|Integrated relationship between land use and transportation based on GIS
Submitted for presentation at the 11th Conference on Transportation Research
University of California,Berkeley.
June 24-28, 2007
Institute of Transportation Engineering, Tsinghua University
Beijing, 100084,P. R. China
Institute of Transportation Engineering, Tsinghua University
Beijing, 100084, P. R. China
Submission date: December, 1, 2006
Abstract: The relationship between land use and transportation has long been acknowledged within academic disciplines such as economics, geography, urban planning, transportation planning. The reciprocity between transportation constructions and to land development is well documented in history. In spite of the historical importance of transportation to land development, a great deal of uncertainty remains regarding the nature of the relationship in the modern world. As a new computer technique, GIS can provide powerful method for spatial analysis, spatial visualization and spatial statistics.
This paper reflects on the relationship between land use and transportation, with particular emphasis on the relationship research with GIS. Firstly, current integrated researches on land use and transportation are summarized. Integrated relationship analysis based on GIS is included. Problems existing in integrated research are generalized and analyzed. Secondly, according these problems, spatial data management and expression, spatial analysis and integrate models database building on the relationship are discussed in detail. Thirdly, the whole functions of GIS for the integrated relationship research are put to forward. In the end, a research frame of integrated relationship between land use and transportation of city based on GIS is designed.
Key words: land use; city traffic; integrated relation; GIS
Landuse which its spatial distribution is comparatively static is the carrier and platform of urban and social and economic activities. Various urban activities, however, move through transportation, communication means and etc. urban landuse and all kinds of activities its carries compose the urban complex transportation system together. the carrying characteristics of the urban landuse make it relate to the urban every aspect, such as land use types, land development intensity, population density goods circulation and etc. Generally, the higher urban development is, the more effective utilization of urban land is and the more stable urban spatial construction is.
Relationship between landuse and urban traffic is bidirectional and integrated. Urban traffic from which social and economic activities benefit has always been an important factor in the urban form. Urban transportation system is an essential component of urban system that directly affects energy flow outside and inside of urban. Traffic accessibility, speediness and advanced technology of traffic tools largely determine the spatial distribution and form of land use. On the contrast, the property and spatial distribution of landuse also lead generation, development orientation and degree of urban transport network.GIS which is a space expression, analysis and visualization technology with rapid developing speed in recent years integrates computer technology, space technology, database technology and other modern technology. Since urban landuse and traffic can be summed up into space field, GIS has the space technology support to the research of urban landuse and traffic.
In this study existing researches on land use and transportation are summarized. That problems existing are put forward and how GIS can be applied are discussed. Study frame are shown in Fig.1.
2 previous work
2.1 Theory Research
The theoretical research about relationship between urban land use and transport between can be cast back to the 1920s.in 1826 Von Thunen first brought forward the agricultural location theory, so did industrial location theory by Webber in 1929. In 1933 Walter Christaller developed the Central Place Theory to describe the retail hierarchy of cities. Among these theories, transportation is taken as one of the important factor which affects the location of farm and factory.
During the following years, the mutual impacts of detail characters of landuse and transportation on each other are investigated by many scholars. In 1903, Hurd put forward the fan-like development model of urban landuse and discussed the mutual relationship between landuse and urban transportation. Burgess explored the urban function quarter in 1925. In 1945 Harris and Ullmann considered that there are many factors in the distribution of landuse, namely accessibility, economics of scale, adjacent landuse characteristics and landuse rent. Other people also think that transportation consumption has a strong connection with ground rent which is determined by convenience—transportation accessibility.
In 1975, Schaeffer and Csclar gave a comprehensive study on the relationship between transport systems and urban form for the first time. In their view, urban form evolution experienced from "walking city" to "tracks city", until the final "dependence on the automobile City". In the recent years, with the induction of various new techniques and theories into the study of landuse and transportation, correlative theory studies spread and expand quickly all over the world, such as dynamic system technique, computer technique, database technique, graph theory, operational research technique, GIS and etc.
