Which answers are better & why? What grade would you give these answers on a 10-point scale? How can the weaker answers beimproved? What are the differences in study habits among those who wrote these answers? NOTE: These were written in about 6-7 minutes with OPEN NOTES.
Quote 1 [see sourcebook, Egyptian Scribal Exercise Book]
This is an excerpt from an Egyptian scribal exercise book from the 12th century B.C..; the author of this text is, of course, a scribe. Because this is a written text, he has a biased view of his profession. This writing highlights the daily struggles of other professions in ancient Egypt. From this reading it is easy to understand why the author loves his trade; his position was one of privilege and leisure while others are physically punishing. In a centralized kingdom such as Egypt individuals who could write were worth their weight in gold as communication needed to take place between the capital and the provinces.
This is from a writing by a master Egyptian scribe to his apprentice from the 12th century B.C. In it, the master tells his pupil about other occupations in a biased manner to convince him of why being a scribe was the best manner of employment anyone could hope for. The master, in this excerpt, felt that the student was being lazy and showing him how much better a scribe’s life was than any common worker’s life. Back in ancient Egyptian, this was a cushy job that very few could do, it was a profession of high prestige. A commoner would only be able to wash, build, and go to war because he was never taught the sacred hieroglyphs.
This quote is from an Egyptian scribe book that was from a scribal school. This gives some hint of how scribes were thought of in Egyptian society from a scribe’s point of view. It also gives ideas on the lives of washermen, merchants, & carpenters. It ends with a description of the scribe as someone who records what all the others do. In context, it seems to be reliable, except it is only explained from the scribe’s point of view…
This quote is identifying how the people are living through their time. It is also identifying what tasks they are doing. It’s explaining how they are trading with others to survive because obviously they do not have all the resources they need.
Quote one is not a primary source. It was from the book but I don’t believe it to be taken from the time. But it was from the time of Mesopotamia. Or at least it was from the section on Mesopotamia.
This quote is from the Code of Hammurabi, which was written in Babylon. It was written roughly around 1792-1750 B.C.E. and was a set of rules for the kings to follow. The Code of Hammurabi was inscribed on a stone pillar. The main goal of the king was to protect the property and social hierarchy of his people. The code of Hammurabi was very strict also
Which answers are better & why? What grade would you give these answers on a 10-point scale? How can the weaker answers be improved? What are the differences in study habits among those who wrote these answers? Remember these were written in about 6-7 minutes with OPEN NOTES.
Quote 2 [see textbook, Book of the Dead]
This shows how people who should declare their innocence. It’s a list of evils that has counters for evictions. Its called the book of dead. It was written or translated from Miriam Lichtheim.
These quotes stating some of the questions asked in the book of the dead, which was thought to be imperative in order to pass from this life to the next. Each question was supposed to have been asked for a certain king or hierarchy. If you answered wrong to these questions, you were supposed to spend eternity in between life and the afterlife (death).
This comes from a time when Memphis was a large city so it would probably have been written in the Old Kingdom of Egypt. This quotation doesn't tell or show where the writer might have been from or who it was. This passage tells of possible tales or stories from the shadow-eater or religious beliefs. Also it was description of different people of different cities.
This excerpt is a story (The story of Sinhue or one of those) beseeching the gods for mercy on him in the afterlife and all of his worldly possessions. He would have been a Pharoah, Pharoah's son or some noble. This was from the middle to New Kingdom. He was showing that he had followed the law of Maat.
The quote originates from the New Kingdom of Egypt. Even during the beginnings of Egyptian civilization there existed a fascination with the endless cycle of life and death. As families could afford more complex burial ceremonies during New Kingdom Egypt, it was practiced the placing of a book of instructions with the mummy in the coffin. The Book of the Dead, as it was called, gave magical instructions to ward off danger while preparing the dead for their trial before the gods. This quote comes from a long list of sins that the dead could deny also known as "Declaring Innocence of Judgment Day." Those sins imply the nature of what was believed to be a sinless or sinful individual. One can infer somewhat the values of ancient Egyptians based on the laws of right and wrong imposed by the king keeping justice.
At first this quote seems quite strange. When one looks at how this fits into the context of Ancient Egyptians society, it appears quite ordinary. Probably dictated by a religious official, priest, and written and copied by scribes, this is a quote from the Book of the Dead dating from the Middle & New Kingdoms. This was required reading for all mummies. It's importance stems from the Egyptian fervor of belief in the afterlife. When a person died their life was judged by the gods, specifically Maat (goddess of order) and Anubis, lord of the underworld who weighed the purity of hearts against a feather. The book listed all the sins one must be able to deny, and which beings to deny them to. The fact that nearly all Egyptians were buried with these spiritual books belies how important religion was in their lives.