Industry & Transportation Revolution ~ Roads

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Nationalism & Sectionalism

Industry & Transportation

Transportation Revolution ~ Roads

Some states chartered companies to operate turnpikes – roads for which users had to pay a toll. Only a few of the turnpikes made a profit, and most failed to lower transportation costs or increase the speed of travel.

The National Road was funded by the federal

government. This roadway extended west from

Maryland to the Ohio River in 1818.

Transportation Revolution ~ Steamboats

The steamboat was the first major advance in transportation. American Robert Fulton designed the first commercially successful steamboat – The Clermont.

Steamboats unlocked the great potential of

the Mississippi River. Mostly built in

the Northeast, canals provided efficient

water transportation that linked farms to the

expanding cities.

The best known canal of the era was the Erie Canal. Before the Canal went into service, it could cost $100 to ship a ton of freight overland from Buffalo to NYC.

The canal lowered that cost to just $4. The Erie Canal helped make NYC the nation’s greatest commercial center.

Transportation Revolution ~ Railroads

Railroads were largely developed in Great Britain, and began to appear in the U.S. in the 1820s. Horses pulled the first American trains. Inventors soon developed steam-powered engines, which could pull heavier loads at higher speeds than horses could manage.
Compared to canals, railroads cost less to build.

Trains moved faster than ships and carried more

weight. Their introduction put a quick end to the

brief boom in canal building.

Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain. To protect its industrial advantage, the British banned the export of machinery, as well as the emigration of workers with knowledge of the technology.

Industrial Revolution – Period in which production of goods shifted

from using hand tools to using complex machines, and from

human and animal power to steam power.
Samuel Slater defied the British law and moved to the United States.

Slater used his detail knowledge of the textile machinery to build the

nation’s first water-powered textile mill.

Francis Cabot Lowell built textile mills that not

only produced thread, but cloth as well. Lowell’s industrial system employed young, single women. These women were recruited from area farms. These young girls became known as “Lowell Girls.” Lowell girls were required to obey strict rules.
They were housed in closely supervised boarding houses.

1. Machines increased the pace of work.

2. Specialization of work.

3. Demand for skilled labor decreased.

Innovations and Inventions

Eli Whitney’s notion of having identical parts that could be used in

place of one another, was revolutionary for the production of goods.

Whitney used the concept of interchangeable parts in his musket factory.

Historical Significance: Made it possible for much more efficient

production of a wide range of manufactured goods.

Samuel Morse’s telegraph allowed electrical pulses to travel long distances along metal wires.

Historical Significance: Communication was now almost instant.

Farms became more productive, raising larger crops for the markets. Farmers adopted better methods of planting, tending, and harvesting crops and for raising livestock.

Large farms employed the steel plow invented by John Deere.

Large farms employed the mechanical reaper

developed by Cyrus McCormick.

Nationalism & Sectionalism

Sectional Differences

North Embraces Industry

The War of 1812 cut off access to British goods

(Embargo Act 1807), so the Americans built their

own factories in New England.
After the war was over, British goods flowed

into the U.S., threatening American manufacturers.

Congress imposed a tariff on imports designed to protect American industry. The price of goods increased by 20-25% because of the lack of competition.
Historical Significance: The tariff helped industries, but it hurt farmers, who had to pay the higher prices for goods.

Why did factories emerge in the Northeast?

  1. There was greater access to capital.

  2. The Northeast had more cheap labor to work in factories.

  3. The Northeast had many swift flowing rivers that could provide water power.

  4. The South had land and climate that favored agriculture.

Social Change in the North

Organized labor unions emerged to aid skilled workers. Skilled artisans that were suffering declining wages organized the Workingman’s Party to compete in local and state elections.
Labor Union – Organization of labor.

Upper Class

(Factory Owners)

Middle class began to move away


Lower Class

(Factory Workers)

Middle Class

(Bankers, Lawyers, Accountants, Clerks, Auctioneers, Brokers, Retailers)

rom the crowds, noise, and smells of factories. Factory workers, however could not afford that move. Neighborhoods, therefore, became

segregated by class as well as by race.

