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A

A&P (Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company), 259

A&W, 289

Acme Sunburst coal stove, 55

Addams, Jane, 157, 175, 206, 220

Aders, Robert O., 284

advertising; bathroom fixtures, 101, 102, 174; boarders wanted, 149; cookware, 43, 44; electric appliances, 76–78, 79, 80–81, 265, 266, 278; flour, 200; food, fast, 297–298; foods, frozen, 274–275, 284; foods, prepared, 23, 25, 285, 295–296; foods, supermarket, 286; freezers, 272–273; hand cream, 255; industry, influence of, 251–254; laundresses, 109; laundry products, 118, 119, 211, 253, 254, 271–272; meaning of housework in, 78; ready-made clothing, 136, 143; sewing machines, 184; soap, 91, 168; stoves, 39, 56; washing machines, 269; women as targets, 244–245

Advertising Age, 244

agriculture, commercial, 25

air quality, indoor, 57

Alaska Yukon Pacific Exposition (1909), 231

Alcoa, 43

Alcott, Louisa May: Little Women, 18, 19, 40–41, 57, 134, 163; Work, a Story of Experience, 58

aluminum: cookware, 43–44; mittens, 233

American Frugal Housewife, The (Child), 182, 190

American Home Economics Association, 206, 207



American Notes (Dickens), 16, 92

American Woman's Home, The (Beecher), 20, 37, 57, 96, 185–188, 194

Amoskeag cotton mill, New Hampshire, 157

Anderson, Ernest, 100

anger, expressing, 193, 306

Anthony Wayne washing machine, 116–117

Appert, Nicolas, 22, 23

Appleton, Wisconsin, 265

appliance-product interdependence, 271–272, 277–278

appliances, electric, 80–81, 279–280. See also individual appliances

Argand burner, 60

Arkwright, Richard, 128

Atkinson, Edward, 94

"Aunt Nellie." See Jones, Nellie Kedzie

autonomy. See independence


B

bad habits, children's, 233–234

baking. See bread baking

Baltimore, Maryland, 21, 68, 97

Bamberger's, 276

Bancroft, E. A., 52

Banquet, 284, 295

baths, 89–90

beans, string, 273, 275

Beatrice Foods, 291

Beauvoir, Simone de, 310

Beecher, Catharine: on clothing conservation, 131; consumer advice from, 243; on cookware, 44; domestic education and, 189–191, 202; on domestic service, 166–167; and feminism, 191–192, 198; on indoor air quality, 57; on lamps and candles, 58–60, 61; on laundry, 104–105, 108, 112; on leisure time, 219; on malaise, 192–194; Melusina Fay Peirce on, 198; redeeming woman's profession and, 112, 185–188; on refrigeration, 20–21; separate spheres ideology and, 194–195; on stoves, fireplaces and furnaces, 36–37, 40, 41, 53–54, 57–58; on systematic housekeeping, 188–189; on water and sanitation, 88, 89, 94–95, 96

Behnke store, 261

Ben-Hur Farm and Home Freezer, 272

Bethune, Roena, 178

Bevier, Isabel, 207

Big Boy, 288

Birds Eye, 274, 275

Bishop, Molly (in Ten Dollars Enough), 150

black women, 165, 176

blenders, 279–280

boarding: criticism of, 149–151; decline of, 159–161, 228; immigrants and, 151–155; overcrowding and, 155–159; rise of, 145–149

Bohmbach, Dwight, 297

Borden's Milk, 28

Boston, 14, 18, 23, 54, 94

Boston Domestic Reform League School of Housekeeping, 204

Boston Manufacturing Company, 129–130

Boston's School of Housekeeping, 41

Boston's Women's Educational and Industrial Union, 168, 173

brands, 254–256

bread baking, 23–24, 24, 25, 34–36

Bread Givers (Yezierska), 257

"Bridget," 166

Brigham's, 287

British coal mining, 54

British Royal Society, 52

British settlers, 51

Bryn Mawr College, 82

Buck's Stove and Range Company, 56

budgets, 246–249

bulk goods, 254–256

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 81, 287, 304

Bureau of Statistics of Labor (Massachusetts), 173

Burger Chef, 289, 295

Burger King, 288, 289

Burlend, Rebecca, 12–14, 58

business, housekeeping as. See home economics movement



Business Week, 288

butcher shop, 250

butter churns, 46

Byington, Margaret, 28, 64, 97, 154–155


C

cafeterias, 283, 287

cake mixes, 276–277

California research studies, 268–270

Cambridge Cooperative Housekeeping Society, 112, 199

Campbell, Helen: on candle making, 60; on canning, 22; Charlotte Perkins Gilman and, 220; on fire tending, 41; on kitchen utensils, 44–45; on laundry, 105–107, 108; on spring cleaning, 62–63

Campbell's, 27, 289

candles and candle making, 58, 60

canning, 19–23, 26, 27, 272–274

capitalism, 199–200



Care and Feeding of Children, The (Holt), 232, 237

Carnation, 291, 295

Carney, Frank, 288

Cartwright, Edmund, 128

cast-iron. See iron

census data, U.S., 11–12, 303, 304

central heating, 53–54

Century of the Child (Key), 230

chain stores, 259–261

Chandler, Alfred, 257

Chapin, Robert Coit study, 100

Charles Schneider Baking Company, 247

Chicago: Council of Social Agencies, Committee on Relief, 100; Department of Public Welfare, 102–103; fire (1871), 58; ice consumption, 21; sanitation and sewage, 94, 97

Child, Lydia Maria: on the Croton Aqueduct, 92–93; on domestic training, 189–190; on marriage and domestic life, 182, 304; The Mother's Book, 235, 237–238; on public baths, 90

child care: Charlotte Perkins Gilman on "industrialized" child-rearing, 224–227; consumer society and, 302–303; effects of industrialization on, 239–241; experts on, 234–239; paid employment and, 227–230; "scientific," 230–234



Christian Inquirer, 166

Church's Fried Chicken, 288, 293

Clark, Edward, 138–139

cleaning, 61–63

Cleveland, Ohio, 264

Cline's Improved Steam Washer, 116–117

clothing production: employment in, 126–128, 141–142; homemade, 126, 130–132; industrialization of, 125–126; ready-made, 134–138, 143; sewing machines, 138–141, 184; social and family life and, 133–134, 144; textile industry, 128–130

coal. See fuel

coal gas, 69–70

cold storage. See ice; refrigerators and refrigeration

colleges and universities, 203–204

Colonel Harland Sanders, 286

Colonial and preindustrial period: cloth production, 126–130; food, 12–16, 23, 283; heating fuel, 54–55; heating hazards, 56–58; heating methods, 51–54; home industry in, 4–5; housing, 146; kitchen fireplaces (the "hall"), 33, 34, 51; lighting, 58

Columbian Exposition, 72–73, 76

commercial interests, 7–8; advertising household products, 223, 252; child care and, 302; energy and power appliances and, 84; fast food and, 295–299; kitchen appliances and, 277–280; laundry and, 121, 122–124; prepared foods and, 277; running water and, 103; sewing and, 139–140

Committee on Home Economics of Boston's Association of Collegiate Alumnae and the Women's Educational and Industrial Union, 213

commodification. See also home industries; industrial revolution; child care, 302–303; emotional support, 305–307; energy, 82–84; food, 11–12, 29–31, 274–277 (See also fast food); fuel and heat, 54–55, 56; household goods (See consumer society); laundry, 112, 119–121; running water, 103; sex, 305–306

commodity dealers, 25

common sense, mother's, 237–239

Common Sense in the Household (Harland), 79–80

community life. See social and family life

commuting problem, 182

consumer groups, 298–299

consumer society, 300–301. See also commodification; advertising industry in, 251–254; brands in, 254–256; home economics education and, 210–212; private/public spheres and, 307–312; social and family life in, 301–307; stores in, 257–261; task of household consumption, 246–251, 272, 311; tradeoffs of, 8–10, 223; transition to, 6, 242–243, 261–262; women as consumers, 243–246

Contadina, 295

contracts for domestic service, 173, 178

convenience foods. See prepared foods

Cook, Rose Terry, 150

cookbooks. See also domestic manuals; on bakery bread, 23; buying advice in, 243; on cold storage, 20; Common Sense in the Household (Harland), 79–80; on fireplace vs. stove cooking, 36; on preserving, 22; on seasonal foods, 29

cooking. See also kitchens; cookware, 41–44; electric appliances, 80–81, 278–280; fireplaces and equipment, 33–36; leisure-time gourmets, 298–299; mechanical devices, 44–46; prepared foods in, 276–277; schools, 204; social and family life and, 46–49; wood and coal stoves, 3, 33, 36–41, 264

cooperative housekeeping, 195–199

cooperatives, laundry, 112–113

corn, 14


corporate diseases, 253, 255

corporate structure, development of modern, 25, 27–28, 74

Corson, Juliet, 204, 210–212, 245

country stores, 24–25

crackers, 24, 254–256

craft satisfaction: cooking, 47–48, 276; food production, 31; laundry, 271–272; loss of, 8; sewing, 134

Crane bathroom fixtures, 101, 102

crock pots, 278–279

Crompton, Samuel, 128

Crosley refrigerators, 265

Croton Aqueduct, 92–93

Cullen, Michael, 259


D

Dairy Queen, 288, 298

dangers. See hardships and hazards

Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions, 192

Delmonico, Lorenzo, 283

Denny's, 293

department stores, 257–261

dependence on the organized economy, 74–75, 84, 122, 274. See also appliance-product interdependence

Depression era, 81–82, 118, 265, 266, 267

Deutsch, Arnold, 287

Devon, Christie (in Work, a Story of Experience), 58

Dewees, William P. (Treatise on the Physical and Medical Treatment of Children), 235

Dickens, Charles (American Notes), 16, 92

Dickinson, Emily, 46, 62, 131

Dickinson, Vinnie, 46, 131

Dionne, Yvonne, 154

discrimination, social, 166

dishwashing, 88–89, 90, 279

distribution, mass, 6, 24–25

divorce, 303–304

domestic education, 202–206

domestic hands, 255



Domestic Manners of the Americans (Trollope), 16, 133, 149

domestic manuals, 20, 22. See also cookbooks; American Frugal Housewife, The (Child), 182, 190; American Woman's Home, The (Beecher), 20, 37, 57, 96, 185–188, 194; Helen Campbell's manual for country housekeepers, 41; Home: Its Work and Influence, The (Gilman), 220–222, 225–227; Housekeeper's Guide, 22; Infant Care (West), 232–234, 235, 237, 239; Miss Beecher's Housekeeper and Healthkeeper, 192–194, 243; Mother's Book, The (Child), 235, 237; New Housekeeper's Manual (Beecher), 189; shopping manuals, 18; Treatise on Domestic Economy (Beecher), 54, 96; Treatise on the Physical and Medical Treatment of Children (Dewees), 235; Women and Economics (Gilman), 219, 220

Domestic Reform League of Boston's Women's Educational and Industrial Union, 168, 173

domestic service: campaign against, 166–168; decline in, 178–179; demand for and nature of, 162–164; education in, 204; immigrants in, 164–166; in kitchens, 33; laundry and, 109, 112; reform of, 172–178; working conditions of, 168–172



Domestic Service (Salmon), 169, 172, 173, 175, 208–209

Domestic sewing machines, 184

Dover eggbeater, 33, 45

Dubuque stove, 59



Dun's Review, 284
E

earth closets, 94–95

economic and class differences: baking bread, 23–24; child care, 302; domestic servants, 163–164, 167, 176–178; electricity, 264; food, 16, 23, 28, 29–30; gardens, 28; gender and, 181, 200; heating fuel, 54; indoor plumbing, 86, 97–103, 264; laundry, 268–270; ready-made clothing, 137; refrigerators, 265–267

economic dependence, 220, 227, 309–311

Edison, Thomas, 8, 73

Edison Electric Illuminating Company, 73

Edison Electric Light Company, 73

Edison General Electric, 74

education, domestic, 189–191

efficiency, 212–218

eggbeaters, 33, 45

Electric Home, The, 74–76

electric servants, 76–78

Electrical Building, 73, 76

electricity: development of system, 73–74; growth of household use, 74–78, 81–82; household appliances, 78–81; social effects of widespread, 82–84

Electrolux, 79, 265

emotional life, 304–306

employment, paid. See also domestic service; labor market, women in; boarding as, 146–148, 152–155; Christine Frederick on, 218; clothing production, 126–128, 135–137, 141–142; laundry work, 109–112, 113–114, 113–116, 122, 124; in public markets, 18; in women's economic sphere, 199

employment offices, 173

enameled cookware, 42–43

England and the clothing industry, 128

Enoch Morgan's Sons Co., 168

equality, sexual, 222, 309–311

ERA (Equal Rights Amendment), 308

Esche, John (daughter of), 110

exercise and housework, 186

experts, dependence on, 74–75, 84, 122, 261


F

F. W. Schneck & Co., 56

fabric, 128–130. See also clothing production

factories, 25–26, 27

Fairbank & Co., 64

family life. See social and family life

Faneuil Hall, 14

farmers, 12–14, 15, 18

Farrar, Eliza (The Young Lady's Friend), 131, 132, 134, 137, 182

fast food: chains, expansion of, 283, 287–292; franchises, 292–295; promotion of, 295–296; social and family life and, 296–299

