|REL 340 CHRISTIANITY
Instructor: Dr. Austra Reinis
Office: Strong Hall 259
Office Hours: Monday 2-6 pm
Wednesday 8-9 am
OR by appointment
Phone: 836-8524 (office); 836-5514 (department)
1. Welcome to Religion 340 – Christianity! I am pleased that you have enrolled in this course and I hope that we will work together to make it an enjoyable and rewarding experience for all!
2. Course Description: The development of Christianity into a world religion: persons, events, ideas from the first century A.D. to the present.
Comments: REL 340 introduces the student to the history of Christianity from an academic non-sectarian perspective. This means that the professor does not address content as the exclusive possession of any particular religious group, but rather as belonging to the common heritage of Western Civilization. The student will be asked to make his/her own assessment of course materials/information in the light of scholarly historical methodology. In so doing, the student will see the history of Christianity from a new perspective, learn to ask new questions, and come to make judgments in the light of historical evidence.
3. Religion Courses in a State University: The United States Supreme Court (Abington vs. Schempp) in 1963 encouraged the objective study of religion. As a result, we teach a course in the history of Christianity here at SMSU. Of course, the approach taken here must of necessity be different from the approach taken by religious groups or at a religious college. At a state university, the approach must be objective – i.e., we (both instructor and students) will not advocate or promote a given religious position, but rather we will look at the material from a historical-cultural perspective, and discuss various options for interpreting the material. On the one hand, you do not have to have a faith commitment in this course. On the other hand, you will not be asked to abandon your faith. Our purpose will be to increase your knowledge and understanding of the history of Christianity, and to help you think carefully and in new ways about its significance in the world, past and present.
4. Course Objectives: REL 340, Christianity, introduces students to the history of Christianity as a world religion. The goals of the course are:
a. To become familiar with the major persons, events, and ideas of Christian history.
b. To explore how past events have led to the development of contemporary churches, denominations, movements, and beliefs.
c. To explore the mutual interaction over time between religion and culture.
d. To become acquainted with historical scholarly methodology.
e. To develop both lower and higher order critical and creative thinking skills, better oral and written communication skills, affective skills (attitudes, concerns, value sets), aesthetic responsiveness, and social awareness and responsibility. A more complete enumeration of course competencies is appended to this syllabus.
5. Classroom Procedures: Learning in this class will be a group enterprise. As a class, we (instructor and students) will try to develop into a team of learners who help each other to maximize each other’s potential. Classroom procedures will include lecture, class discussion, student presentations, quizzes, and examinations. Students are expected to read the assigned materials, reflect on the assigned discussion questions, participate in discussion, ask questions at any time, and seek clarification of any point by contacting the instructor before or after class, or during office hours.
6. Attendance: The University has no plan for recognized “cuts” and the same policy applies to this class. It is expected that all students will attend class regularly. Students will find it virtually impossible to excel in this course without attending every class session.
(70 points) Class participation: Students are expected to read the assigned primary sources and to answer the assigned discussion questions. Ten times during the semester the instructor will either collect the discussion questions or will give a quiz on the reading. Seven of these questions / quizzes (10 points each) will count toward the final grade. No make-ups are possible in this category.
(20 points) “Hot seat”: Students will sign up for two discussion sections (10 points each, one before Feb 25 and the other after) for which they will come to class prepared to lead group discussion on a primary source. The “hot seat” signups must be for texts other than the ones chosen for the student’s papers. Expected preparation will include researching the historical context of the text. Questions to ask: Who is writing this (name, biography, significance)? When is he / she writing (date, name of “period” in history)? Where is he / she writing this (city, country)? Why is he / she writing this? What has he / she read or seen or experienced that he / she wishes to describe or to react to? What does he / she want to accomplish? Who is supposed to read or use this text (addressee)? How does the text address the historical situation? Try, first, to find the answers to these questions in the text itself. Then read the introduction to the text, if there is one in the book. You may want to consult a reference work or two from the attached bibliography.
