I. Spain’s Power Grows in Europe A. Charles V and the Hapsburg Empire The Holy Roman Empire



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Chapter 17

European Monarch, 1526-1796




Chapter 17 European Monarchs, 1526-1796

I. Spain’s Power Grows in Europe

A. Charles V and the Hapsburg Empire

1. The Holy Roman Empire

a. Hapsburg family ruled Austria for more than 600 years

b. Holy Roman Empire – geographical area in W. & C. Europe; included modern Germany,

Switzerland, Austria, E. France, & N. Italy

c. lasted 1,000 yrs from Charlemagne in 800

d. Germany was not unified

e. 1200s - Hapsburgs gained power in Austria and ruled HRE from 1452-1806

2. The Growth of Hapsburg Influences

a. dynasties expanded influence through marriage, military campaign, and inheritance

b. INHERITANCE – receiving something from a family member or someone else after their death

c. Emperor Maximilian I married Mary of Burgundy to gain part of France; inherited kingdom of

Castile in Spain; son Philip married Juana, daughter of King Ferdinand II & Queen Isabella of Spain;

warred against France, the Netherlands, & Ottoman Empire

d. Philip & Juana’s son Charles know as: Charles I (HRE) and Charles V (King of Spain)

e. Charles ruled: Spain, Austria, parts of Netherlands, S. Italy, & Spanish America

f.1526 – Charles’s brother Ferdinand elected king of Hungary & Bohemia

3. The Reign of Charles V

a. did not have complete authority

b. keeper of Roman Catholic faith in Germany where German Princes were Protestants

c. 1555 – Peace of Augsburg – Charles V forced to accept that each state could chose Lutheranism

or Catholicism

d. peace negotiations with King Francis I of France and Sultan Suleiman I of Ottoman Empire did not go well

e. 1556 – split empire between son Philip II (Netherlands, S. Italy, Spanish America) and brother Ferdinand I

(Austria, Hungary, Bohemia)

f. Hapsburgs continued to have two branches

B. The Golden Age in Spain

1. Philip II and Rule by Divine Right

a. 1500’s – Spain’s golden age

b. Philip II (AKA Philip I of Portugal) – strict, severe, ruled by divine right (God’s authority), absolute

monarch (not limited by constitution or law)

c. Roman Catholic – wanted to restore the faith in Europe

d. 2nd wife, Mary Tudor, daughter of Henry VIII of England, but he stayed in Spain

e. Mary burned Protestants in England for being heretics - nicknamed “Bloody Mary”

2. The Revolt of the Netherlands

a. Netherlands was Protestant (Calvinists)

b. not unified in 1500s – ruled by Spain

c. Dutch disliked Philip II for being Catholic

d. 1566 – Philip refused to ban the Inquisition from the Netherlands; Dutch people rebelled for 20 years for

religious freedom and political independence



C. England Enters the World Stage

1. Roman Catholics and Protestants

a. Church of England – AKA Anglican Church – England’s denomination of Christianity

b. 1550s – Mary Tudor’s marriage to Philip II of Spain increased religious tensions

c. 1576 – Philip II’s brother Don Juan sent to Netherlands to stop rebellion, then invade England

d. 1578 – Don Juan died, did not finish plan

e. 1585 – Queen Elizabeth I of England sent troops to Netherlands to help them against Spain

f. 1586 – Mary, Queen of Scots – a Catholic – tried to take thrown from cousin Elizabeth I

g. 1587 – Elizabeth I charged Mary with treason (betraying their country) and had her executed



2. The Defeat of the Spanish Armada

a. May 1588 – Philip II sent Spanish Armada (fleet) to attack England

b. Charles Howard and Sir Francis Drake commanded English navy

c. Spanish anchored at Calais, France and hoped to pick up more troops

d. English attacked – Spanish had to retreat East then North around Scotland because they were blocked

e. Spanish Armada was defeated, ensuring independence for England & the Netherlands

f. England & Netherlands began exploring the East Indies and establishing colonies in N. America

II. Louis XIV Rules France

A. The French Wars of Religion

1. Religious Conflict

a. French Protestant John Calvin’s ideas spread & French Calvinists were known as Huguenots

b. 1500s – Huguenots were mostly nobility and kings tried to keep them from gaining too much power

c. 1550s – French Protestant being burned at the stake for heresy

d. 1559 – Henry II’s widow Catherine de Médicis ruled France as regent for son too young to rule

e. 1560-1600 – 9 civil wars in France over religion

f. 1572 – Huguenots in Paris for marriage of Henry of Navarre; Catherine de Médicis encouraged her

son Charles IX to order a massacre where thousands of Huguenots were killed – known as