Federal Real Property Inventory (1935), 264

feminism, 191–192, 198, 220. See also women's liberation movement

Ferguson (Mrs.), 270

filing systems, 249

fireplaces, 33–36, 51

fires, 40–41, 55, 57–58

firewood. See fuel

fit (clothing), 137–138

Fitch, James Marston, 92, 188

flour, 200

food: in colonial and preindustrial homes, 12–16; early industrialization of, 12, 23–28; fast (See fast food); frozen, 273, 274–276, 278; prepared (See prepared foods); preservation, 19–23, 272–274 (See also refrigerators); public markets and, 17–19; transportation of, 16–17

Ford, Henry, 26

Fortson, Claudia, 271–272

Fowler, Nathaniel C., Jr., 244–245

franchising, fast-food, 292–295

Franco-American, 23, 254

Franklin, Benjamin, 51, 52–53

Franklin stove, 52–53

Frederick, Christine, 188, 214–219, 246–250, 309

Fredonia, New York, 70

freezers, 272–273

French's mustard, 253

Frigidaire refrigerators, 265

Frigidinner frozen dinners, 276

frontier settlers, 12–14, 54–55

frozen food, 273, 274–276, 278

fuel: cooking, 36, 41; heating, 52, 54–55, 55; lighting, 60–61

Fulton market (New York City), 19

furnaces, 53–54
G

Gaetz, Emil (family of), 132

Gallatin, Albert, 126

gardens, 13, 16, 22, 28

gas lighting, 68–73, 69

General Electric, 73, 74, 76–78, 77, 265, 266

General Foods, 289, 291

General Mills, 290, 291

Gentry, Grant, 284

Gerber's baby food, 254

Giant food shopping center, 260

Giedion, Siegfried, 37

Gilbreth, Frank, 213

Gilbreth, Lillian, 188, 213

Gilman, Charlotte Perkins, 219–220; on childcare, 224–227, 229; consumer society and, 303, 309; on food preparation, 222, 282–283; on housework, 220–223

GNP (gross national product), 4



Godey's Lady's Book, 139

Gold Dust washing powder, 64

Gold Medal Flour, 27

Goodman, Ellen (The Grateful Wife), 308

Goodrich, Henrietta, 207–208, 210

Grand Union, 259



Grateful Wife, The (Goodman), 308

Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company (A&P), 259

Gregory, Lou Allen, 203

grocery stores, mom and pop, 261. See also supermarkets

gross national product (GNP), 4

guardians of virtue, women as, 182–183, 309

guilt and motherhood, 241
H

Hale, Sarah Josepha, 20, 23, 166–167

Hall, Charles Martin, 43

Hall, G. Stanley, 232, 235

halls, 33, 34

Hamilton, Alexander, 128

hardships and hazards: boarding, 152, 154–155; cooking, 32–33, 36, 40–41, 44; food production, 29; laundry, 105; lighting, 58, 61–63; stove heating, 56–58

Hargreave, James, 128

Harland, Marion, 79–80, 150

Hartford, John A., 259

Hartford Female Seminary, 191

Hartmann, Heidi, 120

Haskell, Ella, 47, 109, 131

Haskell, Rachel: cooking and, 47; lamp cleaning and, 61; laundry and, 104, 109; privacy and, 65; sewing and, 131, 134

haven, home as a, 181–182

health concerns and water and sanitation, 90–92, 93–94

health-foods movement, 298–299

hearths, 33–36, 51

heating homes: fireplaces, stoves and furnaces, 50–54, 56, 59, 264; fuel for, 54–55; social and family life and, 63–66; tending and hazards, 55–58

Hecker, John, 25

Heinz, 291

Heinz's 57 Varieties, 27

Henderson, Charles, 156

Herfy's, 289

Heublein, 289

Hinds honey and almond cream, 255

Hof, Herman, Phil and Sam, 250

Holt, Luther Emmett (The Care and Feeding of Children), 232, 237

home delivery of food, 246, 247

home economics movement: consumerism and, 245–250; domestic education and, 202–206; efficiency and, 212–218; industrialization of housework and, 219–223; leisure time and, 218–219; professionalism, higher education and, 206–210; scientific rationality and, 210–212

home industries, 4–5, 18. See also commodification; boarding, 146–148; Charlotte Perkins Gilman on, 221–222; cooking, 47–49; energy, 50–51, 54–55, 82–84; food, 12–14; laundry, 112; textiles and clothing, 126, 130–134

