I. women in ancient greece a. Introduction



Download 101.03 Kb.
Date conversion19.05.2016
Size101.03 Kb.


WOMEN IN ANCIENT GREEK HISTORY
I. WOMEN IN ANCIENT GREECE

A. INTRODUCTION

1. TIME FRAME

a. MINOAN CIV - 29000-1100 B.C.E.

(1) CENTERED ON ISLAND OF CRETE

b. MYCENEAN AGE - 1650-1100 B.C.E.

(1) CENTERED ON GREEK MAINLAND

c. HOMER & HEROIC PAST - 1100-800 B.C.E.

(1) HOMER WROTE ABOUT MYCENEAN AGE

d. LYRIC AGE 800-500 B.C.E.

(1) EVOLUTION OF CITY-STATES

(2) COLONIZATION OF GREEKS AROUND MED. SEA

e. CLASSICAL PERIOD 500-338 B.C.E.

(1) GREEK PHILOSOPHY, DRAMA, DEMOCRACY

B. MINOAN CIVILIZATION

1. NAME FROM MYTHICAL KING MINOS WITH MINOTAUR

a. HALF MAN HALF BULL FIGURE

2. THESUS, MYTHICAL FOUNDER OF ATHENS

a. VOLUNTEERS TO GO TO CRETE AS PART OF ANNUAL TRIBUTE REQUIRED BY KING MINOS

b. IN LABYRINTH OF PALACE HE HAD TO FIND HIS WAY OUT WITHOUT GETTING KILLED BY MINOTAUR

c. WITH AID OF ARAIDNE, KING MINOS' DAUGHTER

(1) THESEUS SUCCEEDS

3. FRESCOES PAINTED WITH LEAPING ACROBATIC MALES & FEMALES OVER BULLS

4. SCHOLARS DEBATE WHETHER THIS BONA FIDE MATRIARCHAL SOCIETY OR NOT

5. MORE FRESCOES OF WOMEN THAN MEN

6. ON ISLAND OF CRETE NUMEROUS PALACES FOUND

a. NO WALLS

b. INDICATING EITHER SECURITY BEHIND NAVY OR PEACEFUL SOCIETY

7. SERENE ROOMS WITH PAINTED WALLS OF ANIMALS & PLANTS

a. GIVE CREDENCE TO LATTER

8. THRONE NOT ELEVATED FROM OTHER SEATS

9. ADVANCED PLUMBING

a. WORLD'S FIRST FLUSH TOILET

b. TERRA COTTA BATHTUBS

10. FIGURINES OF BARE-BREASTED WOMEN WITH FULL LENGTH SKIRTS THOUGHT TO BE REPRESENTATIONS OF THEIR CHIEF GODDESS

a. WITH SNAKES IN HER HANDS

b. NAMELESS OR ELSE A PRIESTESS FOR HER

11. HILLTOP SANCTUARIES HAVE REPS OF THEIR DEITY TOO

a. OFTEN CALLED MOUNTAIN MOTHER

12. OTHER FIGURES OF THIS GODDESS CIRCA 1300-1250 B.C.E. SHOW THEM WITH POPPIES ON THEIR HEAD

13. INDICATION PRIESTESSES MORE NB THAN PRIESTS ON CRETE

a. PROCESSION FRESCO PRIESTESS RECEIVING TRIBUTE ADULATION & WORSHIP

(1) FROM 2 APPROACHING LINES OF MEN

14. WOMEN IN RELIGIOUS RITUALS WHERE DANCING & SACRIFICES

a. BOTH NB COMPONENTS OF LATER GREEK RELIGION

C. MYCENEAN CULTURE

1. NAMED AFTER ITS CAPITAL ON PELOPONNEUS

2. DOMINATED GREEK WORLD FROM 1600 -100 B.C.E.

3. 500 YEARS LATER HOMER'S ILIAD & ODYSSEY RELATES THIS SOCIETY

4. SCHLIEMANN 1876 FOUND AGAMEMNON'S PALACE & GOLD MASK