2.2 Characterization Research
Generally, urban landuse is considered as the basic source for transportation. Different land property and its combination can generate different transportation system. Many scholars have paid a lot of efforts on how various characters of landuse which mainly include size, density and distribution affect the transportation (see Fig.2). Transportation accessibility can decided the landuse price and relevant model about that was built in the book “location and landuse” (Alonso, 1964). Four main landuse factors, namely size (population, housing and employments), density, design (neighbourhood, commerce services infrastructure and etc.) and pattern (such as landuse structure), are focused on how to affect transportation (Nithin, 1979; Giuliano and Genevieve, 1997). Some studies suggest that landuse mix plays a main role on urban transportation development (Simmonds, 1997 and etc.). Urban form, such as landuse pattern, has effect on transportation system (Heart and Bennet, 2000).
In addition, some scholars explored the impacts of landuse on resident travel. Certain conclusions are drawn that: (1) trip times decrease while landuse density increases; (2) trip speed decreasing will expand the trip distance; (3) landuse mix has weak effect on the trip model (Handy, 1992). Other people also did similar work and obtained the same result (Cevero,1989;Hanssen, 1992).
What the impacts of urban transportation system on landuse principally centralizes spatial form and pattern of landuse. In 1970, Adams divided the urban development into four phases: walk and carriage era (1800-1890), the tramcar era (1890-1920), automobile era (1920-1945) and the highway era (1945 - now) according to the traffic tools. This shows that urban transport system has an important effect on the evolution of urban spatial patterns. In 1977 Knight summed up various factors that affect urban land use including accessibility, land connection and land policy. Accessibility is emphasized as the most important factor which affects the landuse. In addition, construction of new transport facilities could also enlarge urban landuse accessibility and attractiveness of the surrounding land which results in the land price rise.
Since the 1960s, a large number of scholars began to research in this area. Meanwhile a series methods and models on land-use and transportation are put forward, for example: Alonso.1964; Anas and Duann, 1986; Boyce,1980, 1990; Kim,1983; Prastacos,1986; Kim et al. , 1989; Hirschman and Henderson,1990 and etc. the models include Lowry model, CALUTAS model (Nakamura et al,1983), TRANUS model (Barra,1989), the cost curve model (Alonso.1964), spatial interaction model (Lowry,1964;Wilson,1970), time and Geography model (Hagerstrand,1970). Recent models includes micro-simulation model (Landis and Zhang, 1998). Wegner and Furst in 1999 summarized models of landuse and transportation, total 17, six of which are integrated models (see Tab.1).
Besides the scholars, many governments and economy combos set up various projects to be engaged in studying the relationship between landuse and transportation which include following contents.
In 1971, ministry of communications set up the project “transportation and landuse development” which opened a prelude to a comprehensive study of land use and transport
In 1991,Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) raised that transport planning must take into account the combination of land use planning and development.
In 1993, the United States Transportation and Environmental Protection Agency proposed the TMIP program which includes six stages. One of those should be discussed and improved model in order to study combination of transportation and land-use.
The European Union :
The fourth EU project framework related to the integration of land use and transport. among which TRANSLAND project give us policies reform and future research development on combination of land use and transportation. With GIS and RS introduction into the transportation field, many studies developed with GIS technique such as (1) network balance analysis of travel demand based on GIS (Miller and Storm, 1996);(2) NN method for landuse and transportation based on GIS and RS (André Dantas， Koshi Yamamoto， Marcus V. Lamar， Yaeko Yamashita);(3) integrated study of urban system based on GIS (You and Kim, 1999)
3 Existing problems
3.1 Spatial scale
The interaction of urban land use and transport systems is at the scope of the urban scale. This involves various spatial data which cover all aspects of urban system. These data has both spatial attributes and property attributes. How to effectively store, manage, analyze and express these massive data has become a huge obstacle to all kinds of analysis because the analysis includes not only property analysis, but also spatial analysis. The traditional means of dealing with statistical perspective fails to take into account the scale of internal space and spatial analysis. For example, the urban densities got by traditional method reflect average distribution of one urban feature and spatial difference in the scope of the factor are not considered. Fortunately GIS has a powerful spatial analysis functions, and it can convert the discrete statistical data and survey data to spatial continuous distribution data that reflects the good spatial difference (see Fig.3).