St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre

h. Henry escaped death and renounced Protestantism



2. Henry IV and Cardinal Richelieu

a. French troops sent to Paris to support Catholics – Protestant towns looked to England for help

b. Henry of Navarre returned to Protestantism

c. 1589 – Henry III assassinated; Henry of Navarre became king of France known as Henry IV from 1589-1610

d. 1593 – Henry IV rejects Protestantism again to reunify France, begs Pope for forgiveness

e. 1598 – issues Edict of Nantes guaranteeing basic civil rights & religious freedom to French Protestants

f. 1610 – Henry’s son Louis XIII becomes king but France is really run by finance minister Cardinal Richelieu

g. Cardinal Richelieu changed the Edict of Nantes canceling some Huguenot rights



B. Louis XIV: The Sun King

1. The Great Monarch

a. 1643 – Louis XIII dies leaving 5-year-old son Louis XIV to be king; Cardinal Mazarin held power as chief minister

b. 1661 – Cardinal Mazarin dies, Louis XIV takes over & governs personally

c. believed in absolute monarchy

d. Jacques Bossuet, bishop, all power came from God, kings are God’s representatives on Earth

e. 1715 – Louis XIV died; policy during life: peace at home, war abroad

f. Louis XIV’s government supervised military recruiting, training, supplies, & promotion – increased army 4 times

g. Jean Baptiste Colbert, finance minister, raised revenue (money) to pay for army; mercantilism policy

h. 1685 – cancelled Edict of Nantes to unify country in religion

2. A Grand Palace

a. build 10 miles outside of Paris

b. hundreds of rooms with tapestries, chandeliers, and mirrors; formal parks, fountains, landscapes, statues

c. sign of wealth and power

d. earned nickname “the Sun King”

3. Art and Culture Under Louis XIV

a. Baroque style – ornate decoration in architecture, sculpture, and music

b. Louis XIV was patron to Jean Baptiste Lully to create chamber music, operas, & ballets

c. neoclassical literature and paintings – revival of classical (Greek/Roman) style and form

d. Nicolas Poussin – biblical and classical Greek & Roman subjects

e. Claude Lorrain – painted landscapes

f. writers Pierre Corneille (creator of French classical tragedy), Jean Racine (greatest French poet),

Molière (French comedy playwright)

g. René Descartes – applied math to all areas of knowledge

h. Blaise Pascal connected science and religion

i. skepticism – doubting knowledge by changing its reliability, influential in 17th century France

C. France and the Rest of Europe

1. Louis XIV’s Foreign Policy

a. balance of power – system in which each state tried to increase its own influence and prevent any

other state from gaining too much power within a region

b. Louis XIV foreign policy of almost constant war – mostly with Hapsburgs

c. War of Spanish Succession (1702-1713)

i. King Charles II of Spain died leaving territories to Louis XIV’s grandson

ii. King William III of England forms Grand Alliance of 1701 with Netherlands & HRE to oppose this

iii. French were defeated

iv. Treaty of Utrecht (1713) – Spanish territories divided among Grand Alliance nations; Louis’s

grandson could rule Spain as long as it was never joined with France



2. The Legacy of Louis XIV

a. French culture had strong influence throughout Europe

b. Versailles and foreign wars created taxes that caused extreme hardship on peasants

c. outlived son and grandson – great-grandson Louis XV took throne in 1715



III. The Rulers of the Holy Roman Empire, Prussia, and Russia

A. The Thirty Years’ War

1. Germany and Civil War

a. 1612 – Ferdinand II (Hapsburg) becomes king of Bohemia and tried to stamp out Protestantism

b. Bohemian nobles resist and replace him with a Protestant ruler – begins Thirty Years’ War in 1618

i. 1635 – peace declared then broken by Cardinal Richelieu of France, went to war against Spain

ii. fighting spread to the Netherlands, Italy, Spain, & Scandinavia (Denmark, Norway, Sweden)

iii. fought mostly by mercenaries – hired soldiers

iv. Germany – 1/3 of population died in battles, plague, or undernourishment

2. The Peace of Westphalia

a. 1640 – peace negotiations begin again and go on until 1648

b. ended the Thirty Years’ War & secured religious freedom for Protestants

c. weakened German power allowing France to be leading European nation

d. divided HRE into more than 3000 independent states – no longer political force

B. The Rise of Prussia as a European Power

1. A Military State

a. Prussia – NE region of Europe, German-speaking peoples, now E Germany, Poland, & W Russia

b. 1600s – Prussia under control of German state of Brandenburg and leader Frederick William

c. militarism – stresses military need and values

d. 1701 – Frederick III, Frederick William’s successor, asked to supply troops to Hapsburgs

for War of Spanish Succession (see: II.C.1.c)

e. Frederick III becomes King Frederick I of Prussia for helping the emperor

f. standing army – permanent, professional, and paid, military

g. King Frederick William I, King Frederick I’s son, doubled military, invented system for recruiting new soldiers

h.1740 – his son inherits the throne



2. Frederick the Great

a. 1740-1786 – Frederick II, AKA Frederick the Great, ruled Prussia; loved literature and philosophy

