Table 1. Trends of CPI Scores and Ranks (in parentheses)
Source: Transparency International
Note: CPI 1980-85 and CPI 1988-92 are from TI’s historical CPI. CPI 1995-2000, CPI 2001-05, and CPI 2006-10 are averages of the annual CPI scores for the periods. The ranks in parentheses are out of 54 countries for which the historical CPI scores are available.
Source: Ahn (1978), Ju and Kim (2006), and Ministry of Government (1977-1995)
Table 7. The Trend of Public Officials Indicted for Corruption in Korea
Source: Ministry of Interior (1954, 1957) and Supreme Prosecutors’ Office (1966-2009)
Note: Ratio A denotes the ratio of the number of public officials indicted for corruption to the total number of people indicted for any crime. Ratio B denotes the ratio of the number of public officials indicted for corruption to the number of public officials indicted for any crime.
1 One can certainly object to using the size of government as a measure of government intervention, but scholars generally agree that governments in Korea and Taiwan heavily intervened in the economy while the role of the Philippine state was not large (Wurfel 1988: 56).
2 Stauffer(1966) found that the proportion of House representatives with a very wealthy family background increased from 21.5 percent in 1946 to 49.9 percent in 1962, and the same proportion for Senators increased from 45.8 percent to 70.8 percent over the same period.
3 Patronage jobs were less crucial to Senators with a nationwide electoral district than to House representatives.
4 According to a survey conducted in 2001 in the Philippines, among the respondents who were offered money for votes, 68 percent of the moderately poor (58-73 percent of the population) and 75 percent of the very poor people (18-32 percent of the population) accepted the offer, compared to 38 percent of the middle class and the rich (7-11 percent of the population) who did so (Schaffer 2007).
5Under Rhee, a small number of powerful politicians in his Liberal Party enjoyed the privilege of dispensing patronage jobs. During the democratic Chang administration, there was discussion of allowing each member of National Assembly to recommend two eligible candidates for his or her district to the state bureaucracy, which was criticized by the public. Under Park, patronage appointments were largely given to the military officers. The scope of patronage appointment in Korea, however, was far smaller than that in the Philippines.
6 According to Milne (1968), the index of campaign expenditure (cost per vote/industrial hourly wage) for the Philippines in 1961 was 16. The same index for Korea in 1963 was between 2.7 (lowest estimate) and 10 (highest estimate), according to Lee and Kim (1969).
7 The most salient issue in Taiwanese politics has been national identity and the cross-strait relations. Recently, socio-economic issues have been becoming salient as well.