Infrastructure



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Infrastructure, Mexico



Date Posted: 16-Feb-2011

Jane's Sentinel Security Assessment - Central America And The Caribbean



INFRASTRUCTURE


Roads

Railways

Waterways

Airports

Acapulco/General Juan N Alvarez Airport

Cancun International

Chihuahua/General Roberto Fierro Villalobos Airport

Guadalajara/Don Miguel Hidalgo International

Guaymas/General Jose Maria Yanez International

Hermosillo/General Ignacio Pesqueira Garcia Airport

La Paz/General Manuel Marquez de Leon International

Loreto

Manzanillo/Playa de Oro

Mazatlan/General Rafael Buelna International/Los Patos

Mexicali/General Rodolfo Sanchez Taboada International

Mexico-Lic. Benito Jurez International/Mexico DF International Airport AICM

Monterrey/General Mariano Escobedo International

Monterrey-Del Notre International

Nuevo Laredo/Quetzalcoatl

Puerto Vallarta/Licenciado Gustavo Diaz Ordaz International

Reynosa

San Jos Del Cabo/Los Cabos International

Tampico/General Francisco Javier Mina International

Tapachula

Tijuana/General Abelardo L Rodriguez International

Torren

Tuxtla Gutirrez

Veracruz/General Heriberto Jara International

Civil Airlines

Aeromxico

Aviacsa

Mexicana de Aviacin (Mexicana)

Volaris

Interjet

Ports

Coatzacoalcos

Lzaro Crdenas

Manzanillo

Salina Cruz

Tampico

Tuxpan

Veracruz

Telecommunications

Roads TOP

Mexico has about 355,776 km of roads, of which 163,516 are rural, unpaved and difficult to traverse. Its network of paved roads is also extensive and includes 10,969 km of modern expressways which charge users a fee and are under the control of state-owned company Federal Highways and Bridges Revenue and Associated Services (Caminos y Puentes Federales de Ingreso y Servicios Conexos: CAPUFE), which owns 11 roads and manages 31 (92 per cent of the total). Construction and repair of roads, highways and bridges has been identified as a priority under a new National Infrastructure Fund launched by the administration of President Felipe Calderon in 2007.

Railways TOP

The Secretariat of Communications and Transport is responsible for Mexico's railways. Overseeing the privatisation of the railways is the Railway System Restructuring Committee, which forms part of the overall Inter-Ministerial Divestiture Commission tasked with the disposal of state assets. Representatives of both the government and the National Railways of Mexico (Ferrocarriles Nacionales de Mexico: FNM) sit on the committee.

In 2005, Mexico had about 26,662 km of railways, where 20,688 km were considered main railways and the rest secondary or private railways.

Almost two thirds of the railway system is the responsibility of FNM. Legislation for its privatisation was passed in 1995 as part of a programme to inject USD12 billion of foreign capital into the economy following the devaluation of the peso. Today, 98 per cent of cargo services and 81 per cent of the railways are operated by private sector companies. For political and strategic reasons the Mexican government still controls the railway that crosses the Tehuantepec isthmus.

Based on Calderon's infrastructure programme announced in 2007, in May 2010 a USD950 million investment project was announced to modernise the railway infrastructure and maintenance system. The investment involves both public and private investment with the aim of increasing the freight transport capacity. In early 2011, the railway system transported around 18 per cent of the total cargo transported in Mexico. In subsequent years, it was expected that the railway system would reach 93.9 million tonnes of freight and 29 million users.

Waterways TOP

Mexico has nearly 2,900 km of navigable rivers and coastal waterways, mostly connected with ports on the country's east coast.

Airports TOP

There are 1,823 usable airfields in the country, 231 of which have paved runways. At least 37 of these exceed 2,440 m in length.

As of 2005, there were 56 international airports, 29 national airports, and over 1,400 landing sites (aerodromos). Principal among their number are:



Acapulco/General Juan N Alvarez Airport TOP


Reference point

1646.1'N, 9946.0'W

Maximum runway length

3,300 m (10,827 ft)

Runway surface

Concrete

Elevation

5 m

Nearest town/city

Acapulco 26 km

Cancun International TOP


Reference point

2101.9'N, 8652.8'W

Maximum runway length

3,500 m (11,483 ft)

Runway surface

Asphalt

Elevation

5 m

Nearest town/city

Cancun

Chihuahua/General Roberto Fierro Villalobos Airport TOP


Reference point

2842.3'N, 10558.2'W

Maximum runway length

2,600 m (8,531 ft)

