Intermediate Lesson As Long as the Rivers Flow



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CANADIAN ABORIGINAL FESTIVAL


Friday, November 30, 2007 ٠ Rogers Centre

Intermediate Lesson

As Long as the Rivers Flow


Adapted from the book by Larry Loyie

Teacher Backgrounder
The title of the story As Long as the Rivers Flow refers specifically to the history of the Two Row Wampum. This agreement was made binding through the presentation of the wampum, which had a white background with two parallel rows of purple beads. One row represented the path of the canoes of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois), which contained their traditions and laws. The other row represented the sailing ships of the new European settlers, which contained their traditions and laws. The parallel paths were meant to signify that both groups would always journey together without ever outpacing each other or crossing paths. This would be the way things would always be, and they would always renew their treaties and keep this agreement, “…as long as the grass grows, the rivers flow, and the sun shines.” Teachers are encouraged to allow their students the opportunity to research the sacred wampum belt. Cultural speakers from Six Nations of the Grand River Territory can be invited into your classroom to talk about the belt, show students what wampum belts look

like, and further explain how this particular wampum has not yet been honoured by non-Native leaders in

Canada. This could provide a rich opportunity to investigate current land claims and treaty negotiations occurring between contemporary First Nations’ groups and the federal government.

The Readers’ Theatre piece for As Long as the Rivers Flow illustrates the traditional Aboriginal oral culture where history was transmitted from one generation to the next by way of cultural storytelling. It also illustrates the Aboriginal worldview that everything in nature has a spirit and the environment is treated with reverence as it is seen as a gift from the Creator. One example of this is that traditionally, when animals were hunted, every part of the animal was used for food, clothing, tools, and shelter. In traditional Aboriginal wisdom, it is believed that the animal, as an important part of creation, gives up its soul in order to provide humans with what they need for survival, therefore out of respect, no part of the sacrificed animal would go to waste. Such is the way that the earliest Aboriginal groups demonstrated a respect for the environment that remains unparalleled in today’s society.




CANADIAN ABORIGINAL FESTIVAL


Friday, November 30, 2007 ٠ Rogers Centre

Curriculum Connections


Intermediate Lesson

Based on an adaptation of As Long As the Rivers Flow




Overall Intermediate Expectations
Rich Performance Task
Drama Anthology of Cultural Storytelling: Writing in Role
The Reader’s Theatre piece in this package is from an excerpt in the book As Long as the Rivers Flow and the particular vignette dramatised in the play focuses on the traditional oral culture of Aboriginal peoples and the ways in which cultural history has always been transmitted orally from one generation to the next. Many Aboriginal students in Ontario today will also tell you of the importance of cultural storytelling and traditional teachings in their families. Moreover, non-Aboriginal students can also relate to listening to stories from their parents, aunts, uncles, and grandparents about the history of their families and the ways in which their lives are impacted by the cultural practices that have been handed down over centuries. These are the rich stories that embody history allowing us to see how our past affects our present and future. This is the very crux of why studying Canadian History is so important. Authentic and personal perspectives made “real” through personally researched and

developed characters aim to put a human face on the many facts and dates listed in textbooks in a way that “makes sense” to the intermediate learner.


Description of the task

In this series of tasks, groups of 4 will each plan and present a drama anthology. A drama anthology is a collection of monologues, poems, letters, or private journal entries read aloud to express different perspectives on a given theme.


In each group of 4 there will be 1 member from each of the cultural groups below:

  1. Aboriginal groups

  2. French settlers

  3. English settlers

  4. Loyalist immigrants from the United States

Within each group there is a wide diversity of perspectives that may be generated. For example, the Haudenosaunee and the Anishinaabe would have different lifestyles, geographical perspectives, traditions, and cultural beliefs affecting the ways in which they viewed the environment and used it to meet the needs of their communities.


Purpose of the task

This task requires students to seek out balanced historical perspectives on environmental issues and discover how stakeholder beliefs relating to environmental responsibility have often come into conflict since the point of first contact. For both Grades 7 and 8, students will be investigating these environmental historical perspectives from the specific time periods under study in the History Curriculum.


Grade 7

New France, British North America


Grade 8

Confederation, The Development of Western Canada


Each student will create a personal “perspective profile” based on the point of view of someone living in Canada during the time period under study. From their profiles, they will write a one-minute monologue based on their fictional character’s profile. Although students will perform their monologues individually, these individual performances will be part of a “drama anthology.” Therefore, when students form groups for the anthology, they should be sure each participant represents a different perspective.


Grade 7- Curriculum Links

Expectations addressed by this series of tasks.



History: New France/British North America

Students will:

Knowledge

1. Identify key characteristics of economic, political, and social life in New France.

2. Explain key characteristics of life in English Canada from a variety of perspectives.
Inquiry/Research and Communication Skills


  1. Use a variety of primary and secondary sources to locate relevant information about how early settlers met the challenges of the new land (e.g., primary sources: artifacts, journals, letters, statistics, field trips, interviews, period documents, and maps; secondary sources: maps, illustrations, print materials, videos, CD-ROMs, Internet sites.)

  2. Analyse, synthesize, and evaluate historical information from different points of view.

  3. Use appropriate vocabulary to describe their inquiries and observations.


Application

  1. Compare and contrast past and present attitudes to the fur industry.

  2. Compare the attractions and drawbacks for French Canadians in choosing life on a farm versus life in the church or in the woods.

  3. Prepare and present a biographical sketch of a historical person from the period 1759-1812.

Language: Oral Communication

Students will:



Making Inferences/Interpreting Texts

    1. Develop and explain interpretations of oral texts using stated and implied ideas from the texts to support their interpretation.


Extending Understanding

    1. Extend understanding of oral texts, including increasingly complex texts, by connecting, comparing, and contrasting the ideas and information in them to their own knowledge, experience, and insights to other texts, including print and visual texts and to the world around them.



Arts: Drama and Dance

Students will:



Creative Work

Create and present drama anthologies, independently and in a group, manipulating various techniques of drama and dance and incorporating multimedia technology.


Grade 8-Curriculum Links
Expectations addressed by this series of tasks.

History: Confederation/The Development of Western Canada

Students will:



Knowledge and Understanding

  1. Identify key social, political, economic and physical characteristics of the British North American colonies between 1850 and 1860 (e.g., British, French, First Nation, and Black communities;)

  2. Describe the everyday life of various groups (e.g., First Nations peoples, Métis) in western Canada in the late nineteenth century.


Inquiry/Research and Communication Skills

  1. Formulate questions to guide research on issues and problems (i.e., how did First Nations and Métis people use their environmental resources respectfully.)

  2. Analyse, synthesize, and evaluate historical information.

  3. Use appropriate vocabulary to describe their inquiries and observations.


Application

Use sections 91 and 92 (http://www.canadiana.org/citm/themes/constitution/constitution13_e.html) of the British North America Act to outline how and why responsibilities are divided between the federal governments and relate these divisions to some present-day disagreements between the two levels of government (e.g., federal responsibilities for the environment.)


Language: Oral Communication
Demonstrate Understanding

    1. Demonstrate an understanding of the information and ideas in increasingly complex and difficult oral texts in a variety of ways.


Extending Understanding

    1. Extend understanding of oral texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts, by connecting, comparing, and contrasting the ideas and information in them to their own knowledge, experience, and insights, to other texts, including print and visual texts, and to the world around them.


Arts: Drama and Dance

  1. Write in role, analysing the subtext of a script and the attitudes and points of view of the characters portrayed.

  2. Write, memorize, and present, through drama and dance, short documentary scenes based on their improvisational work and on source material drawn from diverse cultures.


Rich Performance Task-Key Terms
The following are Rich Performance Task-related terms drawn directly from The Ontario Curriculum: The Arts, Grades 1–8, 1998.

Drama anthology - A collection of materials (e.g., letters, songs, poems, speeches, monologues, diaries, photographs) that represent aspects of life in a certain historical period or aspects of the life of a person, real or fictional.

Elements of drama - Fundamental components of drama. They include character, suspense, conflict, and structure.

Monologue - A scene in drama in which a person speaks alone. The speech is usually long. The speaker may compose it or it may be taken from source material. Its dramatic purpose is to provide insight into the character.

Role-playing - A technique in drama that involves the adopting of the point of view of a character in an imaginary situation. The aim of the exercise is to try to understand through imagination what that character feels and how that character thinks. When someone is playing the role of a character, he or she is said to be speaking or writing "in role.” Speaking in role is not confined to acting in a dramatic scene, but can be done out of the scene; that is, someone could still be playing the part of a character, for purposes of study, during a discussion of the motives or personality of that character.

Voice - In written work, style or character revealed through the use of vocabulary, sentence structure, and imagery, for example, as well as the rhythm of the prose and the mood of the piece as a whole. In spoken drama, style or character revealed mainly through the use of vocabulary, as well as through tone of voice and pace of speech.

Writing in role - Writing as a character from a drama in order to sharpen understanding of that character and develop further scenes on the basis of this understanding. Some examples of forms that may be used are diaries, letters, and reports on specific events that indicate the character's responses to those events.

Pre-writing activity:
Sample perspectives and examples of Question-driven inquiry

Grade 7 History: British North America


Writing in Role - A - Habitant Perspective

It is 1763. You are a habitant living on land on the St. Lawrence River. You are rebuilding your farm after the British destroyed it. When you visit Quebec City you see British troops everywhere. Think about these points:



  • Do you understand why the British now own Quebec?