(40 points) Class presentation: A 5-7 minute class presentation on one of the persons or topics listed on the syllabus (or, in consultation with the instructor, a person or topic of the student’s choice). See attached guidelines for preparing a presenation.
(140 points) Two 3-4 page papers (70 points each, one due before Feb 25, the other after) dealing with the assigned primary source readings (not with a textbook reading). See attached guidelines on writing the papers and explanation of grading criteria.
(100 points) Midterm examination – Early Church -- objective questions and essay.
(30 points) Terms quiz – Medieval Church -- objective questions only.
(100 points) Final examination – Reformation to Present – objective questions and essay.
Total 500 points
Extra credit – both possibilities may be taken advantage of – both worth 5 points – will make a difference in cases of borderline grades:
One: Visit the instructor during office hours to get acquainted and ask questions. This visit needs to take place by Feb. 9.
Two: Field trip to St. Thomas’ Orthodox Church.
Make-up exams -- Students unable to take the terms quiz or either of the exams on the announced dates must make alternative arrangements with the instructor BEFORE the exam. There will be no make-up exams given under any other circumstances. Instead, the student will be required to write an additional, longer (6-7 pages) paper on an upcoming primary source reading.
Grading criteria for exam essay questions
A = answers the question in a well-written coherent essay with an intelligent main idea and convincing historical examples to back it up.
B = answers the question in a coherent essay with a plausible main idea and some examples.
C = answers the question with some defensible notion and one decent piece of evidence.
D = barely answers the question with poor evidence.
F = does not answer the question or offer any evidence.
Contesting a grade – No one is infallible, not even the course instructor. Mathematical errors in the computation of grades are to be brought to the instructor’s attention immediately. If a student believes that an essay or a presentation has been graded unfairly, then he / she is to make a written case for a higher (or lower!) grade in writing. The argument, together with the essay / presentation notes in question, is to be handed in for consideration by the instructor within a week from the day on which the grade was received.
8. SMSU is a community of scholars committed to developing educated persons who accept the responsibility to practice personal and academic integrity. You are responsible for knowing and following SMSU’s student honor code, Student Academic Integrity Policies and Procedures, available at http://www.smsu.edu/acadaff/Academic Integrity.html and also available at the Reserves Desk in Meyer Library. Any student participating in any form of academic dishonesty will be subject to sanctions as described in this policy.
9.To request accommodations for disability, contact Katheryne Staeger-Wilson, Director, Disability Services, Plaster Student Union, Suite 405, (417) 836-4192 or (417) 836-6792 (TTY), http://www.smsu.edu/disability. Students are required to provide documentation of disability to Disability Services prior to receiving accommodations. Disability Services refers some types of accommodation requests to the Learning Diagnostic Clinic, which also provides diagnostic testing for learning and psychological disabilities. For information about testing, contact Dr. Steve Capps, Director, Learning Diagnostic Clinic, (417) 836-4787, http://www.smsu.edu/contrib/Idc.
10.SMSU is an equal opportunity/affirmative action institution, and maintains a grievance procedure available to any person who believes he or she has been discriminated against. At all times, it is your right to address inquiries or concerns about possible discrimination to Jana Estergard, Equal Opportunity Officer, Siceluff Hall 296, (417) 836-4252. Other types of concerns (i.e., concerns of an academic nature) should be addressed directly with your instructor and can also be brought to the attention of your instructor’s Department Head.
11.Cell phone policy: As a member of the learning community, each student has a responsibility to other students who are members of the community. When cell phones or pagers ring and students respond in class or leave class to respond, it disrupts the class. Therefore, the Office of Academic Affairs prohibits the use by students of cell phones, pagers, or similar communication devices during scheduled classes. All such devices must be turned off or put in a silent mode and cannot be taken out during class. At the discretion of the instructor, exception to this policy is possible in special circumstances. For the text of the full policy see http://www.smsu.edu/acadaff/policies/cellphonesinclasses.doc.