Runway surface

Asphalt

Elevation

1,360 m

Nearest town/city

Chihuahua

Guadalajara/Don Miguel Hidalgo International TOP


Reference point

2031.4'N, 10318.7'W

Maximum runway length

4,000 m (13,124 ft)

Runway surface

Concrete

Elevation

1,527 m

Nearest town/city

Guadalajara Jalisco 25 km

Guaymas/General Jose Maria Yanez International TOP


Reference point

2759.0'N, 11056.0'W

Maximum runway length

2,350 m (7,710 ft)

Runway surface

Asphalt

Elevation

29 m

Nearest town/city

Guaymas

Hermosillo/General Ignacio Pesqueira Garcia Airport TOP


Reference point

2906.8'N, 11102.9'W

Maximum runway length

2,300 m (7,546 ft)

Runway surface

Asphalt

Elevation

192 m

Nearest town/city

Hermosillo

La Paz/General Manuel Marquez de Leon International TOP


Reference point

2406.1'N, 11021.5'W

Maximum runway length

2,500 m (8,203 ft)

Runway surface

Concrete

Elevation

21 m

Nearest town/city

La Paz

Loreto TOP


Reference point

2559.0'N, 11121.0'W

Maximum runway length

2,200 m (7,218 ft)

Runway surface

Asphalt

Elevation

3 m

Nearest town/city

Loreto

Manzanillo/Playa de Oro TOP


Reference point

1908.7'N, 10436.6'W

Maximum runway length

2,200 m (7,218 ft)

Runway surface

Asphalt

Elevation

8 m

Nearest town/city

Manzanillo

Mazatlan/General Rafael Buelna International/Los Patos TOP


Reference point

2309.6'N, 10616.2'W

Maximum runway length

2,700 m (8,859 ft)

Runway surface

Concrete with asphalt overlay

Elevation

10 m

Nearest town/city

Mazatlan, Sin

Mexicali/General Rodolfo Sanchez Taboada International TOP


Reference point

3237.5'N, 11513.4'W

Maximum runway length

2,600 m (8,530 ft)

Runway surface

Concrete

Elevation

22 m

Nearest town/city

Mexicali

Mexico-Lic. Benito Juarez International/Mexico DF International Airport AICM TOP


Reference point

1926.2'N, 9904.4'W

Maximum runway length

3,900 m (12,769 ft)

Runway surface

Asphalt

Elevation

2,237 m

Nearest town/city

Mexico City 10 km

Monterrey/General Mariano Escobedo International TOP


Reference point

2546.3'N 10006.2'W

Maximum runway length

3,000 m (9,843 ft)

Runway surface

Concrete

Elevation

386 m

Nearest town/city

Monterrey

Monterrey-Del Notre International TOP


Reference point

2552.3'N, 1006.5'W

Maximum runway length

2,011 m (6,598 ft)

Runway surface

Asphalt

Elevation

450 m

Nearest town/city

Monterrey

Nuevo Laredo/Quetzalcoatl TOP


Reference point

2726.3'N, 9933.9'W

Maximum runway length

2,000 m (6,562 ft)

Runway surface

Asphalt

Elevation

148 m

Nearest town/city

Nuevo Laredo, Tamps

Puerto Vallarta/Licenciado Gustavo Diaz Ordaz International TOP


Reference point

2040.5'N, 10516.4'W

Maximum runway length

2,750 m (9,023 ft)

Runway surface

Asphalt

Elevation

6 m

Nearest town/city

Puerto Vallarta

Reynosa TOP


Reference point

2601.0'N, 986.0'W

Maximum runway length

1,900 m (6,234 ft)

Runway surface

Asphalt

Elevation

39 m

Nearest town/city

Reynosa

San Jose Del Cabo/Los Cabos International TOP


Reference point

2308.0'N, 10943.0'W

Maximum runway length

2,200 m (7,218 ft)

Runway surface

Asphalt

Elevation

109 m

Nearest town/city

San Jose Del Cabo

Tampico/General Francisco Javier Mina International TOP


Reference point

2217.4'N, 9751.8'W

Maximum runway length

2,550 m (8,367 ft)

Runway surface

Concrete

Elevation

24 m

Nearest town/city

Tampico, Tamps

Tapachula TOP


Reference point

1448.0'N, 9223.0'W

Maximum runway length

2,000 m (6,562 ft)

