|Instructions: Match the word with its definition.
a) to be an example of or express
b) to fall like a waterfall
c) for the most part, almost wholly
d) A group of three
e) unpleasantly cramped, confined, or closed in:
ab) possessed, experienced, performed, etc., by each of two or more with respect to the other; reciprocal:
Instructions: Bubble in the letter of the main idea for each paragraph.
8. Being a clown isn’t all fun and games. Rodeo clowns expose themselves to great danger every time they perform. When cowboys dismount or are bucked off of bulls at riding competitions, rodeo clowns jump in front of the bulls and motion wildly to get their attention. In this way rodeo clowns provide an alternate target, and in doing so protect the rider. So you see, sometimes clowning around can be serious business.
a) Rodeo clowning is dangerous.
b) Rodeo clowns are an alternate target for bulls.
c) Rodeo clowns.
d) The details of a rodeo clown’s life.
9. The wolverine, a medium sized mammal weighing no more than 50 lbs., has earned its reputation for ferocity with its documented ability to kill prey many times its size. The reason why wolverines have so many conflicts with other animals (including wolves, cougars, and even bears) is probably because of the wolverine’s preferred hunting style. Rather than chasing down or tricking its prey like most hunters, the wolverine prefers to take its meals directly from other hunters. So while a polar bear or a lone wolf might be enjoying a hard earned carcass, a hungry wolverine may try to take his lunch. This keeps the wolverine in plenty of fights.
a) Wolverines fight a lot because they steal other hunters’ prey.
b) Wolverines are small.
c) Wolverines rivals include cougars and bears.
d) Polar bears usually kill their own prey.
10. Sometime in December of 1891, Dr. James Naismith, a gym teacher at the YMCA College in Springfield, Massachusetts was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day. He wanted a vigorous game that would keep his students moving. After rejecting a few other ideas because they were too rough or not suited for the walled-in gym, Naismith wrote out the rules for a game with peach baskets fixed to ten-foot elevated tracks. Naismith’s students played against one another, passing the ball around and shooting it into the peach baskets. Dribbling wasn’t a part of the original game, and it took a while to realize that the game would run more smoothly if the bottoms of the baskets were removed, but this game grew to be one of the most popular sports in America today. Can you guess which one?
a) Basketball was invented as an impromptu PE activity.
c) Basketball is a vigorous game.
d) Naismith invented basketball.
11. What’s that humming sound? Could it be hummingbird, the only bird capable of backward flight? Hummingbirds have many unique flight habits that distinguish them from other birds. Most birds flap their wings up and down to fly, but the hummingbird moves its wings forward and backward very rapidly in a figure eight pattern. This allows the hummingbird to hover in position, fly upside down, and move about very rapidly. And while other birds have to push off with their feet to begin flying, and work their ways up to their top speeds, the hummingbird can both start flying at maximum speed and stop flying instantaneously. After you’ve seen a hummingbird in flight, it’s unlikely that you’ll mistake them for another bird.
a) Humming birds can fly backwards.
b) Humming birds fly differently than other birds.
c) Humming birds can start off flying at maximum speed.
d) Humming birds’ wings move in a figure eight pattern.
12. Remember, if something is worth doing, it is worth doing correctly. That said, the key to making perfect cookies is merely a matter of preparation and precision. To begin with, read your cookie recipe thoroughly before baking. Make sure that you have all of the necessary ingredients before you continue. Next, use good tools and utensils. Sometimes, the craftsperson is only as good as his or her tools. By using good tools you can minimize mistakes and improve the quality of your product. Lastly, you should use top quality ingredients. Unlike in the fairytales, you can’t turn lead into gold. If you use poor quality materials, you’ll create an inferior product. So, to make perfect cookies you should use the highest quality materials available. Bon apatite!
a) To make the best cookies, you need high quality butter.
b) You can’t turn lead into gold.
c) How to make good cookies.
d) Making good cookies is merely a matter of preparation and precision.
13. The term “machine gun” is commonly applied to any gun that is designed to fire repeatedly and in rapid succession for as long as the trigger is held down. During the course of warfare, the trigger of some machine guns may be held down almost continuously for hours to create suppressant fire (rounds fired not necessarily to kill an enemy, but to prevent them from attacking). All of this firing can generate a lot of heat, which may cause the weapon to overheat and malfunction. But this situation has been addressed in a number of ways. For one, practically all machine guns fire from an open bolt, which allows air to cool the breach between bursts of fire. Additionally, some machine guns have removable barrels, which allow hot barrels to be replaced. And some advanced machine guns even have sophisticated barrel cooling systems, which maintain a functional heat level within the weapon. As you might have concluded, a lot of brain power has gone into keeping those guns firing.
a) Machine guns get hot from firing.
b) Machine guns are complex.
c) Machine guns are automatic weapons.
d) How machine guns work.
14. What do you get when you cross a robot and an astronaut? A Robonaut! Robonauts are robot helpers designed to work side-by-side with astronauts. Work on the first Robonaut began in 1997, and by 2002 Robonaut B was revealed to the public. Robonaut B may have featured interchangeable lower bodies, like four-wheel mode or hydraulic legs, but scientists and engineers continued to improve Robonaut. In February of 2010, Robonaut 2 was released to the public. Robonaut 2 moved four times faster than the first Robonaut. An advanced version of Robonaut 2 was finally tested in outer space in 2011. Robonaut functioned exactly as designed.
a) What Robonauts are.
b) The history of Ribonauts.
c) Robonauts are robots that assist astronauts in their work in space.
15. Automation is the use of machines to reduce the need for human labor. In other words automation is when jobs done by people become jobs done by robots. Automation can be a good thing. Because of automation, clothing, cars, and other manufactured products are available at good prices and in large supply. But automation can also be a bad thing. Because of automation, there are over 700,000 robots in America alone that do jobs once performed by humans. The way of automation may not be best for humanity, but it is the course we are taking.
a) Human workers are being replaced by automated machines.
b) Automation is going to result in high unemployment for Americans.
c) America uses automation.
d) What automation is.
16. From airplanes to forklifts, hydraulic power is the strength behind many amazing technologies that affect our daily lives, even the breaks on your school bus, but how do they work? First, fluid is rapidly released into a chamber through a valve. As the fluid collect, the valve is slammed shut which causes a pressure spike. Because the chamber is sealed, the pressure has nowhere to go. The hydraulic mechanism channels the pressure and provides great power. And that’s how, with the help of hydraulics, Grandma can stop a car with one foot.
a) How hydraulic power works.
b) Hydraulic power is the strength behind many amazing technologies.
c) Hydraulic power allows a weak person to do something powerful.
d) Hydraulic power harnesses the power of fluids.
17. Many people use the words cyborg and android interchangeably when, in fact, they have different meanings. Both terms refer to beings powered by robotics, but an android is powered entirely by robots. Though androids are completely mechanical, they are designed to look like humans. They may have synthetic skin, hair, and other features, but no human organs. On the other hand, cyborgs are part human and part machine. They may have robotic hands, legs, or eyes, but all cyborgs have surgically implanted technologies that enhance their abilities.
a) There is a difference between cyborgs and androids, although most people use the terms interchangeably.
b) Androids are completely mechanical.
c) Cyborgs are part human.
d) You can’t judge a book by its cover.
18. It is widely acknowledged fact that machines are stronger than people, but is it possible for them to become smarter than us too? Some scientists fear that it is, or so says the theory of technological singularity. In a nut shell, the theory of technological singularity says that when a computer becomes capable of improving its own capabilities, even in just the slightest way, it will go into an infinite loop, getting progressively smarter, which would inevitably lead to machines becoming smarter than people, or so the theory goes. Such gains in available intelligence might lead to huge improvements in science and medicine. Diseases could be cured and so forth. On the other hand, it could lead to the total domination of mankind by robots, which would be bad. I, for one, welcome our new computer overlords.
a) Machines will eventually rules the universe.
b) Technological singularity.
c) The theory of technological singularity says that robots will keep getting smarter.
d) Some scientists believe in a theory, called “technological singularity,” which states that when a computer becomes capable of improving its own capabilities, even in just the slightest way, it will go into an infinite loop, getting progressively smarter, which would inevitably lead to machines becoming smarter than people
19. Fellow Members of the Springfield Robotics Club: It has come to my attention that the workshop has been left an absolute mess on at least two separate occasions. Remember, that this is a shared space, so we must clean up behind ourselves after every meeting. It is in the spirit of keeping our club meeting space that we establish this rule: when you take a tool off the rack, put it back. If everyone puts their tools back immediately after they are done using them, there will be minimal mess to clean up, and we won’t get kicked out of the spot. So if you like having a meeting place, put your tools back.
a) Members of the Springfield Robotics Club need to keep their club space cleaner.
b) The Springfield Robotics Club.
c) Cleanliness promotes a good club atmosphere.
d) Cleaning up doesn’t take that long.