b. War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748)

i. Frederick the Great attacked Silesia in present-day Poland

ii. Prussia – big winner – Europe recognized the annexation of Silesia

c. 1750s – Austria, Russia, and France allied against Prussia for Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) – Prussia wins

d. enlightened despotism – absolute monarchy where ruler uses power to bring political and social

change to benefit their subjects – Frederick the Great was one



C. The Russian Empire Emerges

1. Peter the Great

a. religion, foreign invasion, & geography kept Russia from the rest of Europe

b. 1500’s Ivan the Terrible ruled as absolute monarch

c. 1613 – Michael Romanov becomes new czar – family rules until 1917

d. Peter I, AKA Peter the Great, wanted to bring W. Europe to Russia and create strong army

e. 1709 – defeated the Swedes, allowed control of Baltic sea for trade

f. Saint Petersburg – new capital, symbolic and spectacular

g. adopted mercantilism, encouraged mining & textiles, increased exports

h. supported education – required school for sons of aristocrats

i. absolute monarch

i. financial needs put burden on peasants & serfs

ii. refused to pass rule by inheritance – killed his own son for treason



2. Catherine the Great

a. 1762 – Catherine II, AKA Catherine the Great, became czarina after 30 years of chaos

b. enlightened despot

i. admired Voltaire & Diderot, French philosophers

ii. supported some religious freedom

iii. 1773 – crushed peasant rebellion, serfs became powerless

c. added to Russian territory – divided Poland with Frederick the Great and Maria Theresa of Austria

d. 1774 – won W. coast of Black sea from Turks – founded seaport of Odessa



IV. A Limited Monarchy in England

A. The Early Stuarts and the English Civil War

1. James I and Rule by Divine Right

a.1603 – cousin of Elizabeth I, James I of Scotland, becomes king of England – son of

Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots

b. England & Scotland united – ruled by the Stuart family

c. Parliament, mostly Puritans, wanted to further purify Anglican church of Catholic influence

d. James I was anti-Puritan

e. True Law of Free Monarchy – claimed rule by divine right and freedom from Parliament

f. King James Version of the Bible – translated into English during James I’s reign

g. Puritans left England for Holland, then North America on the Mayflower

2. Charles I and Civil War

a. 1625 – Charles I, James I’s son, takes throne – believed in divine right, disagreed with Parliament

b. marriage to a French Roman Catholic & strong support of Anglican Church made him unpopular

c. more Puritans left for North America

d. 1637 – Charles I tried to force Anglicanism on Calvinist Scotland – Scots rebelled

e. 1642 – English Civil War – Oliver Cromwell, a Puritan from Parliament, lead forced against king

f. 1649 – king beheaded for treason

3. Oliver Cromwell and the Commonwealth

a. England declared a republic called the Commonwealth

b. Sots rebelled again, shocked by king’s execution

c. Cromwell find rule difficult – declares martial law (military rule) naming himself “Lord Protector”

d. 1658 – Cromwell dies, son is overwhelmed

e. 1660 – Charles II, Charles I’s son, goes back to England to be king



B. Restoration, Revolution, and the Triumph of Parliament

1. Charles II and the Restoration

a. 1660-1685 – Charles II king of England, AKA Merry Monarch

b. time period known as the Restoration

c. religiously tolerant

d. 1670’s – brother James, converted to Catholicism, to become next king

e. 1673 – Test Act – required all officials to take communion in Church of England – Charles II forced to sign

f. 1681 – Whigs – those who tried to block James from becoming king; Tories, those who supported him

g. Charles II ended parliament to prevent the exclusion bill from passing

h. 1685 – Charles II dies, James becomes King James II

2. The Glorious Revolution and the English Bill of rights

a. James II appointed many Roman Catholic officials, violating Test Act

b. James II married a Catholic and baptized son Catholic

c. Tories no longer supported the king

d. 1688 Parliament offered throne to William of Orange who was married to James’ daughter, Mary

e. William & Mary arrived in England & forced James II to abdicate, or step down from power

f. 1690 – William officially defeats James II

g. 1689 – William III and Mary II take throne & approve English Bill of Rights, statement of subjects’ rights

and relationship between Parliament & king

h. guaranteed habeas corpus, legal requirement saying English subject can’t be arrest without

being charged with a specific crime – originally passed in 1679

3. Change in England

a. a prime minister from lading party chosen to lead Parliament – real head of government

b. England’s rulers had limited power, known as limited monarchy

c. English philosopher John Locke wrote Two Treatises of Government arguing against absolute power

d. Locke – governments formed because people wanted them and made a contract with the people

e. certain rights like life, liberty, & property must be protected- if not, contract is broken & people can

replace the government

f. 1701 – Act of Settlement – no Roman Catholic could be king



g. 1707 – Act of Union – merged parliaments of England & Scotland, joining Scotland to England

and Wales to make Great Britain


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