Runway surface

Asphalt

Elevation

29 m

Nearest town/city

Tapachula, Chis

Tijuana/General Abelardo L Rodriguez International TOP


Reference point

3232.4'N, 11657.2'W

Maximum runway length

2,500 m (8,202 ft)

Runway surface

Concrete

Elevation

152 m

Nearest town/city

Tijuana

Torreon TOP


Reference point

2534.0'N, 10326.0'W

Maximum runway length

2,250 m (7,380 ft)

Runway surface

Asphalt

Elevation

1,130 m

Nearest town/city

Torreon, Coah

Tuxtla Gutierrez TOP


Reference point

1646.0'N, 9321.0'W

Maximum runway length

2,500 m (8,203 ft)

Runway surface

Asphalt

Elevation

1,052 m

Nearest town/city

Tuxtla Guitarrez

Veracruz/General Heriberto Jara International TOP


Reference point

1908.6'N, 9611.4'W

Maximum runway length

2,400 m (7,874 ft)

Runway surface

Asphalt

Elevation

29 m

Nearest town/city

Veracruz

Civil Airlines TOP

Aeromexico TOP




Boeing 767-200ER

4

Boeing 767-300ER

2

Embraer 190

7

Embraer 145

39

McDonnell Douglas MD-83

3

Boeing 737-700

28

Boeing 737-800

10

Boeing 777-200 ER

4

Note: Aeromexico has a total of 97 aircraft in its fleet, including those operated by its low-cost subsidiaries Connect and Travel.

Aviacsa TOP


Boeing 737-200

7

Mexicana de Aviacion (Mexicana) TOP

In early August 2010, Mexicana de Aviacion (MX) filed for bankruptcy protection in Mexican and US courts after unions representing pilots and cabin crew rejected a plan to cut salaries and implement redundancies. Since then, the airline has not been operational.




Boeing 757

9

Boeing 767-300 ER

n/a

Fokker 100

10

Airbus 320

24

Airbus 318

n/a

Airbus 319

12

Volaris TOP


Airbus 319

24

Interjet TOP


Airbus A320-200

x 2

Ports TOP

Mexico's numerous ports are of significant importance to its economy. Examples include: Acapulco, Altamira, Coatzacoalcos, Ensenada, Guaymas, Lazaro Cardenas, Manzanillo, Mazatlan, Progreso, Puerto Vallarta, Salina Cruz, Tampico, Tuxpan and Veracruz.

The following information is provided by Lloyd's Register Fairplay's Sea Sentinel publication.

Coatzacoalcos TOP




Location:

18 9'N, 94 24'W. Coatzacoalcos is the most southerly port in the Gulf of Campeche and is situated 1.6 nautical miles (nm) from the entrance to Rio Coatzacoalcos, flowing into the Gulf of Mexico. The port is located near Santa Cruz, to which it is connected by road and rail.

Overview:

Coatzacoalcos is one of the larger ports and the principle oil port in Mexico. The harbour is divided into two parts, with a Free Port on the west bank of the river and Pajaritos an oil port, owned by Pemex, in a separate basin off the eastern side of the river. Facilities include a 30.5-tonne container gantry crane, two 45-tonne container yard gantry cranes, a 300-tonne mobile crane, four tractors and eight chassis.

Traffic figures:

Approximately 29,200,000 tonnes of cargo and 1,076 vessels handled annually.

Berths:

Berths on the Free Port wharf are situated about 2 nm inside the breakwater heads, No 1 Berth is at the northern end of the wharf. Berths at the tanker and liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals are situated at Darsena de Pajaritos, which opens off the river about 1.75 nm inside the breakwater heads. No 1 Berth is near the centre of the southern wall of the basin.

Max vessel size:

Coatzacoalcos Free Port: LOA (length overall) 200 m, draught 11.2 m. Cruise vessels: LOA 310 m, draught 10.0 m. Pajaritos Oil Terminal: LOA 250 m, draught 11.8 m, 85,000 deadweight tonnage (dwt) fully loaded, 250,000 dwt part loaded.

Drydocks and repairs:

Two slipways for small vessels with capacities of 150 dwt and 500 dwt. Several workshops in the port can handle minor repairs. There is a navy shipyard, Astillero Marina No 3, that may be available for use upon request.

Lazaro Cardenas TOP


Location:

17 55'N, 102 10'W. Lazaro Cardenas is situated between Acapulco and Manzanillo, approximately 150 nm from each, at the Rio Balsas delta.