  • Do you believe the British government will allow you to keep your French language and Roman Catholic religion?

  • What are your hopes and fears as you rebuild your farm?



Writing in Role - B - Mohawk Perspective

It is 1784. Imagine that you are an Aboriginal man or woman who is forced to move with your Mohawk people, about 1600 in all, from Fort Niagara where you have been seeking refuge to the Grand River in what is now Ontario.

Think about these points:


  • Do you understand why the land of your ancestors has been taken away from you?

  • Do you want to fight or live in peace with the newcomers and soldiers?

  • What are your hopes and fears as you move to a new, unknown land?


Writing in Role - C - Black Loyalist Perspective
It is 1783. Imagine that you are Thomas Peters, a former slave who served with the Black Pioneers, an all-Black British regiment. Now you are on a ship bound for Nova Scotia where you have been Promised Land near Shelburne.

Think about these points:



  • Do you believe that the British government will treat you as equal to a white soldier moving to Nova Scotia? Why or why not?

  • Do you have strong views on slavery?

  • What are your hopes and fears as you move to a new, unknown land?



Creating a Drama Anthology of Cultural Storytelling: Writing in Role A
NAME: ______________________________________________
In your group of 4, decide which student will portray each perspective.
Circle your chosen group identity:

NORTH- Aboriginal groups

EAST- French settlers

SOUTH- other minority groups (e.g., the Black Loyalists, the Hutterites, etc.)

WEST- English settlers
You will now form “breakout” groups with people from other core groups who share the same direction/identity.
Step 1- Generate possible “perspective profiles” for your breakout group.
Example-

Khalid will play “Jacques Dubois,” a 40-year-old French seigneur in New France married with 5 children

Once you have assembled all of your breakout group members, brainstorm possible “perspective profiles.” For example, amongst the French in British North America there would have been many different stakeholders such as the French clergy, the habitants, and seigneurs. Examining such factors as gender, age, marital status, occupation, and social status among others would further diversify these groups. Once all of the possible perspectives have been identified, each person in the group should assume the role of a different stakeholder. Each arrow on the diagram below will represent a different person from your group. Using this organizer, give a brief overview of each group member’s assumed “perspective profile.”

Our “breakout” group identity



(Example: French settlers)
______________________
Step 2- Create your detailed “perspective profile.”

Begin to build your “perspective profile” by answering the following questionnaire in role. Use your History texts and other research materials to ensure that your profile is as authentic to the character and time period as possible.


MY “PERSPECTIVE PROFILE”
Core group identity ______________________________________
Name of my character ____________________________________
Gender _________________ Age _________________
Language spoken _________________________________
Religion/spiritual beliefs __________________________________
Country of Origin __________________________________
Currently settled in ________________________________ (location)
Occupation or community role ____________________________

Family members ________________________________________


_______________________________________________________
Other relevant information:
Step 3: Complete “Thought-Bubble Organizer.”
A “monologue” is a type of speech performed alone by a single character. It is meant to provide the audience insight into the thought processes, beliefs, dreams, ideas, and motivations of the character. For the purpose of this task, your monologue may take on the form of an original speech, poem, or song. Writing your monologue requires you to write “in role” meaning you have to write a speech that truly reflects the viewpoints of your character. Essentially, you must “become” that character when you perform your monologue. Because you are letting the audience into your thoughts, you have been provided with a “thought bubble” organizer to structure how you will present your character through drama.
Who are you?

(age, gender, cultural group/race, religion, family, social class, societal role, area of settlement, etc.)


Describe your quality of life so far… (home, livelihood, basic necessities, overall happiness)

What emotions are you feeling right now with regards to your future in your current environment?

(i.e., fears, hopes, dreams, aspirations, concerns)

THOUGHT BUBBLE

ORGANIZER




What is your relationship with other cultural groups right now?

(i.e., Who are your allies? Who are your enemies?) What has happened to bring about these relationships?)


In what ways do you rely on your environment in your day-to-day life?

(i.e., How do you use your environment for shelter, water, food, and survival?)




Step 4 - Write your one-minute monologue.
Step 5 - Summarize your anthology using

The Sacred Circle Framework.
Perspectives on Environmental Issues in Canada
Using the Sacred Circle

In each quadrant, summarize the identity of the person portrayed along with the perspectives given towards environmental issues in the era under study.


Aboriginal Groups

English Settler

French Settlers

Other minority groups who came to Canada (e.g., the Black Loyalists)


Self/Peer Assessment:

Rich Performance Task Learning Skills Inventory

NAME: __________________________

Learning Skills Inventory: Reflections on How I Worked in a Small Group Preparing our Drama Anthology
Upon completion of your drama anthology, reflect on your group skills and contributions.

Complete the inventory below and ask one peer from your group to provide feedback.


