IB History Paper 3 Past Questions and Markschemes State Establishment and Mao’s Influence Nov 2011
How successful were Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in
creating a socialist state in the period 1949 to 1961?
Mark Scheme yet to be found
With reference to other Chinese leaders of the period, to what extent, if any, has the role of Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) in China’s development between 1949 and 1976 been over-estimated?
Candidates will have a large amount of material to draw upon and should not be tempted into long explanatory narrative. Better answers should be able to analyse briefly the roles played at significant moments by other leaders who at times had to restrain Mao’s ambitions and to modify programmes and repair the damage caused by excesses he inspired. Expect a balanced discussion in which Mao’s charismatic role is clearly delineated and his achievements, weaknesses and failures acknowledged, along with the contributions to China’s growth, its rise to international recognition and importance made by other leaders and personalities.
[0 to7 marks]maximum for narrative only.
[8 to 10 marks] for some reference to the roles of other Chinese leaders.
[11 to 13 marks] for simple analysis of Mao’s policies, their consequences and the roles of other leaders.
[14 to 16 marks]for detailed, critical analysis of Mao’s leadership and of the roles of other leaders.
[17+ marks] detailed critical comparative analysis arriving at a conclusion backed by evidence.
(Mao Tse-tung) in the period from 1949 until his death in 1976.
Mark Scheme yet to be found
―Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) was disappointingly inconsistent as a nation builder.‖ Is this a fair appraisal of Mao’s leadership between 1949 and 1976?
This is a broad question and candidates may cover a lot of material in their responses. Candidates may make a distinction between Mao, the popular revolutionary leader who gains power in 1949 and Mao, the nation builder who makes mistakes. Some candidates may initially discuss Maoism: concepts of land redistribution, peasant socialism, working alongside the peasants, class struggle, gender equality, right thinking, rectification, continuous revolution, the mass line, the Yanan (Yenan) Spirit and Chinese nationalism; and assess the extent to which Mao disappointed in the application and achievement of these as a nation builder. Candidates’ responses will need to address both the positive and the negative aspects of Mao Zedong’s (Mao Tse-tung’s) rule in the People’s Republic of China 1949–1946. Expect candidates to discuss Mao’s policies and campaigns throughout the 27 year period: the New China reconstruction period 1949–1952; the First Five Year Plan 1952–1957; the 100 Flowers and Anti-Rightist Campaigns 1956–1957; the Great Leap Forward 1958–1961; the moderate period 1961–1965; the Socialist Education Movement 1962; and the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution 1966–1976. Candidates may also discuss Mao’s leadership in relation to the roles of other leaders such as Lin Biao (Lin Piao), Liu Shaoqi (Liu Shao-ch’i), Deng Xiaoping (Teng Hsiao-p’ing), Zhou Enlai (Chou En-lai), Peng Dehuai (P’eng Te-huai) and Jiang Qing (Chiang Ch’ing). Foreign policy may also be discussed, including Mao’s rapprochement with the United States in 1972. Candidates may recognize that Mao continued to assert an influence after his death in that his legacy and the cult that had surrounded him could not immediately be ignored. Some may mention the CCP reassessment of Mao in July 1981 and that the split of 70 % good and 30 % bad has become the accepted Chinese official assessment of Mao. Expect reasoned and balanced discussion based on evidence and knowledge and reward originality. Candidates should provide an assessment of Mao’s leadership and will need to come to a conclusion about the extent to which they agree with the assertion in the question.