Industry & Transportation Revolution ~ Roads
lection of 1824
Andrew Jackson won more popular
votes than did Adams. Neither won
a majority of the electoral votes
needed for the election. The House of
outcome of the election.
At the House of Representatives, Clay threw his support to Adams, who became President. When Adams appointed Clay as Secretary of State, Jackson accused them of a “Corrupt Bargain,” in which he thought Clay supported Adams in exchange for an appointment as Secretary of State.
Jackson’s Next Campaign
Andrew Jackson relied upon New York’s Martin Van Buren, who
worked behind the scenes to support Jackson. Jackson traveled
the country drumming up support among the voters – a new practice.
During this time period, the expansion of
democracy was taking place. Property
requirements were being abolished,
thus many more men were voting. The expansion of democracy did not benefit all Americans.
Those still not afforded the right to vote:
• Free African-Americans
• American Indians
Election of 1828
Jackson’s supporters called themselves Democrats, not Democrat-Republicans. Andrew Jackson became the symbol of American Democracy (represented the
“common man”). Historians refer to the movement as Jacksonian Democracy. Jackson won 56% of the popular vote and two thirds of the electoral votes.
There was a return to Jeffersonian principles: strong states and a weak federal government that would not interfere in interfere. Only those principles, Van Buren argued, could keep sectional tensions from destroying the Union.
The new party rewarded the faithful with government jobs. Van Buren’s “reward” was appointment as Secretary of State.
Spoils System – Practice of the political party in power giving jobs and appointments to its supporters, rather than to be based on their qualifications.
Native American Removal
Jackson political base lay in the South, where he captured 80% of the vote. Those voters expected Jackson to remove the 60,000 American Indians living in the region. These Indians belonged to five nations:
Worcester v. Georgia
Between 1827 and 1830, the states of Georgia, Mississippi, and Alabama dissolved the Indian governments and seized land from the five nations. In 1832, after the Indians appealed their case to the federal courts, John Marshall’s Supreme Court tried to help the Indians.
In Worcester v. Georgia, the Court ruled that
Georgia’s land seizure was unconstitutional.
The federal government had treaty obligations
to protect the Indians, the Court held, and
federal law was superior to state law.
President Jackson, however, ignored the
Andrew Jackson’s Presidency
Elections become the business of professional politicians & managers.
Government jobs are given to members of the winning party. (Spoils System)
Native Americans are removed using the Indian Removal Act.
Nationalism & Sectionalism
Constitutional Disputes & Crises
The Nullification Crisis
In 1828, Congress adopted an especially high tariff. Southerners
called it the Tariff of Abominations. Jackson’s Vice President,
John C. Calhoun of South Carolina, violently opposed the tariff.
Calhoun had been a strong nationalist. But his opinion changed
after the Missouri controversy of 1819 and 1820. This episode
convinced him that the future of slavery, which he supported,
required a stronger defense of states’ rights. Toward that end,
he began to champion the concept of nullification.
In Congress, Daniel Webster of
Massachusetts became the great
champion of nationalism. In 1833,
Webster led the way in pushing for
passage of a Force Bill,
giving Jackson authority to use
troops to enforce federal law in S.C.
With Jackson’s support, Congress reduced the tariff. This reduced South Carolina’s militancy. The crisis had passed. Jackson and Webster could declare victory.
Historical Significance: The difficult question of nullification and secession, however, had been postponed rather than
The Bank War
Jacksonian Democrats suspected that the new
economy encouraged corruption and greed.
To Jackson and his followers, industry seemed
mainly to enrich wealthy people at the expense
of everyone else.
voted to renew the Bank’s charter. Jackson however vetoed
shocked them because the previous Presidents had so rarely used that power – only nine times in forty-two years.