Home: Its Work and Influence, The (Gilman), 220–222, 225–227

Homesdale, Idaho, 170

Homestead, Pennsylvania, 283

Homestead, Pennsylvania study, 28, 64, 97–99, 154–155

Homestead Act of 1862, 25

Hoover vacuum cleaners, 79, 81, 83

Hot Shoppe, 291

House and Home Papers (Stowe), 57

house fires, 57–58

housecleaning services, 178–179

household help. See domestic service



Housekeeper's Guide, 22

housework: perceiving as work, 4, 183–185; as responsibility of women, 301–302, 307–308 (See also private/public spheres)



How I Kept My Baby Well (Noyes), 238–239

Howe, Elias, 138, 141

Howe, Irving, 206

hucksters, 15–16, 18

Hull House, 157, 220

Humboldt, Alexander von, 70

Hunt, Caroline, 212

Huntington, Emily, 206

husband-power, 112–113, 199
I

ice, 19–22

ice cream, 19

immigrants, 151–155, 164–166

independence: domestic service and, 171–172; economic, 220, 227, 309–311; laundry work and, 110–112, 270–271; sewing and, 131–132, 141–142

Indiana Natural Gas and Oil Company, 70

indoor plumbing. See also water; class and, 86, 97–103, 264; in Cleveland (1935), 264; period of transition to, 96–97; sanitation and sewage systems, 93–96; social and family life and, 103

industrial revolution. See also commodification; boarding and, 146–148, 151; child care and, 224–227, 229, 239–240; cloth production and, 128–130; electricity and, 82; food and, 12, 23–28; housework and, 5–9, 220–223; indoor plumbing and, 100–103; laundry and, 112, 119–121, 124; ready-made clothing, 134–138

industrial training in the home economics movement, 208

Infant Care (West), 232–234, 235, 237, 239

inside shops, 137, 138

intimacy. See privacy; social and family life

Iowa kerosene trade, 61

Iowa State College, 203

Irish immigrants, 130, 164–166

iron: cookware, 3, 41–43; stoves, 36–41

ironing, 108, 118

irons, electric, 78, 81

isolation. See social and family life


J

Jack-in-the-Box, 289, 290

Jefferson, Thomas, 70

Jeffrey, Kirk, 182

Jewel Tea, 259, 287

Jones, Nellie Kedzie "Aunt Nellie," 38–40, 63, 87

Joneses, the, 254

Jordan, Thomas, 158–159


K

Kellogg, 291

Kelvinator refrigerators, 265

Kenney, David, 78

Kentucky Fried Chicken, 284, 286, 288, 289

Kern, Coralee, 178–179

kerosene, 60–61

Key, Ellen (Century of the Child), 230

Kinder-Care, 302

King Kullen store, 259

Kings Soopers, 287

Kingsford's Oswego Starch, 118

Kirkman's Borax Soap, 119

kitchens, 33, 47–49, 215, 216. See also cooking

Kraft, 291

Kroger, 259


L

labor market, women in, 159–161, 227–229, 240, 283, 301. See also employment, paid

LaCasse, Alice, 57

LaCasse, Maria, 154



Ladies' Home Journal, 295

Ladies' Magazine, 181

Lafayette, Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert Du Motier, marquis de (General), 70

Lake Placid Conferences on Home Economics, 204, 206, 207, 210, 212

Lambertson, Hannah, 46

lamps, oil, 58–61

landlords, 97–98

Larcom, Lucy, 130

Larson, Mathilda, 3–4, 5, 9

Lathrop, Julia, 209

Latrobe, Benjamin, 92

Laughlin, Gail, 169–170, 172, 173

Laundromat washing machine, 267–268, 269

laundry: commercial, 113–116, 119–121, 122, 123, 271; cooperatives, 112–113; employment doing, 109–112, 228; hand-washing, 104–109, 110, 111, 114, 115, 270; products, 118, 119, 211, 253, 254, 271–272; social changes and, 121–124, 272; training, 208; washing machines, 107, 116–119, 267–272; water usage and, 88

Legacy family, 195

Legal Aid Society, 168, 173

Leggett, Samuel, 68

leisure time, 218–219

Lelyveld, Joseph, 302

Lexington Market, 198

Libby's canned meats, 27–28

lighting: candles and homemade lamps, 58–60; cleaning necessitated by, 61–63; electric, 73, 77, 264; gas, 68–73; oil lamps, 60–61; social and family life and, 63–66