Lower Class

(Factory Workers)

Emigration from Ireland

In Ireland, a fungus destroyed the potato

crop, which was the primary food source for

the Irish poor.
It is estimated that 1 million died of

starvation and famine related diseases.

Immigrants provided for urban growth.

Opposition to New Immigrants

Nativists campaigned for laws to discourage immigrants or to deny political rights to newcomers. In order to defend their interests, many immigrants became active in the Democratic Party.
Nativism – Belief that native-born white Americans

are superior to newcomers.

Southern Agricultural Economy

In 1793, Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, which made the

cultivation much more profitable. Previously a minor crop, cotton

became the South’s leading product.

Cotton Production

1793 – 5 million lbs.

1820 – 170 million lbs.
The need for slaves increased greatly. Slavery flourished

and became deeply entrenched in the Southern economy.

Price of a Slave:

Number of Slaves:

1802 - $600

1820 – 1.5 million

1860 - $1,800

1860 – 4 million

Most of the south became too dependent on one crop. Plantations dispersed population. There was no urban growth, which was needed for an industrial economy. The South did not attract immigrants.

Historical Significance: In 1850, the North had twice as many free people as did the South. That trend increased the political power of the North, especially in the House of Representatives.

Why did southern whites defend the slave system?

  1. Common farmers aspired to someday acquire their own slaves and plantations.

  2. Fear that freed slaves would seek bloody revenge.

  3. Poorest whites felt a sense of racial superiority.

  4. Proslavery forces believed that slavery was kinder to African-Americans than industrial life was to white workers.

Nationalism & Sectionalism

An Era of Nationalism

Election of 1820

In 1817, a newspaper in Boston described politics as entering an “Era of Good Feelings.” The Democratic Republican Party operated almost without opposition.
John Quincy Adams received one electoral vote. A spirit of nationalism swept the country.

Nationalism – A glorification of a nation.

American System

Henry Clay advocated the new economic nationalism that was

taking place under the protective tariffs. Clay called this ambitious

federal program, the protective tariffs.

Clay supported:

  1. Tariff of 1816

  2. Second Bank of the U.S.

  3. Internal Improvements at federal expense.

-ex. National Road

American System

Got roads, canals, and federal aide

Got the backing of protective tariffs from the west

Did not really get anything!


ohn Marshall’s Supreme Court

John Marshall’s Court limited a state government’s

power to interfere in business contracts.

1.Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)

2.Fletcher v. Peck (1810)
The Marshall Court insisted that federal law was superior to state law.

1.McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)

2.Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
Marshall’s Court encouraged the development of large business corporations by freeing them from meddling by the states.

Economy Experiences Panics

The economy became subject to periodic shocks, or panics. These panics were the result of “boom and bust ” cycle that is common in capitalism.

There were 3 great panics that occurred: 1819,

1837, and 1857. Thousand of factory workers

lost their jobs and farmers and planters lost

demand for their grain or cotton.

American Art and Literature

Nationalism also influenced art and literature. Artists

celebrated America’s beautiful landscape. Novelists

expressed pride in the nations immense potential.

Expanding the United States

In 1819, American pressure and Adam’s diplomacy

persuaded Spain to sell Florida to the United States.

Ratified in 1821, the Adams-Onis Treaty, also ended Spanish claims to the vast Pacific Coast territory of Oregon.

The British also claimed Oregon, but in 1818, the United States and Great Britain agreed to share the contested territory.

The Monroe Doctrine

President James Monroe presented the Monroe Doctrine

to Congress on December 2, 1823.

