Identify the 2 most important factors that influence climate latitude and bodies of water (and mountains/elevation) Chapter 4 Culture Define

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Semester Exam Review

Chapter 1-3 Physical Geography

1. Identify the 2 most important factors that influence climate.

latitude and bodies of water (and mountains/elevation)
Chapter 4 Culture

2. Define cultural diffusion. Give an example. (pg. 72)

the spread of culture; music, food, religion, language, government, architecture
3. Assess the impact of the global diffusion on advanced computer and communications


(Impact on culture?) (Impact on education?)

Move FROM less traditional customs Increase in accessibility of higher ed.

MORE interest in foreign cultures

Increase in geographic mobility

4. Describe how a more diverse culture can be created when new immigrant groups move into

existing local cultures. (pg. 72) Give an example of where this has taken place.

When the traditions of locals and immigrants combine; Texas
5. Predict the level of development a country would be if they had high infant mortality rates,

short life expectancy rates, and low literacy rates.

6. Examine how traditional people maintain their culture. Give an example. (pg. 71)

Grandparents teach kids family recipes, stories, and ways of living

7. Define urban and illustrate what an urban area would look like in the box.c:\users\williamsmk\desktop\untitled1.png


8. Define rural and illustrate what a rural area would look like in the box.


9. Define subsistance agriculture: growing enough food just to feed your

family; not for sale

Population Pyramid

10. Examine why in stage one, population growth would have poor healthcare.

underdeveloped country, low technology, poor education, low life-expectancy
11. Examine why stage two population growth is rapidly increasing.

good health care, strong education, developed country, there are more babies being added this year than people are dying

12. Examine why population is shrinking in stage 4.

birth rate is lower than death rate, people choosing not to have kids

13. Predict what stage is the United States & explain why.

The U.S. is in stage 2: we have good health care and advanced technology which relates to a low infant mortality but provides ways of family planning.

Chapter 5-8 United States

14. Analyze the effects of the Industrial Revolution in the United States in the mid-nineteenth

century. (pg. 136-137)

cities grew, immigration increased

15. Identify why voting is important to the US political system and how it contributes to our


there is widespread support for it; citizens are allowed to vote for their representatives. If people are not happy with government performance, they will not re-elect that rep.
16. Examine the impact of the California gold rush (1848-49) on the population growth of that


population growth exploded as people from all over the world came in search of gold and wealth
17. Describe the general direction the population center of the United States has shifted to.

(pg. 135-136)

from NE to west

18. Identify in which province of Canada most people speak French. What other language is also

spoken in Canada?

Quebec: English

19. Identify the sub region of the United States has the highest population density. (pgs. 107, 145)


20. Explain the main cause of the Great Depression. (Which started in 1929)

speculation of prices, increasing consumer debt, stock market crash
21. Analyze how homesteading effected population growth. What area in the US did it impact the


Homestead Act: 1862 – opened up settlement in the west

Congress passed a law allowing people to claim public land and convert it to private land

Affected the Great Plains
22. Recognize the most important river system in the United States.

Mississippi (natural drainage systems)

23. Describe what happened during the Great Migration of African Americans after WWI.
What region did African Americans move from? What region did African Americans move to?

south Northern cities (Chicago, NYC, Philly)
24. Explain the main reason for increased US involvement in the Middle East after September

11th, 2001.

war on terrorism

Chapters 9-11 Latin America

25. Identify what areas make up the region called Latin America. (pg. 186)

countries south of the U.S. in the western hemisphere

26. Identify the main religion of Latin America and why. (pg. 194)

Catholicism; Spanish conquistadors
27. Identify the main languages of Latin America and why.

Spanish, Portuguese, French, Dutch; colonized by these nations

28. Identify the employment migrant workers from Latin America to the US typically get. Who was

Cesar Chavez and what did he help organize? farm work

Chavez was an American civil rights activist who co-founded the National Farm Workers Assoc.; fought for better treatment of migrant workers

united farm workers leader cesar chavez carrying a sign calling for a boycott of table grapes leads about 400 people picketing a safeway supermarket in seattle on dec. 19 1969. chavez left a legacy of empowerment for the latino community.
29. Explain the causes for destruction of the Amazon rain forest. (pg. 245)

slash and burn; poverty; abuse of natural resources; clearing land for ranching; large national debt

30. Recognize the advantages of terraced farming techniques used by the Inca. (pg. 211)

allows steep land to be cultivated; reduces soil erosion

31. Identify the largest rainforest in the world. Shade it in on the map above.


32. Recognize what 2 cultures influenced Central America the most.

Native American and Spanish

33. Identify several advances that occurred during the Aztec & Mayan civilizations.

Aztec calendar (science), Mayans use of the number zero (math)

34. Describe several problems that occur when tropical rainforests, such as the Amazon rapidly

disappear. (pg. 246) What is slash & burn farming?

animal habitats destroyed; less trees to absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen; destruction of medicinal plants
35. Analyze why there is an African influence in Brazilian culture.