Overview:

The port serves a steel mill and an industrial complex, and a naval base is also located at the port. Imports include pellets, pig iron, iron scrap, sulphur, phosphate rock, coke, grain and containers. Exports include iron plate, steel bars, stick, diammonium phosphate, super phosphate triple, and containerised cargo. A container yard of 7 hectares (ha) is part of the total port area of 10 ha; facilities include a 40-tonne container gantry crane.

Traffic figures:

Approximately 18,990,000 tonnes of cargo and 160,700 20-foot equivalent units (TEUs) handled annually.

Berths:

The port has a quay length of 286 m with a depth of water alongside of 13 m.

Max vessel size:

LOA 300 m, beam 50 m, draught 14.9 m.

Drydocks and repairs:

There are no drydock facilities available. Repairs are available.

Major issues:

Vessels with LOA over 230 m only handled in daylight.

Manzanillo TOP


Location:

19 3'N, 104 20'W. The port of Manzanillo is situated in the state of Colima on the southwestern coast of Mexico.

Overview:

Manzanillo is the largest of the Mexican ports situated on the Pacific coast. The inner port has a depth of 14.0 m in all areas. Cargoes handled range from grain and general cargo to oil, molasses and minerals. Manzanillo is also a naval base and a cruise ship port. The port includes space for container storage, packing and stripping of containers and facilities for refrigerated containers.

Traffic figures:

Approximately 1,020 vessels, 11,100,000 tonnes of cargo, 570,000 TEUs and 56,400 passengers handled annually.

Berths:

The port of Manzanillo consists of an outer harbour, known as Polygon 1, protected by a breakwater, where the tanker berths and Cruise Terminal are situated. There are two marginal breakwaters protecting the inner harbour San Redrito, known as Polygon 2, with berths for general/bulk vessels and container ships. Total quay length of the available piers is 1,220 m, with depths alongside of 8.5 m and 11.6 m.

Max vessel size:

Pemex: LOA 245 m, beam 32.2 m, draught 13.7 m. Dry Cargo: No LOA restriction, draught 13.0 m. Largest vessel handled: Matilde 53,208 gross tonnage, LOA 297 m, draught 13.5 m.

Drydocks and repairs:

Repairs are available. The Naval authorities have a floating dry dock, length 127 m, breadth 15 m, capacity 3,000 tonnes, which can be used by commercial vessels when not required by naval craft.

Salina Cruz TOP


Location:

16 9'N, 95 12'W. Salina Cruz is situated at the head of the Gulf of Tehuantepec in the state of Oaxaca on the southern coast of Mexico.

Overview:

There is an inner and outer harbour and three offshore single point moorings (SPMs). The port has accommodation for general cargo, bulk and tanker vessels. The outer harbour is protected by two breakwaters, the east is 984 m in length and the west is 330 m in length. The water depth in the harbour varies due to silting, however dredging is carried out. Equipment includes one 30.5-tonne container gantry crane and two container yard transfer cranes. There is also one 300-tonne mobile crane, four tractors and eight chassis.

Traffic figures:

Tanker traffic: Approx 14,494,000 tonnes of cargo handled and 450 tankers visit the port annually.

Berths:

Berths No 1, 2 and 3 are used for general cargo purposes and discharge of grain in bulk and in bags. Sugar is handled in the summer months. The container berth operates with one Portainer-type container crane, one shore crane, three transtainers and eight tractors.

Max vessel size:

Inner and outer harbour LOA 196 m; SPM's No 1, 2 and 3, LOA 350 m.

Drydocks and repairs:

Repairs are available. There is a dry dock at the northwest end of the inner harbour with a length 202.4 m, width 24.2 m and a capacity of approx 21,000 dwt.

Major issues:

Holidays do not affect the operation of the port which works continuously throughout the year.

Tampico TOP


Location:

22 13'N, 97 53'W. Tampico port is located 20 km north of Tampico, situated in the southeast of Tamaulipas State, on the Gulf coast of Mexico.

Overview:

The port is an oil, commercial and military harbour with 24 berths available, the largest being the metals and minerals quay. Port facilities lie along the southern edge of Tampico City to a distance of approximately 6.5 nautical miles from the mouth of the Rio Panuco. There are some facilities for the building of oil rigs and drydocks situated along the south bank of the river. General cargo is handled at Tampico. There are two tanker terminals controlled by the state oil company Pemex. Total dock area is 15 ha, with a shedded container freight station (CFS) area of 0.4 ha. On site there is one 30.5-tonne container gantry crane, one 40-tonne and one 30.5-tonne container yard crane, two 30.5-tonne Toyota lift trucks, 12 tractors, nine chassis and 11 trucks.