The doctrine announced that the United States would

NOT allow European nations to establish new colonies

in the Americas, or to interfere with the internal affairs

of independent nations in the western hemisphere.
Historical Significance: Declared that European

monarchies had no business meddling with American

republics. In return, the U.S. promised to stay out

of European affairs.


issouri Compromise

There was a crisis over Missouri’s admission to the Union as a new state. The Union had an equal number of slave and free states – which meant regional power in the United States Senate.
Henry Clay crafted the Missouri Compromise. The northern district of Massachusetts would enter the Unions as the free state of Maine to admission of Missouri as a slave state.

The compromise also drew a line across the continent from the southwestern corner of Missouri to the nation’s western boundary. Territories south of that line would enter as states. Those north of the line would become free states.

Historical Significance:

The compromised solved

the short-term crisis. But

that crisis had exposed the

growing division between

the North and the South

over the expansion of


Nationalism & Sectionalism

Democracy & the Age of Jackson


Popular Vote

Electoral Vote

Andrew Jackson



J.Q. Adams



William Crawford



Henry Clay



lection of 1824

Andrew Jackson won more popular

votes than did Adams. Neither won

a majority of the electoral votes

needed for the election. The House of


epresentatives had to determine the

outcome of the election.

At the House of Representatives, Clay threw his support to Adams, who became President. When Adams appointed Clay as Secretary of State, Jackson accused them of a “Corrupt Bargain,” in which he thought Clay supported Adams in exchange for an appointment as Secretary of State.

Jackson’s Next Campaign

Andrew Jackson relied upon New York’s Martin Van Buren, who

worked behind the scenes to support Jackson. Jackson traveled

the country drumming up support among the voters – a new practice.

During this time period, the expansion of

democracy was taking place. Property

requirements were being abolished,

thus many more men were voting. The expansion of democracy did not benefit all Americans.

Those still not afforded the right to vote:

• Free African-Americans


• American Indians

Election of 1828

Jackson’s supporters called themselves Democrats, not Democrat-Republicans. Andrew Jackson became the symbol of American Democracy (represented the

common man”). Historians refer to the movement as Jacksonian Democracy. Jackson won 56% of the popular vote and two thirds of the electoral votes.

A New Party Structure

There was a return to Jeffersonian principles: strong states and a weak federal government that would not interfere in interfere. Only those principles, Van Buren argued, could keep sectional tensions from destroying the Union.
The new party rewarded the faithful with government jobs. Van Buren’s “reward” was appointment as Secretary of State.

Spoils System – Practice of the political party in power giving jobs and appointments to its supporters, rather than to be based on their qualifications.

Native American Removal

Jackson political base lay in the South, where he captured 80% of the vote. Those voters expected Jackson to remove the 60,000 American Indians living in the region. These Indians belonged to five nations:


• Chickasaw

• Creek

• Choctaw


Worcester v. Georgia

Between 1827 and 1830, the states of Georgia, Mississippi, and Alabama dissolved the Indian governments and seized land from the five nations. In 1832, after the Indians appealed their case to the federal courts, John Marshall’s Supreme Court tried to help the Indians.

In Worcester v. Georgia, the Court ruled that

Georgia’s land seizure was unconstitutional.

The federal government had treaty obligations

to protect the Indians, the Court held, and

federal law was superior to state law.

President Jackson, however, ignored the

Court’s decision.

Andrew Jackson’s Presidency

Democrats develop a new party structure.

Elections become the business of professional politicians & managers.

Government jobs are given to members of the winning party. (Spoils System)

Native Americans are removed using the Indian Removal Act.

Nationalism & Sectionalism

Constitutional Disputes & Crises

The Nullification Crisis

In 1828, Congress adopted an especially high tariff. Southerners

called it the Tariff of Abominations. Jackson’s Vice President,

John C. Calhoun of South Carolina, violently opposed the tariff.

Calhoun had been a strong nationalist. But his opinion changed

after the Missouri controversy of 1819 and 1820. This episode

convinced him that the future of slavery, which he supported,

required a stronger defense of states’ rights. Toward that end,

he began to champion the concept of nullification.