Use the following four-point scale to indicate your evaluation:
4 - Always

3 - Usually

2 - Sometimes

1 - Rarely



Learning Skill



Self-assessment

(1, 2, 3, 4)

Peer-assessment

(1, 2, 3, 4)

Peer comments


Comes to class on time and prepared












Uses class time effectively to work on project












Co-operates with groups members












Listens to and respects the ideas of others












Follows instructions













Meets deadlines in completing individual contribution to the anthology











GRADE 7 RUBRIC for use with Culminating Activity:

Perspectives on environmental issues - Writing in role


Category

Criteria

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4

Knowledge and Understanding



- identify key characteristics of economic, political, and social life in New France
OR
- explain key characteristics of life in English Canada from a variety of perspectives.



- demonstrates limited understanding of the ways in which different cultural groups used/misused the environment for survival

- demonstrates some understanding of the ways in which different cultural groups used/misused the environment for survival

- demonstrates good understanding of the ways in which different cultural groups used/misused the environment for survival

- demonstrates thorough understanding of the ways in which different cultural groups used/misused the environment for survival

Thinking

- analyse, synthesize, and evaluate historical information (i.e.. describe how cultural, historical, and traditional beliefs, customs, and practices affected stakeholder groups’ respect and use of the environment for survival)


- demonstrates a limited ability to use both primary and secondary sources to analyse, synthesize and evaluate historical information

- demonstrates some ability to use both primary and secondary sources to analyse, synthesize, and evaluate historical information

- demonstrates a good ability to use both primary and secondary sources to analyse, synthesize, and evaluate historical information

- demonstrates exceptional ability to use both primary and secondary sources to analyse, synthesize, and evaluate historical information

Communication


- communicate the results of inquiries for specific purposes and audiences, using media works, oral presentations, written notes and reports, drawings, tables, charts, and graphs


- communicates information gathered in the research process with limited effectiveness

- communicates information gathered in the research process with some effectiveness

- communicates information gathered in the research process with considerable effectiveness

- communicates information gathered in the research process with exceptional effectiveness

Application

- compare and contrast past and present attitudes to the fur industry
- compare the attractions and drawbacks for French Canadians in choosing life on a farm versus life in the church or in the woods
- prepare and present a biographical sketch of a historical person from the period 1759-1812

- monologue presented represents the researched perspective with very little detail, authenticity, and accuracy

- monologue presented represents the researched perspective with some detail, authenticity and accuracy

- monologue presented represents the researched perspective with very good detail, authenticity, and accuracy

- monologue presented represents the researched perspective with exceptional detail, authenticity, and accuracy


GRADE 8 RUBRIC for use with Culminating Activity:

Perspectives on environmental issues - Writing in role


Category

Criteria

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4

Knowledge and Understanding



- identify key social, political, economic, and physical characteristics of the British North American colonies between 1850 and 1860

OR
- describe the everyday life of various groups in western Canada in the late nineteenth century





- demonstrates limited understanding of the ways in which different cultural groups used/misused the environment for survival

- demonstrates some understanding of the ways in which different cultural groups used/misused the environment for survival

- demonstrates good understanding of the ways in which different cultural groups used/misused the environment for survival

- demonstrates thorough understanding of the ways in which different cultural groups used/misused the environment for survival

Thinking

- analyse, synthesize, and evaluate historical information (i.e., describe how cultural, historical, and traditional beliefs, customs, and practices affected stakeholder groups’ respect and use of the environment for survival)


- demonstrates a limited ability to use both primary and secondary sources to analyse, synthesize, and evaluate historical information

- demonstrates some ability to use both primary and secondary sources to analyse, synthesize, and evaluate historical information

- demonstrates a good ability to use both primary and secondary sources to analyse, synthesize, and evaluate historical information

- demonstrates exceptional ability to use both primary and secondary sources to analyse, synthesize and evaluate historical information

Communication


- communicate the results of inquiries for specific purposes and audiences, using media works, oral presentations, written notes and reports, drawings, tables, charts, and graphs

- communicates information gathered in the research process with limited effectiveness

- communicates information gathered in the research process with some effectiveness

- communicates information gathered in the research process with considerable effectiveness

- communicates information gathered in the research process with exceptional effectiveness

Application

- use sections 91 and 92 of the British North America Act to outline how and why responsibilities are divided between the federal and provincial governments and relate these divisions to some present-day disagreements between the 2 levels of government (e.g. , federal responsibilities for the environment)

- monologue presented represents the researched perspective with very little detail, authenticity, and accuracy

- monologue presented represents the researched perspective with some detail, authenticity, and accuracy

- monologue presented represents the researched perspective with very good detail, authenticity, and accuracy

- monologue presented represents the researched perspective with exceptional detail, authenticity, and accuracy



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