Answer each one on a sheet of lined paper. Restate each question as well.
Questions on the Korean War
Book, “The Korean War” by Tom McGowen
How is Korea different from the U.S.?
In Korea, there were villages. Korea was surrounded by a lot of water. It also had a lot of farmers. The U.S is more modern, and is a lot bigger in size.
Explain Korea’s history of who controlled them.
Korea has been ruled by both Japan and China. They also were split into 2 different countries after WWII ended.
What did the United Nations call for in 1947? How did the Soviets react to it?
In 1947, the United Nations called for free elections in Korea. The Soviets refused the elections and did not like it.
What happened when the Soviets and U.S. troops left Korea?
When the Soviets and U.S. troops left Korea, the north called itself the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. Soviets had trained the North Koreans and armed it with tanks, airplanes, and modern weapons. The South was modeled after a western democracy like the United States with political parties, a president, and a congress of representatives of the people. It called itself the Republic of South Korea.
What happened on June 25, 1950?
On June 25, 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea across the 38th parallel.
How did Americans and the U.N. react to this?
Americans and the U.N. had a meeting and voted on a resolution that ordered North Korea to withdraw its army from the south. The resolution passed since the Soviet Union and China was not there. North Korea ignored the U.N. demand.
Did the United States declare war on North Korea?
The United States did not officially declare war on North Korea.
Why was the city of Pusan important?
The city of Pusan was important for a few reasons. It was a major port at the southern tip of South Korea and it possessed an airfield. It was an ideal place for U.N. military forces to land troops and supplies and to be used as a base for carrying on a war in Korea.
Were American troops ready for war? Why or why not?
American troops were not ready for war. They were poorly trained, inexperienced, and lacked up to date weapons needed for modern warfare.
What happened when the North Koreans attacked Pusan?
When the North Koreans attacked Pusan, American troops were not ready for war and within hours they barely won this battle. Americans did not have the weapons they needed to keep up with the North Koreans.
Who was General Douglas MacArthur?
General Douglas MacArthur was a clever strategist who commanded American forces in the southwest Pacific in WWII in the operations against Japan.
What was MacArthur’s plan at Inchon and what problems were there?
General Douglas MacArthur had a plan at Inchon which was on Korea’s west coast, 20 miles from Seoul. Inchon was in a territory controlled by the North Koreans, which meant the U.N. landing force would have to fight its way ashore. The channel leading to the land area was narrow and twisted. If the North Koreans had mined the channel with floating explosives. Ships carrying United Nations troops could be damaged and sunk. Further, there was an island that U.N. ships would have to pass and it was fortified and it could be damaged or destroyed by artillery.
What happened on September 10, 1950? On September 15, 1950?
On September 10, 1950, the assault began on that small island by U.N. troops. On September 15, 1950, the island was captured and the way to Inchon was clear.
As the Americans were fighting to regain control of areas that the North Koreans had occupied, what was the morale of the soldiers fighting?
American morale of the soldiers fighting were very low. Soldiers saw dead and wounded soldiers and marines. One young soldier commented on how war is cruel, miserable and dirty.
At the end of this “battle” who controlled South Korea?
South Korea was controlled by the United Nations and therefore was free.
Describe how the Chinese got involved and what was the result of that.
The Chinese got involved by warning the United States if they crossed the 38th parallel, China would enter the war. This warning was ignored by American government officials and Americans crossed it. China also got involved they were afraid that the United States would use South Korea as a war base and attack China because they were communist.
What happened at the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir?
At this Battle, Americans surrounded by Chinese soldiers in two different places. Americans held up the fighting but evacuated by sea. They suffered a disastrous defeat and were placed under the 38th parallel.
Describe how General MacArthur and the United Nations disagreed about what to do in the war. What did MacArthur want to do? What did the United Nations want to do?
General MacArthur wanted to carry the war into China, bombing the areas across the border where Chinese troops were organized and supplied for their movement into Korea. President Truman and the leaders of Britain and other European nations were horrified by such a suggestion; they felt that if China itself was attacked, the Soviet Union would surely join the war and World War III would begin. The U.N. leaders insisted that warfare had to be limited to only Korea. MacArthur disagreed and when he publicly criticized President Truman for going along with this “limited war” idea, Truman, in his capacity as commander in chief of U.S. military forces, removed MacArthur from command and appointed someone else.
What was the “talking war?”
The “talking war” refers to when the U.N. and Communist commanders were trying to work out terms of peace, the fighting continued. Battles now were fought mainly to try to give one side or the other an advantage in the peace talks. United Nations soldiers bitterly referred to the period of the peace talks as the “talking war.”
When was the armistice signed?
An armistice was signed on July 27th, 1953.
How many deaths did each side have? Each country?
The South Korean army suffered 58, 127 deaths during the war; the United States had 54,246 deaths, and the forces of the other fourteen U.N. members in the war, a total of 3,194 deaths. It is estimated that the North Korean and Chinese forces suffered nearly 1.5 million dead and wounded soldiers.
Even though the Korean War did not change things much, what did it do?
It separated Korea into two nations, one Communist and one non-Communist. The new dividing line gave a little more territory to South Korea. This war made China into a world power. It caused the United States to rearm and become the major military power of the Western world, bringing about great changes in the American way of life. It increased a fear and loathing of communism among most Americans and many Europeans, leading to decades of dangerous confrontation and hostility between the United States and the Soviet Union.
It was also the first time in history where a number of nations banded together to prevent one nation from forcibly taking over another and changing its way of life.