3.2 Integration issues
The complexity of urban transportation system brings a challenge not only for data processing, but also data analysis and long-term planning. Traditional method of transportation planning often caused the thinking inertia of planners and analysts, especially after the emergence of new technologies, many scholars still keep the thinking mode invariable. The new technologies can not be go deep into the every step of planning and only resolve limited questions. Since land use and urban transport system can be considered as the two subsystems, and then we should combine them as one whole system by using GIS technology and make more wide application of GIS in the field of urban land use and transport systems.
3.3 Integration issues
Massive Data involved in the transportation system which is a huge difficulty for the urban-scale transportation system analysis. These data include urban systems; urban systems related attribute data, survey data and the transport network (Shaw, 1993). In addition, the difficulty above likely results in the following problem: The accumulated error may lead to some mistakes of follow-up plan (Fernandez and Friesz.1993; Sheppard, 1995), particularly for the travel demand. The traditional method for travel demand is a sequential series work which often leads to the four components uncoordinated even using check and re-assessment (Boyce et al.1994; Sheppard, 1995). However, this often brings about a lot of inconvenience to forecast (Ortuzar and Willumsen, 1990). For example Boyce did a feedback cycle test and reached a contrary result. An effective and consistent approach to four phase method is to assess in the same time, however very little research on the urban scale is done.
4 Integrated relationship between land use and transportation
Urban land use is the representation of all kinds of urban relationships in space, such as all urban infrastructure, transport flow, cash flow, social, population and economic activities. Urban land use refers to the land configuration in different levels and functions. All the elements that compose urban can be found in the land use. Purpose of land, development intensity, population density, residents and jobs density, car ownship, goods circulation and so on are included in urban land use. Urban land use scale, spatial patterns, structure and proportion of different land can figure various urban form. Urban land use has a lot of basic characteristics which can be described as following:
urban land use has strong invariance -- depends on the construction and facilities on it;
urban land use has the properties from one dollar to sexual diversity conversion;
the less urban land use intensity is, the greater its variability is. The greater urban land use intensity is, the more activities on it is;
once the nature and intensity of land use changes, some character of land use will change too, such as location, accessibility and complementary relationship;
4.2 Complexity of urban transportation subsystem
Urban transportation subsystem is very complex because of the various components and actives. And then the thing and actives carried by it also have various specialties. According to these elements, five main characters of urban transportation subsystem can be generalized which are network, spatial, plurality, zonal and timeliness. The detail discussion will be given by following.
(1) network characteristic
Urban transport system is a cross combination of different grades and quality roads.
The roads can formed different funtional components of urban transport system with various patterns. The multi-level and diversification of road, solid of traffic fashion and plurality of traffic flow decide the complexity of transport subsystem and traffic network.
(2) spatial characteristic
This feature of urban transport system refers to the strong spatial distribution characteristics of urban road traffic infrastructure carrier, traffic flow and transport vehicles carrier. There are different transport subsystems within a city or region.
(3) plurality characteristic
This feature includes two aspects. The first one is the diversity of transport infrastructure, such as motor vehicles road, non-motorable roads, fast road, urban rail and so on. The second one is the diversity of vehicles, such as bus, cars, trucks, bicycles, trams, dtrans and etc.
(4) zonal characteristic
Due to different geographical landscape, urban transport system is not necessarily the same. Zonal characteristic of urban transport system includes the regional of road networt and the transport vehicles components. For example the chessboard-like road system (mostly in plain city), dendritic road system (mountain river network more) .
(5) timeliness characteristic
This feature refers that urban tranport will be appear different situation in one day or one year. For example the morning and evening peak and the tourist season of one year.
4.3 Mutual relationship between land use and transportation
The complex relationship between land use and transportation has been mentioned probably in the former content. Now the detail discussion will be done in this paragraph. Firstly the impact of urban land use on transport subsystem will be put forward. Secondly the impact of transport on urban land use will be talked about.
(1) impacts of urban land use on transport subsystem
Many characteristics of urban land use have impacts on the transport system. Some scholars have paid much research on this. Size factors such as population, job and house; Density factors such as land use density; Distribution factors such as land use structure, urban centers and so on, all these factors have strong impacts on transport. High density development and bus dependence have strong relationship. Land use density affects the trip model, thereby affects the transport system model. In general, high-density land use and transit travel patterns have corresponding relationship. In additional land use can decide the trip generation and the traffic pattern of one city.