Little Women (Alcott), 18, 19, 40–41, 57, 134, 163

livestock, urban, 16, 28

looms, 129

love, 227, 237–239, 253

Lowe, T. S. C., 70

Lowell, Francis Cabot, 129



Lowell Offering, The, 130

Lubove, Roy, 156

Lucky Stores, 287

Lux Flakes laundry soap, 117, 253

Lynd, Helen and Robert, 96–97

Lyon, Mary, 203


M

Mademoiselle, 295–296

Madison, Wisconsin, 90

Maher, William H., 244–245

maids. See domestic service

Maid-To-Order, 178–179

Mainardi, Pat (The Politics of Housework), 308

malaise, housewife's, 192–194

Manchester, New Hampshire, 283

mantua-makers, 126–127, 132, 137

manufacturing, mass, 25–26, 27

March sisters. See Little Women

marketing. See advertising

markets. See public markets

marriage, 176–178, 182, 192–193, 303–305

Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor, 173

Mathews, Mary, 111, 141

McDonald's, 288, 291, 293, 294, 295, 297

Me Decade, 305

mechanical childcare devices, 238

mechanical cooking utensils, 44–46

men and housework, 310–311

Mendel, Perry, 302

microwave ovens, 277–278

"Middletown" study, 97

Midwest, 18, 54

midwives, 236–237

Mikva, Abner, 292, 295

military, 22, 23, 135–136, 137, 276

Military Plaza market, 15

Milltown Cooperative Creamery Company, 113



Miss Beecher's Housekeeper and Healthkeeper (Beecher), 192–194, 243

Model T assembly line, 26

mom and pop businesses, 261, 287

Monitor Top refrigerator, 265, 266

Montgomery Ward, 108, 116–117, 257–261

Morgan, J. P., 73–74

motherhood. See child care

Mother's Book, The (Child), 235, 237–238

Mount Holyoke Seminary, 203

Mount Saint Helens, 306

Muncie, Indiana, 28, 97


N

National Biscuit Company, 254

National Commercial Gas Association, 72

natural gas, 70

Nesbitt, Florence, 100, 212–213, 245, 256–257

Nevins, Mrs., 48



New Housekeeper's Manual (Beecher), 189

New Right political movement, 201, 301, 308–309

New York City: bakers, 23; Croton Aqueduct, 92; firewood scarcity, 54; indoor plumbing, 86, 97; laundry, 113, 115; markets, 19; pigs in, 16; refrigerator ownership, 22; sweat shops, 142; tenements, 153, 155, 158; Women's Educational and Industrial Society, 204

New York Cooking School, 204



New York Daily Tribune, 141

New York Gas Light Company, 68

New York Society for the Encouragement of Faithful Domestic Servants, 165, 166

New York Times, 284

New York Tribune, 144

1979 Franchise Reform Bill, 292

Norge refrigerators, 265

North American Review Symposium, 150–151

North Carolina Farmer's Alliance, 86

Norton, Alice P., 212

Noyes, Anna (How I Kept My Baby Well), 238–239

nuclear family, 145–146, 156–157
O

Oberlin Stove, 37

Office of War, 98

organized economy, dependence on, 74–75, 84, 122, 274. See also appliance-product interdependence

outside shops, 137

outworkers, 128–129, 135–136, 141–142

ovens, 23, 33–36

Owen, Catharine (Ten Dollars Enough), 149–150


P

Parloa, Maria, 150

patriotic duty, 186

patterns, sewing, 134–135

Peale, Rembrandt, 68

peddlers, 244. See also street vendors

Peirce, Melusina Fay, 112, 195–200, 309

Pellerin, Cora, 155

Pennsylvania fireplace, 52–53

People's Drug Store, 289

Pepsico, 288

Pet, 291


Pettengill, Lillian, 169, 176

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 21, 92–93, 94–95, 97

Philadelphia Cooking School, 211

Philco, 277

Piggly-Wiggly, 252, 259

pigs, urban, 16

Pillsbury, 27, 276, 288, 289, 290, 291

Pittsburgh Reduction Company, 43

Pittsburgh Survey. See Homestead, Pennsylvania study

Pizza Hut, 288

political movements, women's, 301, 307–309

Politics of Housework, The (Mainardi), 308

pork, 14


Portland, Oregon, 22

pots and pans, 41–44

poverty. See economic and class differences

prepared foods, 258; brand establishment of, 255–257; creative cooking with, 276–277; early canned goods, 23; early mass market, 27–31; frozen, 273, 274–276, 278; introduction into homes, 28–30; mass distribution and production of, 24–26

preserving food, 19–23, 272–274

President's Conference on Home Building and Home Ownership, 103



Printer's Ink, 23, 244

privacy, 8, 63–65, 156–157

private/public spheres: Catharine Beecher and, 194–195, 200–201; fallacy of, 9–10, 307–312; ideology of, 5–6, 180–185; public dominance over private, 240, 261