Nullification – Concept in which states could nullify, or void, any

federal law they deemed unconstitutional.
In 1832, the South Carolina legislature nullified the protective tariff and prohibited the collection of federal tariff duties in S.C. Further, the state threatened to secede from the Union if the federal government employed force against South Carolina. Calhoun

resigned the vice presidency and instead became a senator.


Andrew Jackson

John Calhoun

Opposed Nullification

Supported Nullification

Opposed most tariffs

Opposed all tariffs

Willing to use force to maintain the Union.

Willing to secede.

In Congress, Daniel Webster of

Massachusetts became the great

champion of nationalism. In 1833,

Webster led the way in pushing for

passage of a Force Bill,

giving Jackson authority to use

troops to enforce federal law in S.C.

With Jackson’s support, Congress reduced the tariff. This reduced South Carolina’s militancy. The crisis had passed. Jackson and Webster could declare victory.

Historical Significance: The difficult question of nullification and secession, however, had been postponed rather than


The Bank War

Jacksonian Democrats suspected that the new

economy encouraged corruption and greed.

To Jackson and his followers, industry seemed

mainly to enrich wealthy people at the expense

of everyone else.
The Bank had many supporters in Congress. In 1832, they

voted to renew the Bank’s charter. Jackson however vetoed

the renewal.
The Bank’s supporters denounced Jackson as a power-hungry

tyrant trampling on the rights of Congress. The veto

shocked them because the previous Presidents had so rarely used that power – only nine times in forty-two years.

Reasons for Chartering the Bank

~ To establish a national paper currency

~Manage Government Finances

~ Regulate private banks

Bank Supporters

Bank Opponents (Jackson)

~ The Bank supplied a stable currency which helped economic growth.

~Important to regulate state banks.

~Imposes restraint on issuing credit.

~ Bank favors rich investors.

~Control of the banking is too far removed from the public.

~Restrains private bankers.

The Whig Party Forms

ed by Henry Clay and Daniel Webster, in 1832 the Bank’s friends formed a new political party known as the Whigs. The Whigs were nationalists who wanted a strong federal government to manage the economy.
Relying on a broad interpretation of the Constitution, they favored

the American System of protective tariffs, internal improvements,

and a national bank.
Historical Significance: The emergence of the Whigs renewed

two-party politics in the United States. The Whigs challenged

Jackson’s Democrats in local, state, and national elections.

Jackson was able to undermine the Bank, but the destruction weakened the economy. Relieved from federal regulation, state banks expanded,

inflating prices with a flood of paper bank notes. The inflation hurt the common people that Jackson had professed to help.

The face of value of bank notes exploded from:

$10 million in 1833 to

$149 million in 1837.

Politics After Jackson

Economic troubles were plaguing the country when Martin Van Buren took office in 1837, the economy suffered a severe panic. A key trigger was Jackson’s decision, taken months earlier, to stop accepting paper money for the purchase of federal land.

  • Hundreds of banks & businesses that had invested in land went bankrupt.

  • Thousands of planters and farmers lost their land.

  • 1 out of 3 urban workers lost their jobs.

  • Those who kept their jobs saw their wages drop by 30%

  • The Panic of 1837 was the worst depression suffered by Americans to that date.

The Whigs Taste Brief Victory

The depression in 1837 revived the Whigs. In 1840, they

ran William Henry Harrison for President and John Tyler

for Vice President. The Whigs ran a campaign that was light

on ideas but heavy on the sort of theatrics that would

become common in American politics.

Turning the political tables, the Whigs persuaded voters that Van Buren was

ineffective, corrupt, and an aristocrat who threatened the republic. Harrison won the Presidency, and the Whigs succeeded in capturing Congress.

A month after assuming office, Harrison died of pneumonia. Vice President John Tyler of Virginia became the President. Tyler surprised and horrified the Whigs by rejecting their policies.

The Whigs would have to wait for a future election to exercise

full control of the government.

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