12.It is your responsibility to understand the University’s procedure for dropping a class. If you stop attending this class but do not follow proper procedure for dropping a class, you will receive a failing grade and will also be financially obligated to pay for the class. To drop a class anytime after the first week of classes, you must complete and turn in a drop slip at an authorized registration center (see http://www.smsu.edu/recreg/ chnsched.html). You do not need to obtain any signatures on the drop slip. It does not need to be signed by your instructor, your advisor, or a department head. If you wish to withdraw from the University (i.e., drop all your classes), contact the Registration Center, Carrington 320, 836-5522.
13. Required Texts:
Noll, Mark A. Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1997.
The readings from primary sources will be available both in hard copy in the library and on e-reserve.
14. Tentative Course Schedule
DATE TOPIC, READINGS, ASSIGNMENTS
M, Jan 10 Who’s who? What’s happenin?
Historical methodology: Research tools for church history.
PART I: Christianity in the East
W, Jan 12 The Early Church in its Greco-Roman and Jewish Contexts
Reading: Noll, Ch.1
F, Jan 14 Historical methodology: Writing a paper on a primary source.
Discussion of reading: The Didache, in Early Christian Fathers, Library of Christian
Classics (LCC), vol. 1, pp. 161-79
M, Jan 17 MARTIN LUTHER KING HOLIDAY
W, Jan 19 Confrontation with Culture and with the State: Apologetics and Martyrdom
F, Jan 21 Presentations: Ignatius of Antioch, Origen of Alexandria
Discussion of reading: The Martyrdom of Perpetua in The Acts of the Christian
Martyrs, ed. Musurillo, pp. xxv-xxvii and 106-31
M, Jan 24 Confrontation within the Church: Heresy and Orthodoxy
Reading: Noll, Ch. 2
W, Jan 26 The Arian and Trinitarian Controversies
F, Jan 28 Presentations: Eusebius of Caesarea, Ulfilas (Arian missions)
Discussion of reading: “Documents Illustrating the Christology of the Ecumenical Councils,” in Christology of the Later Fathers, LCC 3:329-45
M, Jan 31 The Constantinian Transformation
Reading: Noll, Ch. 3
W, Feb 2 The Monastic Reaction – Eastern Monasticism and Donatism
F, Feb 4 Historical methodology: Footnotes and bibliographies
Presentations: Saint Macrina, Saint Basil of Caesarea
M, Feb 7 The Christological Controversies: Nestorians and Jacobites
Reading: Noll, Ch. 4
W, Feb 9 The Eastern Churches and Islam
F, Feb 11 Presentations: Maronite Christianity, Bar Hebraeus (1226-1286)
Discussion of reading: Jacob of Serug, On the Mother of God, pp. iii-v, 15, 43-64
[Field trip to St. Thomas Orthodox Church (5 points extra credit)]
M, Feb 14 Byzantine Christianity I
W, Feb 16 Byzantine Christianity II
F, Feb 18 Historical methodology: Critical evaluation of sources, including internet sources.
Discussion of reading: John of Damascus, On the Divine Images (2003), First
Apology, pp. 7-36
M, Feb 21 PRESIDENTS’ DAY HOLIDAY
PART II: Christianity in the West
W, Feb 23 MIDTERM EXAMINATION
F, Feb 25 Augustine of Hippo
M, Feb 28 Return exam
The Early Middle Ages: Benedict and Western Monasticism
W, Mar 2 The Early Middle Ages: Gregory, Charlemagne, and Boniface (OR, Papacy, Empire, and Missions)
Reading: Noll, Ch. 5
F, Mar 4 Presentations: St. Patrick of Ireland, “Pope Joan”
Discussion of reading: St. Augustine, Confessions, Book 8
M, Mar 7 The High Middle Ages: The Crusades and the East-West Schism
Reading: Noll, Ch. 6
W, Mar 9 The High Middle Ages: Scholasticism
F, Mar 11 Presentations: Abelard, Hildegard of Bingen
Video: Ordo virtutum. Excerpts from the morality play by Hildegard of Bingen.
M, Mar 14 The Late Middle Ages: Renaissance and Humanism
W, Mar 16 The Late Middle Ages: Late Medieval Piety
F, Mar 18 Presentations: Christine de Pisan, Margery Kempe
Discussion of reading: Selected primary texts from Catholic England, ed. R.N.