produce, 14, 16, 18–19

product-appliance interdependence, 271–272, 277–278

production, home-based. See home industries

professionalism of home economics, 206–210

profit, commercial. See commercial interests

Progressive Era reform, 6–7; boarding and, 157–159; child welfare and, 230–231; domestic service and, 163, 168–169; food preparation programs, 283; home economics education and, 206; sanitation and, 93, 99–100

public markets, 14–15, 17–19, 198

public schools, 204–206

public sphere. See private/public spheres

Publix markets, 287

purchasing, 246–251, 272

Purity Ice Company, 21

putting-out work, 128–129, 135–136, 141–142


Q

Quaker Oats, 27

Quaw-Gunder Lumber Company, 160

quilting, 133


R

rag lamps, 58

railroads, 16–18

Ralston Purina, 289, 290

rationalization of housework, 173, 189, 190, 195–196

REA (Rural Electrification Administration), 82

ready-made clothing, 134–138, 143

Reagan, Ronald, 303

Red Lobster Inns, 290

reformers. See Progressive Era Reform

refrigerators and refrigeration, 16–17, 20–22, 265–267. See also ice

Rent-A-Wife service, 310

Republicans, 303

research studies: California, 268–270; Homestead, Pennsylvania, 28, 64, 97–99, 154–155; "Middletown" (Muncie, Indiana), 97; Robert Coit Chapin, 100, 113; Zanesville, Ohio, 78–79, 80, 102, 265

restaurants, 283, 286, 287. See also fast food

Richards, Ellen H., 207, 210

Richmond, Virginia, 54

Riis, Jacob, 100

Rinso laundry soap, 117, 254, 272

rituals, cultural, 297

Rockefeller, Nelson, 303

Rohrer (Mrs.), 211

rolled steel stoves, 38–40

Roosevelt, Theodore, 230

Rose, Mary Davies Swartz, 207

Rubinow, I. M., 172, 175

Rumford, Count, 51–52

Rural Electrification Administration (REA), 82

rural/urban differences. See urban/rural differences

Russell Sage Foundation: Chapin study, 100; Pittsburgh Survey (See Homestead, Pennsylvania study)


S

Salmon, Lucy (Domestic Service), 169, 172, 173, 175, 208–209

Sambo's, 291, 293

San Antonio, Texas, 15

San Francisco, 18

sanctuary, home as a, 181–182

Sanders, Colonel Harland, 286

sanitation. See indoor plumbing

Sapolio, 89, 91

Saunders, Clarence, 259

scheduling, 214, 217, 232–233

schools, 203–206

Schuylkill River, 92

scientific motherhood, 230–234

scientific rationality, 210–212

Scott's Run, West Virginia, 99

seamstresses, 126–127, 131–132, 136–137, 141–142, 228

Sears: cookware, 43–44; founding of, 257–261; mechanical cooking devices, 45; oil trade and, 61; plumbing fixtures and water vessels, 96, 100; stoves and furnaces, 38, 39, 54, 55; washing machines, 116–117

seasonal cycles: food and, 29, 68, 272–273; heating and lighting and, 55, 63, 67–68; laundry and, 272

Seattle, Washington, 95

self-delusion, 193

separate spheres. See private/public spheres

servant problem, 76–78, 163–164, 177

servants. See domestic service

servicemen, dependence on. See dependence on the organized economy

settlers. See frontier settlers



Seventeen, 295–296

sewage. See indoor plumbing

sewing. See clothing production

Sewing Machine Combination, 138

sewing machines, 138–141, 184

sex, commodification of, 305–306

Shapiro, Leo J., 297

shopping, organized, 246–250

Shredded Wheat Company, 285

Singer sewing machines, 139–140

Sirloin Stockade, 287

Skipper's, 287

Slater, Samuel, 128–129

slaves, 33

soap, 89, 93, 117, 119, 168

social and family life: child care and, 235–237; clothing production and, 132, 133–134, 144; consumer society and, 8, 301–307; cooking and, 46–49; dishwashers and, 279; food and, 296–299; gardens and, 28; indoor plumbing and, 103; intimacy, 8, 155, 156–157, 305–307; laundry and, 107–108, 121, 272; lighting and heating and, 63–66; refrigerators and, 267; in the workplace, 310