5. HOMELAND OF HELEN OF TROY

6. DISCUSS HER KIDNAPPING & TROJAN WAR

7. ECONOMIC REASONS WHY WAR NOT HER CAPTURE

8. LATER GREEK TIMES HELEN REVERED AS GODDESS

a. ESPECIALLY BY SPARTANS

(1) WHERE SHE FROM

9. HOMER'S WORKS GREEK BIBLE

a. OUTLINING FOR THEM THEIR HEROIC PAST &

b. HOW TO FEEL, THINK, BEHAVE

c. & MOST IMPORTANTLY FIGHTING

(1) THEIR REASON FOR BEING

10. NOT MUCH KNOWN ABOUT WOMEN

11. BUT THOUGHT NOT AS WELL REGARDED AS IN MINOAN

12. NOW SACRED SITES TO MALE GODS LIKE ZEUS & APOLLO

13. ALTHOUGH MYCENAEANS CONTINUED TO WORSHIP MOUNTAIN MOTHER AT SANCTUARIES IN MOUNTAINS

14. WE GET OUR FIRST DETAILED DESCRIPTIONS OF GREEK DEITIES IN THESE EPIC TALES

15. ZEUS & HERA APEX OF PANTHEON

16. POSEIDON, APHRODITE, ATHENA, ARTEMIS, APOLLO, ARES, ETC.

17. AS IN NEAR EAST THEIR MYTHOLOGY RELATES SUBSTITUTION OF FEMALES FOR MALE DEITIES

18. FREQUENT USE OF OX-EYED FOR HERA SUGGESTS HERA GREAT MOTHER GODDESS BEFORE ZEUS BORN

19. AT OLYMPIA, THE HERAION

a. TEMPLE TO HERA

b. PREDATES BY LONG TIME TEMPLE OF ZEUS

20. BY HOMERIC AGE ZEUS MORE NB THAN HERA

21. ECONOMICALLY WOMEN

a. WOVE CLOTH

b. MADE LEATHER GOODS

c. PROCESSED GRAIN

d. ALL POSITIONS DETERMINED BY GENDER

D. ARCHAIC AGE, CIRCA 800-500 B.C.E.

1. EVOLUTION OF CITY-STATES

2. BEGINNINGS OF GREEK COLONIZATION

3. GREEKS FARMERS, TRADERS, FISHERMEN

4. POLEIS OR CITY-STATES CONSTRUCT

5. PEOPLE RESIDING FULL TIME IN COUNTRY

a. INFERIOR TO CITY DWELLERS

(1) WHO WORKED FIELDS

(2) BUT LIVED IN CITIES

6. POLITICALLY GREEK WORLD WENT THROUGH VARIOUS FORMS OF GOVT STRUCTURE

a. HEREDITARY MONARCHIES

b. OLIGARCHIES

c. DICTATORSHIPS

d. DEMOCRACIES

7. NOT ALL ARRIVED AT DEMOCRATIC STAGE LIKE ATHENS

8. SPARTA BASICALLY MONARCHY WITH SOCIALISTIC TENDENCIES

9. ATHENS & SPARTA 2 LARGEST & IN COMPETITION

10. COLONIZATION AROUND MED, BLACK & AEGEAN SEAS MEANT GREEK CULTURE SPREAD

E. CLASSICAL PERIOD 500-332 B.C.E.

1. MOST FAMILIAR WITH AS

a. LITERATURE, PHILOSOPHY & ARTISTIC ENDEAVORS MAINLY BY ATHENIANS

2. BEGINS SEVERE DECLINE IN WOMEN'S ROLES

3. ATHENS PROBABLY MOST UNFAVORABLE TO WOMEN


II. WOMEN IN ATHENIAN SOCIETY

A. GENERAL REMARKS

1. WOMEN LEGALLY & POLITICALLY HAD NO POWER

2. UNDER CONTROL OF MALES THEIR ENTIRE LIVES

3. GIRLS NEVER FORMALLY CAME OF AGE

4. BEFORE SOLON'S ECONOMIC & POLITICAL REFORMS CA 600 B.C.E.