Swanson, pp. 53-58, 78-91, 249-53
M, Mar 21 TERMS QUIZ
The German Reformation: Martin Luther
Reading: Noll, Ch. 7
W, Mar 23 Return quiz
The German Reformation: Martin Luther (cont.)
Discussion of reading: Martin Luther, “The Freedom of a Christian,” in The Protestant
Reformation, ed. Hillerbrand, pp. 3-28
F, Mar 25 – F, Apr 1 SPRING BREAK
M, Apr 4 The Reformation in Great Britain
Movie: A Man for all Seasons – Sir Thomas More (excerpts)
Reading: Noll, Ch. 8
W, Apr 6 Catholic Reform and Counter-Reformation
Reading: Noll, Ch. 9
F, Apr 8 Presentations: Ulrich Zwingli, Conrad Grebel
Discussion of reading: Ignatius of Loyola, Spiritual Exercises, pp. 289-309
M, Apr 11 Pietism, Methodism, and Missions
Reading: Noll, Ch. 10
W, Apr 13 The Enlightenment and Deism
F, Apr 15 Presentations: Charles Wesley’s hymns, Halle Bible Society
Discussion of reading: Jean-Jacques Roussean, excerpts from the Savoyard Vicar
M, Apr 18 Christianity in the Thirteen American Colonies and the Great Awakening
W, Apr 20 Revolutions in the United States and France and the Churches
Reading: Noll, Ch. 11
F, Apr 22 Presentations: Anne Hutchinson, “The Cult of Reason”
Discussion of reading: John Locke, A Letter Concerning Toleration
M, Apr 25 Protestantism in Europe in the Nineteenth Century
W, Apr 27 Catholicism in Europe in the Nineteenth Century
F, Apr 29 Presentations: Nineteenth-century French nuns, Johann Hinrich Wichern
Discussion of reading: Ernest Renan, The Life of Jesus, pp. 198-227
M, May 2 Nineteenth-Century Colonial Expansion and the Missionary Enterprise
Reading: Noll, Ch. 12-13
W, May 4 Presentations: A 19th c. American Woman Missionary; a 19th c. British Woman Missionary; the World Council of Churches
Wrap-up and review
FINAL EXAM: Wednesday, May 11, 8:45-10:45
Guidelines for Preparing Class Presentations:
1. Consider the preparation of your presentation as a “cross-cultural experience.” You will be researching the life of a person – or of a group – who lived in a time and place very different from your own.
2. Consider this project also as an exercise in detective work. You have chosen a person or topic which, if your instructor is to be believed, is somehow significant. Ask yourself:
a. How can I even know that this person existed (or this event happened)? What is the historical evidence for it – writings by this person? contemporary references to this person? contemporary biographies? Check at least two reference works from the attached bibliography! You may also want to check to ATLA Religion database for recent articles on the person / subject. Watch for differences of opinion in these works! In your presentation, indicate which works you have used! (For comparison, you may look up your person / subject in the internet. Contrast the information provided on the web with that which you find in the reference works. Does your web page give references to primary sources? Does it cite secondary literature?)
b. What kind of time (historical period) and place (city, country, regime) did this person live in? What cultural, political, or religious issues of the day were of interest to him or her? How did this person address the burning issues of his or her day? Here you might refer to your instructor’s lectures or to your textbook.
c. Provide a brief biographical sketch of the person. If he is an author, cite his most important work or works.
d. Assess the significance of this person for the later history of Christianity.
3. Thirdly, consider this project as an exercise in effective public speaking. For the 5-7 minutes that you will be speaking, you will be the course instructor. Ask yourself: Can I relate my person / topic to material covered in the instructor’s lectures? What are the three most significant things about my person or topic? How will I help my fellow-students to remember my main points? Consider using the marker board, bringing in a book or picture, preparing a handout or a power-point presentation.
4. And finally, provide for your instructor a one-page outline of your presentation with a properly formatted bibliography of the works which you have used.