(2) impacts of transport subsystem on urban land use
Urban Traffic System has profound impacts on urban spatial form. With the transport vehicles escalation, the urban spatial form changes drastically. The famous stage division can be explained brightly: walking horse era (1800-1890), tram era (1890-1920), automobile era (1920-1945) and the expressway era (1945 - now). Accessibility, connecting of land availability and land use policies also have the impacts. In additional urban transport construction has an important impact on the land price around it. So the change of transport accessibility will shorten the trip time. The TOD model can also give us that transport subsystem will affect the patterns of urban land use for the improvement of accessibility. A new traffic route will take tremendous influence on the land use around it and then change the function of the land use.
5 Ideas for GIS in integration of landuse and transportation
At present, GIS has been widely applied in the different sectors of the national economy. However what role can GIS play in the study for interaction of urban landuse and transport display. How can GIS provide a powerful support? In this section these questions on the interaction analysis will be discussed.
5.1 Data management and visualization express
GIS supports two type data namely vector data and raster data. Attribute data can be integrated to these two type data which may convert each other. As description mentioned, urban land use data and transportation data can be abstracted as point, line and polygon which can be dealt with GIS (see Fig.4). Data management in GIS is based on database technology, and it has the powerful data storage, query, retrieval and inquiries and etc.
The main expression of GIS is visualization expression. During the process of researches on interaction of urban land use and urban transportation, the analysis result can be expressed through various means (such as: maps, video, animation and virtual reality technology). The relationship between them is glance and let observer can easily understand what they mean.
5.2 GIS spatial analysis and statistics
GIS spatial analysis functions are the major indication different from other information systems. It has greatly enriched the traditional analysis methods. GIS spatial analysis in common used includes buffer analysis and overlay analysis(see Fig.5 and Fig.6).
(1) buffer analysis
Buffer analysis which is one of the basic methods is based on point, line and pologon entities in the database and buffer polygon can be established automatically within specified width. For example impacts of one road on the landuse near it within certain distance.
(2) overlay analysis
overlay analysis is intersect different characters layers with the same scale in the same place. After overlay analysis the deprived data own all property both of different layers. For example, the percentage of road area in different landuse can be obtained after overlay of road layer and landuse layer.
5.3 GIS integrated model database
GIS also has the model database management and model building function. In GIS, besides the traditional geography model and other professional model, such as hydrology, climate, geology and so on, user can build its own model according to his need. So the transportation forecasting model, landuse forecasting model, integrated model of landuse and transportation can be expanded into the GIS model database, and then user can do its jobs in GIS directly.
5.4 Framework for integrated study of landuse and transportation based on GIS
Using GIS for integrated relationship between landuse and transportation need not only make the best of various GIS technology, but also integrates urban landuse and transportation system into GIS and form an independent platform. It will not only have GIS data management, expression and spatial analysis functions, but also have the interaction analysis function of urban land use and transport system, especially special prediction model. Framework for integrated study of urban landuse and transportation based on GIS is generalized (see Fig.7).
Current integrated models of land use and transport models are based on the existing theory and using mathematics and simulation methods to solve practical problems. However, integrated theory of urban landuse and transportation by experience theory and models does not reach consensus. This need find a new method by which the integrated mode can be clearly understood. Fortunately GIS can provide us new possibility for these studies.
In this study the problems on the interaction between urban land use and transport system are summarized. The potential advantage of GIS to analyze their interaction relationship is put forward. The study flow of integrated study of urban landuse and traffic with GIS is designed and a new way is provided to understand the interaction of urban landuse and transportation.
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Tab.1 Integrated models of landuse and traffic of city
Land use modeling package of DELTA,UK linked with the transport model of START
Integrated transportation and land use package (often referred to as DRAM/EMPAL)
Leeds integrated land use/transport model developed by R.L. Mackett
Five-stage land use and transport model developed by F.J. Martinez for Santiago de Chile
Projective optimization land use information system
Transport and land use model developed by T. de la Barra
Population density by traditional statistical method
Population density by GIS method
Fig.3 Population density obtained by different method
Fig.5 Scattered point and line data to continuous surface data
Fig.6 Spatial analysis and Statistics