Africans were brought there as slaves

36. Describe a favela. Why did favelas expand in the 1970s in Latin America? (pg. 239)

Brazilian slum; migrant workers couldn’t afford to settle in city centers

37. Infer what physical features in Latin America would have inhibited communication and

transportation systems. (pgs. 201, 202, 207)

mountain ranges (Andes), rain forests (Amazon), river systems (Amazon, Orinoco, Paraña)
38. Describe the effects of the Columbian Exchange. (pg. 136) Appraise who benefited the most

from the Columbian Exchange (Old World or New World) and why.

Exchange of animals, plants, and diseases.

Old World: they exploited the New World for their financial gain

39. Recognize why America needed to build the Panama Canal. Analyze how the Panama Canal

helps the economy of Panama. (pg. 226)

As a shortcut from the western U.S. to Europe and Africa; It generates higher revenues for Panama
40. Explain how the American Revolution effected the Latin America Revolutions of the 1820’s.

(pg. 218)

It influenced Latin American countries to fight for their independence from various European countries.
41. Describe some effects of colonial rule in Latin America. (pg. 225)

power held by wealthy landowners, unequal distribution of wealth

42. Indicate what NAFTA stands for. Which countries are involved? (pg. 160, 220)

North American Free Trade Agreement; Canada, U.S., Mexico

43. Appraise the positive and negative effects of NAFTA.

Pros: increased trade among partner countries, decreases tariffs (tax on imports/exports),

wage increases, improved cooperation among U.S. and Mexico, created jobs
Cons: Mexican workers have benefited less than expected, many regulations

Chapters 12-14 Europe

44. Describe what a fjord is. Where in Europe do you find them?

U-shaped valleys that connect to the sea that filled up with seawater after the glaciers carved them out; Norway
45. Describe what a polder is. Where in Europe do you find them?

reclaimed land; Netherlands


46. Use p282 to illustrate the 4 different steps in creating a polder in the diagram above.

47. Describe the Bubonic Plague (Black Death). How did it spread, and in what direction did it

diffuse in Europe? (pg 294-295)

People catch bubonic plague from rat bites; the disease lives in the guts of rats.

It spread via the Italian merchants who caught it from Asian traders coming across the Mediterranean Sea. It spread north and east from Italy.

48. Identify what place in Europe was the first to practice democracy. (pg. 289)

Athens (Greece)

49. Explain what happened in Eastern Europe in 1989, and what changes took place as a result.

(pg. 312) the Berlin Wall fell; West Berlin and East Berlin (as well as West Germany and East

Germany) were reunited after 30+ years.
50. Explain how England was changed by the Industrial Revolution. (pg. 304)

cities grew due to job availability, less people farming though farms increased in size,

population expanded
51. Compare urbanization and the Industrial Revolution. Which is the cause and which is the

effect? (pg. 137) urbanization is the growth of cities. The Industrial Revolution was the cause

and the effect was urbanization.
52. Describe why Jews escaped Europe during the 1940s.

They were being persecuted by the Nazis.

53. Identify the purpose of the European Union, and what is its major function? (pgs. 326-327)

to unify member countries; share resources, money system, open borders, common market

54. Explain why people started migrating to Western Europe after the creation of the EU.

They were in search of employment in more industrialized areas.

55. Identify the country in Europe that is always neutral, and assess the benefits of this?

Switzerland; benefits: no loss of military life, reduced spending on war, no

destruction of land and property
Political neutrality for a small country with a limited military capacity is generally preferable to a hostile takeover from a belligerent neighbor. As long as the country is officially recognized as neutral, no country can legally form plans to invade it or use it as a base of operations. A neutral country can accept refugees or political prisoners, but it is not obligated to join peacekeeping missions after the conflict ends.
56. Explain what a parliamentary system is. What European nation has this?

a system of government in which the executive branch derives its power from, and is held accountable to, the legislature (parliament); the executive and legislative branches are thus interconnected; UK

57. Compare the US Federal Government system to a Parliamentary system.

Similarities: power to govern is shared between national and local governments, bicameral

(two houses)

Differences: typically a republic vs. constitutional monarchy; president chosen by the

people, PM chosen by the party; executive=president, executive=PM+cabinet
58. Describe what happened on June 6th 1944 (D-Day).

the Allies crossed the English Channel to liberate France from the Nazis

59. Analyze the purpose of creating NATO. What countries are in NATO?

to safeguard the freedom and security of its members through political and military means; U.S., UK, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Germany, etc.

60. Describe what happened during the Berlin Airlift in 1948.

The Soviets tried to cause a pro-Communist uprising by cutting off supplies via road to West Berlin. The US and her allies began flying in supplies daily for nearly a year.

61. List the countries that made up the Iron Curtin on the map (see

map to the left).

East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania

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