a. FATHERS COULD SELL THEIR DAUGHTERS INTO SLAVERY IF ECONOMIC DISTRESS

5. FATHERS DID NOT RAISE DAUGHTERS UNLESS THEY COULD PROVIDE THEM WITH ADEQUATE DOWRY

a. INFANTICIDE COMMITTED

b. DEBATE ONGOING WHETHER MORE GIRLS THAN BOYS SUBJECT OF INFANTICIDE

6. BIRTH OF SON GOAL OF MARRIAGE

7. PHILOSOPHERS ARISTOTLE & PLATO

a. SUGGESTED MARRIAGE AGE POSTPONED

b. SO CHILDBEARING YEARS LIMITED

c. IF NUMBER OF CHILDREN TOO LARGE

(1) MOTHERS TO ABORT FETUSES

B. MARRIAGE CUSTOMS

1. BECAUSE OF MALE DOMINANCE GIRLS MARRIED EARLY

a. TEENAGERS - AROUND 14

2. HUSBAND AT LEAST 30

3. MANDATORY VIRGINITY FOR BRIDES ONLY

4. STANDARD BETROTHAL CONTRACT

a. DOWRY IN LAND OR MONEY

5. IF DIVORCE DOWRY REMAINED WITH WIFE

6. JANUARY POPULAR TIME FOR MARRIAGES AS HERA'S MONTH

7. WIFE TO REMAIN FAITHFUL

8. OK FOR HUSBANDS TO PURSUE AFFAIRS WITH FEMALE PROSTITUTES OR YOUNGER MEN

9. DEMOSTHENES, NOTED GREEK ORATOR

a. WE HAVE HETAIRAI FOR THE SAKE OF PLEASURE, PROSTITUTES FOR DAILY CARE OF THE BODY, BUT WIVES TO BEAR US LEGITIMATE CHILDREN AND TRUSTED GUARDIANS OF OUR HOUSEHOLDS

C. LIFE IN SPARTA FOR WOMEN

1. SPARTA STRONG MILITARISTIC SOCIETY

2. OMNIPRESENT WAR FOOTING

3. WHEN GIRL BORN INSPECTED BY GROUP OF ELDERLY MEN

a. DETERMINED IF SHE STRONG ENOUGH TO LIVE

b. OTHERWISE EXPOSED

4. GIRLS SPENT THEIR EARLY YEARS IN VARIOUS ATHLETIC PURSUITS

a. TONING THEIR BODIES TO PRODUCE GOOD BABIES

5. STRENGTH AND TENACIOUSNESS OF SPARTAN WOMEN LEGENDARY

6. SPARTAN WOMEN HAD FAR MORE FREEDOM THAN OTHER GREEKS

7. SPARTA ONLY STATE HAVING PUBLIC EDUCATION FOR GIRLS

8. WOMAN'S HUSBAND NOT HER LEGAL MASTER IN SPARTA AS IN ATHENS

9. MOST GREEK WOMEN DID NOT GO OUT UNCOVERED BUT SPARTAN WOMEN DID

10. AFTER WEDDING HUSBANDS & WIVES STILL LIVED SEPARATELY FROM MEN

a. WHO CONTINUED SPARTAN PRACTICE OF LIVING IN MILITARY BARRACKS

11. AS IN ATHENS MAIN DUTY OF SPARTAN WIVES TO BREED BRAVE & STRONG CHILDREN

12. WOMEN HAD RIGHT TO OWN & DISPOSE OF PROPERTY

a. NOT POSSIBLE IN ATHENS

13. WOMEN FROM 5TH TO 3RD CENTURIES B.C.E. HAD THEIR POWER IN POLITICS INCREASE

a. AS WOMEN CONTROLLED LAND WEALTH

14. WAS SPARTA A GYNEOCRACY LIKE ARISTOTLE SAYS?

15. ARISTOTLE CLAIMED SPARTA ULTIMATELY FAILED BECAUSE SPARTA DID NOT CONTROL ITS INDEPENDENT WOMEN
III. BIRTH CONTROL PRACTICES