Some Pointers on Writing Academic Papers:
1. Consider the reading of a primary source as a "cross-cultural experience." You will be listening to and trying to understand a voice speaking from a time, place, and experience which is very different from your own.
2. As you prepare to write the paper, read the text and answer the study questions. The latter are designed to help you identify the main points made in the reading.
3. In writing the paper:
a. Situate the primary text in its historical context (1 page).
Questions to ask: Who is writing this (name, biography, significance)? When is he / she writing (date, name of “period” in history)? Where is he / she writing this (city, country)? Why is he / she writing this? What has he / she read or seen or experienced that he / she wishes to describe or to react to?) What does he / she want to accomplish? Who is supposed to read or use this text (addressee)? How does the text address the historical situation? Try, first, to find the answers to these questions in the text itself. Then read the introduction to the text, if there is one in the book. You may want to consult a reference work or two from the attached bibliography. Footnote the sources of your answers appropriately. Avoid quoting class lectures. DO NOT use internet references here unless you include a statement in which you discuss their quality, reliablity, and possible bias.
b. State your thesis. OR State what you plan to do in the body of the paper (one sentence).
c. The body of the paper (2 –2 1/2 pages) may consist either of:
c.1. A summary of the text in your own words. Illustrate each significant point with an appropriately footnoted direct quotation from the text.
c.2. A discussion of one particular motif or aspect of the argument. Illustrate each significant point with an appropriately footnoted direct quotation from the text. (You may want to consult with the instructor if you choose this option.)
d. Conclusion (1/2-1 page). Summarize what you have discovered in writing this paper. Then reflect on the following questions: What is the author saying that is “new” or “revolutionary” for his or her time? How do you think the first people who read it might have reacted to it? What does this text contribute to your understanding of the given period in the history of Christianity? ...to your understanding of subsequent events? ...to your understanding of Christianity in America today?
d. DO NOT write about your personal reaction to the text or discuss what application the text might have in your personal life. Also, DO NOT insert your personal value judgments into the text. Remember that this is a state university at which we are all supposed to be making an attempt to be objective. We are trying not advocate or promote a given religious position, but rather to look at the material from a historical-cultural perspective, to and discuss various options for interpreting it (see paragraph 3 on page 1).
IF THIS WILL BE YOUR FIRST ATTEMPT AT WRITING AN ACADEMIC PAPER OF THIS TYPE, please to not hesitate to make an appointment to talk to the professor (after you have read the text and come up with some questions). If you wish, you may submit a draft to the professor (at least 48 hours before the paper is due) and we can discuss it.
4. Technical matters:
a. Each paper is to be 3-4 pages (900-1200 words) long; typed; double-spaced. (Papers exceeding 1200 words will NOT be accepted.)
b. For the formatting of citations and footnotes follow Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (1996) or The Chicago Manual of Style (2003), 15th ed. Papers without proper formatting of citations will automatically have 10% (of 100%) subtracted from their grade. Pay attention to the proper use of punctuation.
c. Please add a bibliography if you have consulted material other than the primary text and the introduction to it.
d. DO NOT submit a separate title or cover page.
e. Please staple the pages together; DO NOT submit the paper in a plastic or other cover.
f. Papers are due on the date indicated on the syllabus. Late papers will have a grade deducted for each day they are late.
ENJOY THE CROSS-CULTURAL EXPERIENCE!!!
Grading Criteria for Presentations and Papers:
What follows is to give you a better idea of how I read and evaluate your presentations and papers:
EXCELLENT – (6) …commands attention because it is an insightful, cogent response to the assignment. Reasoning is persuasive and supported by relevant examples. The central point is focused, clearly defined, and gracefully stated. Ideas are expressed clearly, directly, concisely…
GOOD – (5) … thoughtful, well-developed response to the assignment. Reasoning is sensible and supported by appropriate examples. The central idea is focused and clearly defined. Ideas are usually expressed clearly but the prose is characterized by a lack of directness and/or conciseness…
FAIR (4) …an adequate response to the assignment and develops that response with acceptable reasoning and adequate examples, but these examples are sometimes sketchy, vague, or repetitious. The central point is apparent but not clearly stated. Ideas are usually expressed clearly but the prose is characterized by a lack of directness and/or conciseness…
POOR (3) …illogical and incomplete response to the assignment. While some good examples are provided, for the most part the paper is underdeveloped. The central point is confusing, sometimes contradictory, and not explicitly stated. Ideas are not at all clear…
UNACCEPTABLE (0) … a simplistic, inappropriate and/or incoherent response to the assignment. The central point is not apparent and it is inappropriately brief. Ideas are not at all clear…
Bibliography of reference works in the history of Christianity:
ATLA Database for books, articles, and book reviews in religion (1949-present); available through SMSU Library home page.
The Catholic Encyclopedia; an international work of reference on the constitution, doctrine, discipline, and history of the Catholic church, edited by Charles G. Herbermann, Edward A. Pace, Condé B. Pallen, Thomas J. Shahan, John J. Wynne; assisted by numerous collaborators. New York: Appleton, [1907-12].
The Concise Dictionary of Early Christianity, [edited by?] Joseph F. Kelly. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, c1992.
The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, edited by Elizabeth A. Livingstone. Oxford [Eng.] and New York: Oxford University Press, 1977.
The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church [electronic resource] , edited by E.A. Livingstone.
[Oxford]: Oxford University Press, c2003.
The Encyclopedia of Religion, [editor in chief, Mircea Eliade ; editors, Charles J. Adams ... et al.]. New York, NY : Macmillan, c1987.
Encyclopedia of women and world religion, edited by Serinity Young. New York : Macmillan Reference USA, c1999.
New Catholic Encyclopedia. Detroit : Thomson/Gale ; Washington, D.C. : Catholic University of America, 2003- . [Available on the Internet.]
The Oxford Dictionary of Saints, [edited by?] David Hugh Farmer. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, edited by F. L. Cross. Oxford, [Eng.] and New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation, edited by Hans J. Hillerbrand et al. Oxford, [Eng.] and New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Footnoting and bibliographies:
In the discipline of Church History, the Turabian and Chicago Manual of Style systems of footnoting are commonly used. A detailed description of appropriate annotation is given in:
Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (1996), pp. 185-213
The Chicago Manual of Style (2003), 15th ed.
The following are some common examples, adapted from Turabian’s book.
[Note: Journal and Book titles should be in italics when typed, underlined when hand-written.]
1 Celia Allison Hahn, Growing in Authority, Relinquishing Control: A New Approach to Faithful Leadership (Bethesda: Alban Institute, 1994), 58-59.
Hahn, Celia Allison. Growing in Authority, Relinquishing Control: A New Approach to Faithful Leadership. Bethesda: Alban Institute, 1994.
2 David J. Hesselgrave, and Edward Rommen, eds., Contextualization: Meanings, Methods, and Models (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1989), 189-193.
Hesselgrave, David J., and Edward Rommen, eds. Contextualization: Meanings, Methods, and Models. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1989.
3 Fred Plogg, Clifford J. Jolly, and Daniel G. Bates, Anthropology: Decisions, Adaptation, and Evolution (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1976), 245.
Plogg, Fred, Clifford J. Jolly, and Daniel G. Bates. Anthropology: Decisions, Adaptation, and Evolution. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1976.
More than Three Authors
4 Martin Greenberger and others, eds., Networks for Research and Education: Sharing of Computer and Information Resources Nationwide (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1974), 50.
Greenberger, Martin, Julius Aronofsky, James L. McKenney, and William F Massy, eds. Networks for Research and Education: Sharing of Computer and Information Resources Nationwide. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1974.
Author’s Work Translated or Edited by Another
5 Jean Piaget and Bärbel Inhelder, The Psychology of the Child, trans. Helen Weaver (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1969), 78-81.
Piaget, Jean, and Bärbel Inhelder. The Psychology of the Child. Translated by Helen Weaver. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1969.
Edition Other Than the First
6 Kate Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1996), 185-213.
Turabian, Kate. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1996.