Traffic figures:

Approx 8,831,000 tonnes of cargo including 11,000 TEUs handled annually.

Berths:

There are six private terminals.

Max vessel size:

Tankers: LOA 220 m, beam 60.0 m, draught 10.6 m, 50,000 dwt. General cargo vessels: LOA 220 m, draught 9.75 m. Cruise vessels: LOA 220 m, draught 10.0 m.

Drydocks and repairs:

Repair berths of 500 m for up to three vessels with a depth alongside of 9.0 m. There is a graving dock, length 225 m, width 37 m available and a drydock, with a lifting capacity of 55,000 tonnes.

Major issues:

It is reported that construction has commenced on a new bulk mineral terminal.

Tuxpan TOP


Location:

20 59'N, 97 20'W. Tuxpan is situated on the Gulf coast of Mexico in the state of Vera Cruz, 58 km from the city of Tajin. The port lies on the northern bank of the River Tuxpan approximately 5 nm from the entrance.

Overview:

Commercial port for container handling, agricultural bulk and cruise vessels. Limited roll-on/off facilities are available.

Traffic figures:

Approx 1,300,000 tonnes of cargo and 573 vessels handled annually.

Berths:

This port has a quay length of 150 m with a depth alongside of 6 m.

Max vessel size:

Cruise vessels: LOA 210 m, draught 10.0 m. SBM: Draught 18.2 m.

Drydocks and repairs:

Repairs are available, and a drydock is available for small vessels up to 250 gt.

Veracruz TOP


Location:

19 12'N, 96 8'W. Veracruz is situated on the Gulf coast of Mexico in the Bay of Campeche.

Overview:

Veracruz is the principal port on the Gulf coast, providing excellent well sheltered berths and handling a variety of cargoes such as general, bulk, containers, vehicles and liquid cargoes. The port is linked by train and road to the most important areas in the country, in terms of commercial and industrial activity; the central area which includes the states of Veracruz, Puebla, Tlaxcala, Mexico, and the metropolitan area of Mexico City. The port is equipped with two 30.5-tonne TAKRAF and two Bardella quayside cranes, four landside cranes and 48 tractor units. Container storage space of 12 ha is available.

Traffic figures:

Approx 15,200,000 tonnes of cargo, 1,700 vessels and 543,000 TEUs handled annually.

Berths:

There are 24 berths with over 4,500 m of berthing space. The marginal quay length at Veracruz is 339 m, with a depth alongside of 9.75 m.

Max vessel size:

LOA 300 m, 80,000 dwt. Cruise vessels: LOA 310 m, draught 12.0 m.

Drydocks and repairs:

Full range of repairs available. There are two graving docks for ship repair and conversion work. Drydock No 2 has a length of 157 m, width 23.5/19.5 m, depth 5.2 m and can accommodate vessels up to 12,000 dwt. Drydock No 5 has a length of 271 m, depth 6.5 m and can accommodate vessels up to 80,000 dwt. Divers are available.

Telecommunications TOP

The telecommunications system in Mexico is advanced compared to the rest of Latin America. Its development was boosted by the needs of the oil industry and the country's entry into the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The Salinas and Zedillo administrations privatised the telecommunications network, although Telefonos de Mexico (Telmex, owned by prominent Mexican businessman Carlos Slim) dominates the market, controlling 95 per cent of the local network and 70 per cent of the long-distance market. As of 2008, the Federal Commission of Telecommunications (Comision Federal de Telecomunicaciones: COFETEL) reported 20,667,736 connections (15,126,258 million to private homes and 5,541,478 million to commercial users). There were 57 million mobile phones registered in 2006 according to the same body, but by March 2010 the country registered 86.5 million subscribers in total, or a 79 per cent penetration rate. Competing against Telmex in local phone traffic is the real challenge for new entrants to the market. This is because Telmex controls the national network of physical cables. Physically installing a parallel system would be extremely expensive.

By early 2011, the main mobile phone companies operating in Mexico were Telcel (Telmex) with 61.239 million users, Telefonica Movistar with 18.257, Iusacell owned by Grupo Salinas with 3.789 million users and Nextel with 3.185 million users.


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