A. SILPHIUM

1. MOST POTENT PLANT

2. BOTH CONTRACEPTIVE & ABORTIFACIENT CAPABILITIES

3. DEMAND FOR SILPHIUM DROVE PRICES SO HIGH IN 5TH C.

4. PLAYWRIGHT ARISTOPHANES IN HIS PLAY THE KNIGHTS

a. DON'T YOU REMEMBER WHEN A STALK OF SILPHIUM SOLD SO CHEAP

5. SCARCITY AND THEN EXTINCTION LEAD THE ANCIENT GREEKS TO USE ASAFOETIDA

a. FROM SAME GENUS FERULA AS SILPHIUM

b. THOUGH NOT AS EFFECTIVE

6. OTHER CONTRACEPTIVES

a. QUEEN ANNE'S LACE OR WILD CARROT

b. PENNYROYAL

c. RUE


d. ARTEMISIA

e. MYRRH


f. POMEGRANATE

7. MOST OF THESE SCIENTIFICALLY PROVED TODAY TO HAVE BOTH CONTRACEPTIVE & ABORTIFACIENT PROPERTIES

8. SCHOLARS FEEL MOST PROBABLY USED FOR ABORTIONS RATHER THAN CONTRACEPTIONS

9. NO LAWS AGAINST ABORTION PRESENT IN ANCIENT GREECE

10. FOR ANCIENTS LIFE NOT PRESENT UNTIL BIRTH

11. THUS NO STIGMA TO ABORTION

B. MEDICAL CARE & GODDESSES

1. HYGEIA - GODDESS OF HYGIENE

2. HER SISTER PANACEA

3. THEIR FATHER ASCELPIUS - GOD OF MEDICINE

4. HYGEIA TAUGHT PEOPLE TO ACHIEVE HEALTH & LONGEVITY BY PROPER BEHAVIOR

C. MISCELLANEOUS RELATING TO WOMEN

1. USE NETWORKS OF WOMEN FROM THEIR SAME SOCIAL CLASS

2. WOMEN COULD ATTEND

a. PUBLIC FESTIVALS

b. SACRIFICES

c. FUNERALS

(1) COULD BE OFFICIAL MOURNERS FOR THEIR RELATIVES

(2) ALTHOUGH PERIODIC LEGISLATION INTRODUCED TO TRY & CURB OSTENTATIOUS BEHAVIOR OF WOMEN AT FUNERALS

d. PROPER MOURNING & BURIAL EXTREMELY IMPORTANT TO ANCIENT GREEKS

e. IN PLAY ANTIGONE BY SOPHOCLES ANTIGONE WILLING TO SACRIFICE HER REPUTATION & LIFE TO PROPERLY BURY HER BROTHER AGAINST WISHES OF KING

D. DIVORCE

1. RELATIVELY RARE IN YEARLY YEARS OF GREEK HISTORY

2. VERY COMMON CLASSICAL PERIOD

3. WIFE NEEDED HER FATHER OR ANOTHER MALE TO BRING DIVORCE SUIT BEFORE CITY OFFICIALS

4. HUSBAND COULD DIVORCE BY EXILING WIFE FROM HOUSE

5. FATHERS ALSO HAD RIGHT TO SEPARATE THEIR DAUGHTERS FROM THEIR HUSBANDS

a. & BRING THEM HOME TO MARRY SOMEONE ELSE

6. AFTER DIVORCE DOWRY RETURNED TO WIFE

7. NO DOWRY RETURNED IF WIFE COMMITTED ADULTERY

E. WOMEN IN ECONOMY

1. LOWER-CLASS WOMEN

a. AGRICULTURE WORK

b. RETAIL SHOPS

c. DOMESTIC SERVICE

d. WET NURSING

e. MIDWIFERY

f. PROSTITUTION

2. MIDDLE CLASS IDEAL WAS FOR WIFE TO STAY HOME

3. WIVES NOT EVEN SUPPOSE TO DO MARKETING

4. MIDDLE CLASS WIVES MADE CLOTHING FOR ENTIRE HOUSEHOLD

a. SPINNING, WEAVING

b. USE OF DISTAFF (STAFF HELD THE WOOL)

