I. Prehistory A. Bering Land Bridge



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I. