{instructions: In the following I am giving some comments/instructions inside red brackets { }



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{INSTRUCTIONS:

In the following I am giving some comments/instructions inside RED brackets {...}, which must be removed in the article and also in the picture texts.

The first passage of the article I am considering to be an ingress with flat letters, like earlier.

Also I suggest that, like in my earlier bridge articles, the illustrations of this article are published without picture numbers, which will enable you to select freely the location of the illustrations in the article.

You will note from the original 3-page article in the Tierakennusmestari TIRA 1/2011 p. 44-46 that, also in the English translation to be published the Suara Perunding the total length of the article if possible should be 3 pages, in order that the figures of the drawing are large enough to be seen reasonably.}

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Juhani VIROLA, Eur Ing-FEANI

Helsinki, Finland

http://koti.kontu.la/jvirola/cv-jv.rtf

El Puente Baluarte

- high cable-stayed bridge in Mexico
In Mexico, there is a notable bridge by name El Puente Baluarte. It is a cable-stayed bridge, vertical clearance 390 m, 3rd highest in the world [1-3]. The world’s highest bridge is the Siduhe suspension bridge in China dated 2009, vertical clearance 472 m [4].
Town of Mazatlán is situated along the Tropic of Cancer in Sinaloa State, in western coast of Mexico near the southern end of Californian Peninsula (Baja California). Town of Durango is situated in Durango State, some 200 km from Mazatlán towards inland in a beeline. A new highway is under construction between Mazatlán and Durango, near the narrow and curving old road. Along the new highway, there are many bridges and tunnels, and the Baluarte Bridge is the most notable among these. The Baluarte River with steep slopes flows around the border of Sinaloa and Durango States, and the Baluarte Bridge is situated at place by name El Palmito, near the eastern border of Sinaloa State.
The Baluarte Bridge is an ordinary 2-tower cable-stayed bridge, main span 520 m, vertical clearance 390 m, total length 1124 m including the side spans. At Mazatlán side of the bridge, there are some high intermediate piers, of which the highest is pier No. 9. It is 148 m high, which is more than twice compared with the Stadium Tower (72 m) in Helsinki, Finland.
The shape of both concrete towers resembles an inverted-Y from tower tops downwards to deck level. Below deck level the tower shape tapers towards base slab, resembling the shape of towers of the Raippaluoto Bridge near Vaasa in Finland (span 250 m). The tower at Durango side is 169 m high, the opposite tower 151 m.
Along the main span near the towers there are 44 m long sections of concrete deck measuring 22,1 m x 3,7 m, while along the middle 432 m long section there is steel deck 20,5 m x 3,0 m. The bridge deck accommodates 4 traffic lanes, 2 lanes to each direction, and there are no maintenance and light traffic lanes. The bridge deck slopes downward towards the Mazatlán side, longitudinal gradient 5 %. The highest permitted speed for vehicles along the bridge is 80 km/h [3].
The Client of the bridge is Secretaria de Comunicaciones y Transportes SCT, the Contractor for steel cables VSL Corporation Mexico S.A. The construction was commenced in 2008, the expected completion year being 2012. The construction cost is 105 million dollars (USD) [3].

Table: The five highest bridges in the world [2]

No. Bridge (main span) Height Location Year

1 Siduhe (900 m) 472 m (1) Yesanguanzhen, China 2009


2 Hegigio (470 m) 393 m (2) Otoma, Papua New Guinea 2005

3 Baluarte (520 m) 390 m (3) El Palmito, Mexico 2012


4 Balinghe (1088 m) 370 m (1) Guanling, China 2009

5 Beipanjiang (388 m) 366 m (1) Xingbeizhen, China 2003



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Bridge type:

(1) suspension bridge, (2) pipe suspension bridge, (3) cable-stayed bridge
In the above Table, the term Height = vertical clearance of the bridge = distance between bridge deck and river surface, or gorge bottom in case that there is no river underneath the bridge.
References:
[1] Juhani Virola: "Puente Baluarte – high cable-stayed bridge in Mexico" (in Finnish). Tierakennusmestari TIRA 2011:1, p. 44-46.

[2] Information and illustration kindly given by Eric Sakowski, www.highestbridges.com

[3] Information and illustration kindly given by VSL Corporation Mexico S.A.

[4] Juhani Virola: "Siduhe Bridge – world’s highest bridge built in China" (in Finnish). Tierakennusmestari TIRA 2010:2, p. 40-42.
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{INSTRUCTIONS:

In the following I am giving also some comments/instructions inside RED brackets {...}, which are to be removed in the article and also in the picture texts:

Also I suggest that, like in my earlier bridge articles, the illustrations of this article are published without picture numbers.

In the following, there is the list of the illustrations with picture texts and instructions.}

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{(1.) Baluarte-view.jpg, size ca. 880 kB, just a temporary picture number, to be removed in the picture text.}

General view of the Baluarte Bridge.

Image: Eric Sakowski
{(2.) Baluarte-long.pdf, ca. 120 kB, just a temporary picture number, to be removed in the picture text.

This set 2 drawings should be published in a size large enough, so that the figures are reasonably visible.

This set of 2 drawings must also be published in horizontal position.}

Longitudinal profile and plane of the bridge [3].
{(3.) Baluarte-2cross.pdf, ca. 55 kB, just a temporary picture number, to be removed in the picture text.

This set of 2 drawings should be published in a size large enough, so that the figures are reasonably visible.

This set of 2 drawings must also be published in horizontal position.}

Cross-section of the deck. The upper one is concrete deck near towers, the lower one steel deck along the 432 m long middle section of main span [3].
{(4.) Baluarte-towerA.pdf, ca. 60 kB, just a temporary picture number, to be removed in the picture text.

This set of 2 drawing should be published in a size large enough, so that the figures are reasonably visible.}

Front and side elevations of the higher tower at Durango side, pier No.5. The final height of this tower is 169 m [3].
{(5.) Baluarte-towerB.jpg, ca. 330 kB, just a temporary picture number, to be removed in the picture text.}

The lower part of the tower at Durango side under construction (pier 5). Its height is 169 m, and there is a temporary office building near it.

Photo: Grupo Triada/SCT
{(6.) Baluarte-empire.jpg, ca. 150 kB, just a temporary picture number, to be removed in the picture text.

This drawing should be published in a size large enough.}

Baluarte Bridge compared with Empire State Building, landmark of New York City [2].


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