c. SPINDLE -= SPOOL HOLDING NEWLY SPUN THREAD

5. ONLY 2 REALMS COULD WOMEN RISE TO EQUAL OR SURPASS MEN IN INFLUENCE & COMPETENCE

a. PRIESTESSES & PROSTITUTES

F. SAPPHO 620-565 b.c.e.

1. POETESS FROM ISLAND OF LESBOS

2. CONSIDERED 10TH MUSE BY PLATO

3. GREATEST LYRIC POET

4. SOME POETRY EROTIC & MAYBE LESBIAN

5. MOST OF HER POETRY DESTROYED BY CHRISTIANS

G. HETAIRAI OR COURTESANS

1. MOST EMANCIPATED WOMEN IN ATHENS, ETC.

2. USUALLY STARTING AS SLAVE OR DOWRY-LESS MAIDEN

3. WITH GOOD LUCK, INTELLIGENCE & RIGHT PATRON

4. HETAIRAI COULD ELEVATE THEIR STATUS

5. ASPASIA

a. BECAME MISTRESS OF DE FACTOR 30 YEAR RULER OF ATHENS, PERICLES

b. EVENTUALLY HIS WIFE

c. WELL EDUCATED

d. NOW THOUGHT SHE MAY HAVE WRITTEN FAMOUS FUNERAL ORATION SPEECH PERICLES GAVE DURING PELOPONNEUS WITH SPARTA

6. HETAIRAI MIXED FREELY IN MALE COMPANY

a. ATTENDING SYMPOSIA WHERE THEY ENGAGED IN DEBATES OF

(1) POLITICS, DRAMA, PHILOSOPHY, MUSICAL TALENTS
IV. RELIGIOUS PRACTICES OF GREEKS

A. GENERAL REMARKS

1. RITUALS & WORSHIPPING OF DEITIES NB TO GREEKS

2. CONSTANT CELEBRATIONS CARRIED OUT FOR

a. RITES OF PASSAGES FOR YOUNG GIRLS, MAIDENS & WOMEN

3. ALL INVOLVED HONORING GODDESSES

4. ALL GREEKS' LIVES INTERWOVEN WITH THEIR DEITIES

B. RELIGIOUS FESTIVALS FOR WOMEN & GIRLS

1. PERSEPHONE, ARTEMIS & ATHENA, DEMETER & APHRODITE MENTOR GODDESSES TO WOMEN

2. DEMETER, GODDESS OF GRAIN & AGRICULTURE

a. MANY FESTIVALS IN HER HONOR FOR WOMEN

3. MOST NB FALL 3-DAY FERTILITY RITES FESTIVAL

a. THESMOPHORIA - FOR DEMETER

4. DEMETER MOTHER OF PERSEPHONE

a. WHO SEIZED BY HADES

(1) GOD OF UNDERWORLD & MADE HIS WIFE

5. DEMETER WON RELEASE FOR HER DAUGHTER FOR TWO-THIRDS OF YEAR WHEN ZEUS

a. DEMETER'S SISTER & WIFE & FATHER OF PERSEPHONE

b. FORCED TO RELINQUISH TO DEMETER WHO WAS CAUSING CROP FAILURE, FAMINE, HUMAN INFERTILITY

6. ANOTHER MORE FAMOUS FESTIVAL & OPEN TO BOTH GENDERS

a. ELEUSIAN MYSTERIES

7. WHILE PRIMARILY HONORING DEMETER, PERSEPHONE INCLUDED TOO

8. THOSE INITIATED INTO THE ELEUSIAN MYSTERIES WOULD

a. RECEIVE HIDDEN KNOWLEDGE

(1) INCLUDING SALVATION & A HAPPY AFTERLIFE

9. FOR OVER 2000 YEARS GREEKS & THEN ROMANS WORSHIPPED DEMETER IN ELEUSINIAN MYSTERIES

10. THESE RITES MAJOR COMPETITOR TO GROWTH OF CHRISTIANITY

11. DIONYSUS AS GOD OF WINE & SONG HAD RELIGIOUS RITES SPECIAL TO HIM SIMILAR TO THOSE FOR DEMETER

12. MAENADS, FEMALE FOLLOWERS OF DIONYSUS HAD SPECIAL STATUS

C. GODDESSES FOR MARRIED WOMEN

1. DAILY WIVES OFFERED PRAYERS & FOOD TO HESTIA

a. GODDESS OF HEARTH

(1) CENTER OF HOME

2. APHRODITE

a. MOST WELL KNOWN GODDESS EXALTED BY WOMEN

b. SHE GODDESS OF SEXUALITY & LOVE

c. BUT HER ANCESTRY GOES WAY BACK TO ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ORIGINS