social stigma of domestic service, 169–170

social workers, 153, 245–246. See also Progressive Era

spinning, 127

spring cleaning, 61–63

St. Louis, 18

standard practices for household tasks, 215–219

Standard Sanitary Mfg. Co., 174

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, 192

Star Lunch, 286

starch, 118

Steak and Ale, 288, 289

steel cookware and stoves, 38, 40, 42–43

Stewart, A. T., mansion of, 71, 72

Stewart, Philo P., 37

Stouffer's, 276

stoves: for cooking, 3, 33, 36–41, 264; for heating, 51–58, 59, 264

Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 53, 57, 63

Strato Meals, 276

street vendors, 15–16, 18

Student's Manual, The (Todd), 182

submission, wifely, 192–193

Sunshine stoves, 38, 39

supermarkets, 252, 259–261, 278, 284–287. See also grocery stores, mom and pop

Supermarkets General, 287

Swanson, 276, 277, 295

sweatshops, 140, 142

systematic housekeeping, 188–189


T

Taco Bell, 294

Taylor, Frederick Winslow, 213

telephones, 305

temper, preservation of, 193

Ten Dollars Enough (Owen), 149–150

Tessie du Motay, M., 70

textile industry, 128–130

Thompson, Benjamin, 51–52

Thompson-Houston, 74

Thoreau, Henry David, 19

Tide, 271–272

Titcomb, John, 97

toasters, 80, 81

Todd, John (The Student's Manual), 182

transportation, 16–18, 26, 41, 54. See also distribution, mass

Treatise on Domestic Economy (Beecher), 54, 96

Treatise on the Physical and Medical Treatment of Children (Dewees), 235

Tremont Hotel, Boston, 148

Triscuits, 285

Trollope, Frances (Domestic Manners of the Americans), 16, 133, 149

Troy, New York, 113

TV Dinners, 276


U

Uneeda Biscuits, 24, 254–256

uniforms, maids', 170

Union Washing Machine, 116

United Brands, 289

United States Industrial Commission on the Relations and Conditions of Capital and Labor, report to (Laughlin), 169–170, 172, 173

United States Steel. See Homestead, Pennsylvania study

universities and colleges, 203–204

University of Wisconsin Agricultural Extension Service, 209

urbanization, 11–12, 195

urban/rural differences: bread baking, 23, 34; clothing, 128; food production and consumption, 12–16, 24, 25, 28, 29–30; fuel, 41, 55; refrigerators, 267

utilities. See electricity; indoor plumbing


V

Vacuum Cleaner Company, 77

vacuum cleaners, 77, 78–80

Vanderbilt, George, 86

Vanderbilt, Mrs. Cornelius, 76

Vanderbilt mansion, 71

Veiller, Lawrence, 156, 157–158

vibrators, 306

victory gardens, 23

Villard, Henry, 74

Vollrath, Jacob, 42–43

Vollrath Company, 42


W

W. L. Maxson Corporation, 276

Walden Pond, 19

War of 1812, 137

Ward, Lester Frank, 220

Waring, George, 94–95

washing machines, 107, 116–119, 267–272

washing powder, 211

Washington, D.C., 98

Washington, George, 16

Washington market (New York City), 19

Washington Souvenir Company, 21

water. See also indoor plumbing; conserving, 88–89; hauling, 85–88, 99; public waterworks, 90–93, 95; pumping, 87, 88, 93, 98; social and family life and, 103

water gas, 70

weaving, 129

Welsbach burner, 71

Welsh, Mary, 203

Wendy's International, 288, 293

West, Max (Mrs.) (Infant Care), 232–234, 235, 237, 239

Western Star washing machine, 116–117

Westinghouse, 74, 265, 267–268, 269, 270

Whirlpool, 277, 278

White Tower hamburger stand, 290

wholesalers, 25, 26

Wilson, James, 210

Winchell, Verne H., 293

Wisconsin Industrial School for Girls, 208

woman's profession, 167. See also private/public spheres; Beecher's systematic housekeeping, 188–189; Catharine Beecher on redeeming, 185–188; domestic education in, 189–191; economic sphere of, 195–200; feminism and, 191–192; malaise and, 192–194; the New Right and, 309



Women and Economics (Gilman), 219, 220

Women's Educational and Industrial Society of New York, 204

women's liberation movement, 201, 301, 307–308. See also feminism

wood. See fuel

woodboxes, 52

Woodbury soap, 253

Woolworth's, 259

Work, a Story of Experience (Alcott), 58

work, housework not perceived as, 183–185

work force. See labor market

working hours for domestic service, 170–172



Workingmen's Advocate, 166

workplace, men's, 181, 182

world's fairs, 72–73, 76, 231

wringers, 110, 111, 117


Y

Yakima, Washington, 306

Yezierska, Anzia (Bread Givers), 257

York Steak Houses, 290



Young Lady's Friend, The (Farrar), 131, 132, 134, 137, 182

YWCA commission on household employment, 168, 172


Z

Zanesville, Ohio study, 78–79, 80, 102, 265




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