Component Part Within a Work By Another
7 Bernard M. Bass and Bruce J. Avolio, “Transformational Leadership: A Response to Critiques,” in Leadership Theory and Research: Perspectives and Directions, ed. Martin M. Chemers and Roya Ayman (San Diego: Academic, 1993), 66-70.
Bass, Bernard M., and Bruce J. Avolio. “Transformational Leadership: A Response to Critiques.” In Leadership Theory and Research: Perspectives and Directions, ed. Martin M. Chemers and Roya Ayman, 49-80. San Diego: Academic, 1993.
Authors of Forewords and Introductions
Authors of forewords of introductions to books by other authors should be omitted from the note citation
and the bibliography entry unless the foreword or introduction is the item cited. In that case the author of
the foreword or introduction is given first, and the name of the author of the work itself follows the title,
from which it is separated by a comma and the word by.
27 Mark Harris, introduction to With the Procession, by Henry Fuller (Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 1965), iv.
28 Nodj Namsorg, foreword to The Psychodynamics of Chronic Stress, by Salvador Mensana (New York: Isadore O’Mally and Son, 1990), xi.
Harris, Mark. Introduction to With the Procession, by Henry B. Fuller. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986.
Namsorg, Nodj. Foreword to The Psychodynamics of Chronic Stress, by Salvador Mensana. New York: Isadore O’Mally and Son, 1990.
8 Sadiq Jalal al-Azm, An-naqd adh-dhati ba’d al-hazimah (Self-Criticism After the Defeat) (Beirut: Dar At-Tali’ah, 1968), 53.
Azm, Sadiq Jalal al-. An-naqd adh-dhati ba’d al-hazimah (Self-Criticism After the Defeat). Beirut: Dar At-Tali’ah, 1968.
Thesis or Dissertation
9 Jean B. Brunner, “Study of Elementary School Children’s Concepts of Leadership” (M.A. thesis, American University of Beirut, 1963), 34.
Brunner, Jean B. “Study of Elementary School Children’s Concepts of Leadership.” M.A. thesis, American University of Beirut, 1963.
10 Conrad Consalvi, “Some Cross- and Intracultural Comparisons of Expressed Values of Arab and American College Students,” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 2 (March 1971): 101.
Consalvi, Conrad. “Some Cross- and Intracultural Comparisons of Expressed Values of Arab and American College Students.” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 2 (March 1971): 95-107.
Article in Magazine or Newspaper
11 Bruce Weber, “The Myth Maker: The Creative Mind of Novelist E.L. Doctorow,” New York Times Magazine, 20 October 1985, 42.
Weber, Bruce. “The Myth Maker: The Creative Mind of Novelist E.L. Doctorow.” New York Times Magazine, 20 October 1985, 42.
Article in Encyclopedia
[Well-known reference books are generally not listed in bibliographies. In notes the facts of publication are usually omitted, but the edition, if not the first, must be specified.]]
Unsigned article in encyclopedia
Note: 41 Columbia Encyclopedia, 5th ed., s.v. “cold war.”
Signed article in encyclopedia
12 Morris Jastow, “Nebo,” in Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th ed.
Online referencing follows the same procedure as regular referencing, except in that it includes title of site (if relevant), access date, and . Note the following examples:
13 Jack Vaughan, “Analysis: Interference Issues Hinder Bluetooth,” CNN.com, 12 January 2001, <http://www.cnn.com\>.
Vaughan, Jack. “Analysis: Interference Issues Hinder Bluetooth.” CNN.com. 12 January 2001. <http://www.cnn.com\>.
14 R. Brent Tully, et.al., “Global Extinction in Spiral Galaxies,” Astronomical Journal, 115:6 (1998): 9 pp., 15 January 2001, <http://www.journals.uchicago>.
Tully, R. Brent, et.al. “Global Extinction in Spiral Galaxies.” Astronomical Journal. 115:6 (1998): 9 pp. 15 January 2001. <http://www.journals.uchicago>.