d. SHE IS COMPARABLE TO INANNA, ISHTAR & ASTARTE

e. SEXUALITY JOYFUL TO ANCIENT GREEKS

(1) MANY ARTISTIC RENDITIONS OF HUMAN ENJOYING THEMSELVES EVIDENT IN ARTIFACTS

f. BOTH GENDERS OFFERED SACRIFICES & WORSHIP TO APHRODITE

D. ATHENA

1. DURING AGE OF PERICLES MONEY SPENT BEAUTIFYING ATHENS

a. INCLUDING PARTHENON - TEMPLE TO ATHENA

2. SHE PATRON GODDESS OF ATHENS

3. CITY HELD MAJOR FESTIVAL IN HER HONOR

a. PANATHENAIA

4. SHE ALSO GODDESS OF WISDOM

a. REPRESENTED BY OWL ON ATHENIAN COINS

5. ALSO GODDESS OF WAR & MILITARY VICTORY

a. ILLUSTRATED BY HER TITLE NIKE OR VICTORY

6. INSIDE PARTHENON 40 FOOT STATUE OF ATHENA

E. ARTEMIS

1. EPHESUS IN ASIA MINOR CELEBRATED TEMPLE OF ARTEMIS

a. 1 OF SEVEN WONDERS OF ANCIENT WORLD

2. OROGINALLY POWERFUL MOTHER GODDESS

a. EVEN THOUGH VIRGIN

b. SIMILAR IN ICONOGRAPHY TO ISIS IN EGYPT

c. & VIRGIN MARY IN CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY

3. LATER IN GREEK HISTORY ARTEMIS DEMOTED TO MOON, HUNTER & UNTAMED NATURE GODDESS

a. WHERE HAS ARTEMIS NOT DANCED

(1) FAMOUS GREEK SAYING

F. PRIESTESSES IN ANCIENT GREECE

1. MOST RESPECTED WOMEN PRIESTESSES OF VARIOUS FEMALE DEITIES & MYSTERY RELIGIONS

2. THIS HIGH STATUS REFLECTED DEEP-ROOTED GREEK CONVICTION

a. WHILE WOMEN NOT AS SMART AS MEN

b. THEY HAD MORE SPIRITUALITY

c. ALLOWING THEM CLOSER COMMUNICATION WITH GODS

3. TERM OF OFFICE OF PRIESTESSES OF HERA AT ARGOS

a. SO WELL RESPECTED THAT NB GREEK HISTORICAL EVENTS DATED BY THEM

4. PERHAPS SINGLE MOST INFLUENTIAL GREEK AT ANY GIVEN TIME PRIESTESS OR PYTHIA AT DELPHIA

G. DELPHI ORACLE

1. MOST FAMOUS

2. APOLLO STOLE ORACLE OR STONE FROM GAIA

3. SUPPOSED TO SPEAK IN VOICE OF APOLLO

4. TROUBLE W/THIS ORACLE WAS ITS UTTERANCES TENDED TO BE VERY OBSCURE

5. ACTUAL ORACLE AT DELPHI ALWAYS UNEDUCATED YOUNG WOMAN OF THE REGION

a. PYTHIA

b. ONE WHO HAD REVEALED A TENDENCY TO HYSTERIA & IRRATIONAL BEHAVIOR

c. PRIESTS FED HER POISONOUS LAUREL LEAVES WHICH SHE CHEWED

d. MADE HER GO INTO A TRANCE

6. WHILE IN TRANCE SHE BECAME VEHICLE FOR VOICE OF APOLLO

a. UTTERING PROPHECIES CAPABLE OF CHANGING HISTORY OF GREEK PEOPLE
V. MISOGYNY IN GREEK SOCIETY

A. HOMER


1. ILIAD & ODYSSEY

2. TAUGHT GREEKS WHAT TO FEEL & THINK, & HOW THEY SHOULD BEHAVE

3. MANY SCHOLARS NOW STATE MISOGYNIST IDEAS INHERITED FROM PAST BEGIN WITH HOMER

a. HOMERIC HEROS MISTRUSTS WOMEN

b. EVEN MOST DEVOTED & SUBMISSIVE OF THEM

c. ODYSSEUS WAITS TILL HE HAS KILLED SUITORS BEFORE HE REVEALS HIMSELF TO HIS WIFE

d. AGAMEMNON - KING OF MYCENAE (ACHEANS)

