Instructions: Complete the chart on the back by reading pages 43-56 in your textbook and using the information below



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Timeline of West African History

Mali, Ghana, Songhai
Instructions:

Complete the chart on the back by reading pages 43-56 in your textbook and using the information below.


  • 500 A.D. = Kingdom of Ghana founded by Soninke people of West Africa. They use iron weapons to conquer neighbours equipped only with wooden weapons.




  • 640-700s = Muslim Arabs conquer North Africa. Islam begins to spread to sub-Saharan kingdoms.




  • 900s = Empire of Ghana, midway between Sahara slat mines and tropical gold mines, at its peak. Control of trade makes Ghana rich & powerful.




  • 1000s = Ghana declines after ten years of invasion by Muslims from North Africa.




  • 1235 = Kingdom of Mali established as Muslim state. Takes control of gold and salt trade throughout much of West Africa.




  • 1300s = Timbuktu, in Mali, well established as center of Muslim scholarship. Draws students as far away as Rome & Greece.




  • 1324 = Powerful Mail king Mansa Musa makes pilgrimage to holy city of Mecca in the Middle East. 50,000 people and 1,000 camels go with him -100 of which are loaded with gold. Europe’s attention is focused on Africa as source of great wealth.




  • 1330s = Mansa Musa dies and local rulers break away from Mali empire.




  • 1400s = Sons of king of city of Gao in Mali lead revolt and set up empire of Songhai. Songhai expands trade network to Europe and Southwest Asia.




  • 1460-78 = Portuguese navigators explore African coast.







  • 1500 = European slavetraders begin to capture Africans and transport them to the Americas.




  • 1591 = Songhai falls to an army from Morocco, in North Africa, which possessed an early type of gun.



Timeline of West African History

Mali, Ghana, Songhai


West

African Kingdoms

Factors Leading to the Rise of the Kingdom

Factors Leading to the Decline of the Kingdom



Ghana







  • Ghana declined because the kingdom’s gold sources dried up

  • Its trade abruptly ended

  • Its settlements withered away due to drought and famine

  • It was weakened by Almoravids from North Africa.

  • The kingdom collapsed after an attack by the Sosso ruler, Samaguru of Mali






Mali


  • Sundiata had magical powers, which united the kingdom

  • Strong army, which was used to conqueror other kingdoms

  • Took control of gold & salt trade

  • Timbuktu became a center of learning, commerce and culture




Tuareg: North west African traders

  • Songhai army seized Timbuktu





Songhai


  • Sonni Ali conquered Timbuktu

  • Took over gold & Salt trade network plus ivory

  • Timbuktu was restored as an important center of Islamic learning



  • Weak rulers after Mohammad Askia

  • Moors from Morocco with guns and cannons invaded for gold mines; however, when they could not locate them, they robbed the people & destroyed the towns

  • The invasion divided Songhai and hurt the trans-Saharan trade, which caused poverty.

  • European Slave Trade





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