15 Ron Bechtel, “Liberation Theology,” e-mail to Peter Smith, 14 August 2001.
Bechtel, Ron. “Liberation Theology.” E-mail to Peter Smith. 14 August 2001.
16 Natalie Angier, “Chemists Learn Why Vegetables Are Good for You,” New York Times, 13 April 1993, late ed., New York Times on Disc, (CD-ROM, UMI-Proquest, October 1993).
Angier, Natalie. “Chemists Learn Why Vegetables Are Good for You.” New York Times. 13 April 1993, late ed. New York Times on Disc. CD-ROM. UMI-Proquest. October 1993.
17John 3:16-18 (New Revised Standard Version).
The Bible. New Revised Standard Version.
Once a work has been cited in complete form, later references to it are shortened. For this, short titles should be used. The use of ibid., op. cit. and loc. cit., formerly common in scholarly references, is now discouraged.
Reference to a work that has already been cited in full form, but not in a note immediately preceding, is made by giving: the author’s family name; title of book, chapter, or article (shortened where possible); and specific page reference. Some examples are given below:
20 Hahn, Growing in Authority, 58.
21 Plogg, Jolly, and Bates, Anthropology, 256.
22 Greenberger et.al., Networks for Research and Education, 54.
23 Bass and Avolio, “Transformational Leadership,” 73.
24 Consalvi, “Some Cross- and Intracultural Comparisons,” 102.
The Didache – Study Questions
“The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles.” In Early Christian Fathers. Edited and translated by Cyril C. Richardson. Philadelphia, PA: The Westminster Press, 1953.
1. Richardson observes that the Didache appears to consist of two originally independent texts: a moral catechism and a church order.
a. What part of the Mediteranean world may the catechism have come from? When might it have been written? Why does R. think so?
b. What part of the Mediteranean world may the church order have come from? When might it have been written? Why does R. think so?
2. Who, when, and where put the two parts together? Why does R. think so?
3. How has this text been passed down through the generations to the present day? What are some of the earliest versions of the text available to us? What languages are they written in? How “reliable” are these text versions?
4. “The moral catechism”
a. What “is the way of life’?
b. What is the “second commandment of the Teaching”?
c. What does the catechism say about the responsibilities of Christians as members of congregations?
d. What does it say about the duties of the “pater familias” (= head of the household)?
e. How must a church meeting begin?
5. “The church order”: What does it say about the following topics? To save paper, write your answers on the back of this page!
e. Eucharist (Is it a meal here or a ritual separate from a meal? What very important part of the eucharistic ritual as most churches know it today is missing?)
f. The service of the Lord’s day
g. Different types of clergy or ministers
15. What have you learned from this text about early Christianity?
16. What have you learned about historical methodology?
The Martyrdom of Perpetua – Study Questions
The Martyrdom of Perpetua, in The Acts of the Christian Martyrs, ed. Musurillo, pp. xxv-xxvii and 106-31
1. Who is the author of ¶1 and 2? What can we conclude about his/her understanding of Christianity? OR What seems to be important in his/her understanding of Christianity?
2. Who is the author of ¶3 thru 10? What do we learn about her social standing and her family? What about her husband?
3. When and where is this drama taking place? How do we know?
4. What does Perpetua see in her first vision? What allusions to scripture can be found here?
5. What type of attitude toward family is evidenced in Perpetua’s relationship with her father, mother, and child?
6. What happens at Perpetua’s hearing before the governor Hilarianus?
7. What does Perpetua see in her second and third visions? How might the visions be interpreted?
8. What does Perpetua see in her fourth vision? What is her interpretation of the vision?
9. In what ways does Perpetua’s account reflect a woman’s point of view?
10. Who is the author of ¶11-13? What does he see? What allusions to scripture are made?
11. Who is the author of ¶14-21?
12. Who is Felicitas? What is her social standing?
13. What did the martyrs celebrate on the day before their death?
14. How does the author describe the actual martyrdom of Perpetua and her companions? What further liturgical references do you notice in ¶18-21?
15. What have you learned from this text about early Christianity?
16. What have you learned about historical methodology?