(1) ...BRING YOUR SHIP BACK TO YOUR HOMELAND SECRETLY, NOT OPENLY, SINCE WOMEN CAN NEVER BE TRUSTED OD 11.454-56

e. PENELOPE

(1) WIFE OF ODYSSEUS

(2) WHILE TOUTED AS FAITHFUL WIFE

(3) ALWAYS IDEA - WAS SHE REALLY FAITHFUL TO HER HUSBAND?

(4) WAS THEIR SON TELEMACHUS, REALLY ODYSSEUS SON

(a) MY MOTHER SAYS I AM THE SON OF ODYSSEUS BUT I DON'T KNOWN. NO ONE BY HIMSELF CAN KNOW HIS OWN SEED

4. ZEUS ALWAYS STRIKING ONE OF HIS WIVES, HERA

B. HESIOD

1. WILL CONTINUE MISOGYNIST IDEAS OF HOMER

2. CA. 700 B.C. GREEK POET

3. IN BOTH HIS THEOGONY & WORKS & DAYS TELLS STORY OF CREATION OF MAN & WOMAN

4. MAN CREATED FIRST & LIVES HAPPILY UNTIL

5. IN PUNISHMENT FOR PROMETHEUS' STEALING FIRE & GIVING TO MORTALS,

6. ZEUS CREATES FIRST WOMAN, PANDORA

7. PANDORA OPENS HER BOX & UNLEASHES PAINS & EVILS AMONG MEN

C. MISOGYNY OF GREEK PHILOSOPHERS

1. SOCRATES, PLATO, ARISTOTLE

a. 3 MOST INFLUENTIAL PHILOSOPHERS IN HISTORY

2. WILL CONTINUE GREEK MISOGYNISTIC BELIEFS

3. & ONES THAT MEDIEVAL & LATER SOCIETIES IMBIBED HEAVILY

4. SOCRATES C. 470-399 B.C.

a. WOMEN WEAKER SEX...BEING BORN WOMAN IS A DIVINE PUNISHMENT, SINCE A WOMAN IS HALFWAY BETWEEN A MAN & AN ANIMAL

5. ARISTOTLE 4 TH C. B.C.

a. THE MALE IS BY NATURE SUPERIOR & FEMALE INFERIOR AND ONE RULES AND THE OTHER IS RULED. THIS INEQUALITY IS PERMANENT BECAUSE THE WOMAN'S DELIBERATIVE FACULTY IS WITHOUT AUTHORITY, LIKE A CHILD'S

b. HE SAW WOMEN AS LESS RATIONAL

c. WOMEN IMPERFECT OR MAL-FORMED MALES

d. PRODUCED AS RESULT OF A CONJUGAL ACT STAINED BY

D. MISOGYNY - SPECIFIC TO HUSBANDS

1. WIVES PORTRAYED AS IDLE, VENGEFUL, SHREWISH, UNSCRUPULOUS

a. AS FIGURES TO BE CONQUERED OR DENIGRATED

2. SEMONIDES OF AMORGOS

a. CLASSIFIED WOMEN INTO 10 TYPES

b. ONLY ONE - BEE - JOY FOR MAN OR GOOD FOR MAN

3. SEMONIDES & HESIOD TRANSMUTED MISOGYNY INTO MOCKERY OF HUMOR

E. MISOGYNY IN GREEK THEATER

1. BY 4TH C MAKING FUN OF WIVES & WOMEN STANDARD THEME IN COMEDIES PERFORMED IN GREECE

2. ARISTOPHANES

a. 392 B.C. WROTE

b. ...THEY NAG THEIR HUSBANDS, JUST AS THEY ALWAYS HAVE; THEY SNEAK THEIR LOVERS INTO THE HOUSE; JUST AS THEY ALWAYS HAVE; THEY BUY THEMSELVES LITTLE TID-BITS, JUST AS THEY ALWAYS HAVE; THEY PREFER THEIR WINE UNWATERED JUST AS THEY ALWAYS HAVE; & THEY ENJOY A GOOD "ROMP IN THE HAY" JUST AS THEY ALWAYS HAVE

F. EURIPIDES

1. JUDGED BOTH AS MISOGYNIST & CHAMPION OF WOMEN

2. DIVISION WHICH AT LEAST TESTIFIES TO COMPLEXITY OF HIS FEMALE PORTRAYALS

3. WOMEN APPEAR AS PERPETRATORS OF CRIMES MOTIVATED BY PASSION

a. JEALOUSLY

b. VINDICTIVENESS

c. CRIMES COMMITTED WITH DECEIT & GUILE

4. COMPLICATING FACTOR IS EURIPIDES ALSO PRESENTS WOMEN'S ACTIONS AS EMANATING FROM INSECURITY OF THEIR POSITION

G. NEGATIVE SYMBOLS OR EVIDENCE OF PAST POWER OF WOMEN IN GREEK SOCIETY?

1. GREEKS CREATED NUMEROUS FEMALE MONSTERS

2. WHO WERE ORIGINALLY BEAUTIFUL WOMEN WHO HAD SEX WITH SOMEONE INAPPROPRIATELY & ARE TURNED TO MONSTERS BY POWERFUL GODS

a. CIRCE

(1) WHO TURNED ODYSSEUS' MEN INTO SWINE

b. SCYLLA

(1) SHE WOULD DEVOUR ODYSSEUS' MEN

c. CHARYBDIS

(1) DEADLY WHIRLPOOL

d. PHRASE BETWEEN SCYLLA & CHARYBDIS CONTINUED INTO MODERN TIMES AS DESCRIPTIVE OF CHOICE BETWEEN

(1) ROCK & HARD PLACE

e. SIRENS

(1) LURED MEN TO DEATH WITH THEIR SONGS

f. FURIES

(1) 3 FEMALES WHO PUNISH WRONGDOERS

3. LATER GREEK MYTHS

a. HARPIES

(1) RAVENOUS FILTHY BIRDS WITH WOMEN'S HEADS

b. MEDUSA

(1) 1 OF GORGONS PERSEUS KILLED

(2) LOOK WOULD TURN MEN TO STONE

4. MALE HERO OF GREEK LEGENDS MOVED THROUGH LANDSCAPE THRONGED WITH FEMALE MONSTERS

5. WHOM HE MUST DEFEAT OR OUTWIT IN ORDER TO SURVIVE

6. DO ALL THESE NEGATIVE SYMBOLS INDICATE NEGATIVE ATTITUDE TOWARDS WOMEN?

7. OR AN INDICATION THAT THEIR POWER IS TO BE FEARED & RESPECTED?


VI. LEGENDS OF AMAZONS

A. GENERAL REMARKS

1. IN TANDEM WITH MISOGYNISTIC TENDENCIES OF GREEKS

2. LEGEND OF AMAZONS

3. AMAZONS RACE OF WARRIOR WOMEN

4. WHILE ARTISTIC RENDITIONS OF AMAZONS SHOW HAVE 2 BREASTS

a. WORD AMAZON MEANS HAVE NO BREASTS

5. LEGEND DEVELOPED THESE WOMEN HAD THEIR RIGHT BREASTS REMOVED

a. TO AID IN THEIR USE OF BOW & ARROW

6. SOME OF MYTHS RE AMAZONS MAY HAVE SOME HISTORICAL BASIS

7. RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL UNCOVERING OF BURIALS

a. LEADS MANY SCHOLARS TO CONCLUDE SCYTHIANS

b. ACTUAL HISTORICAL TRIBE

c. EXHIBITED MUCH OF SOME CHARACTERISTICS AS AMAZONS

8. CHARACTERISTICS OF AMAZONS

a. THEY ACTED AS MEN

b. DID NOT MARRY

c. WHEN WANTED FEMALE CHILDREN

(1) CAPTURED MEN & SEDUCED THEM

d. IF MALE INFANT BORN HE KILLED

e. RODE ASTRIDE

f. LIVED WITHOUT MALES



9. ENCOUNTERS WITH AMAZONS EXPECTED OF GREATEST GREEK HEROES TO SHOW THEIR CHAMPION STATUS



The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page