler, Higher Education in Latin America: Issues of Efficiency and Equity, 1990.
Mary Jean Bowman, Benoit Millot, Ernesto Schiefelbein, The Political Economy of Public Support of Higher Education: Studies of Chile, France, and Malaysia. June, 1986
Rosemary Bellew and Jseph DeStefano, Costs and Finance of Higher Education in Pakistan, 1991.
Jee Peng Tan and Alain Mingat, Education in Asia: A Comparative Study of Costs and Financing, 1992
Emmanuel Jimenez and Jee Peng Tan, Selecting the Brightest for Post-Secondary Education in Colombia: The Impact of Equity, February, 1987.


Internal World Bank Discussions



Debates over Higher Education
Debates over Educational Policy
Debates over Professional Credibility (with the outside world)


These documents will be held on reserve. They may not be circulated.



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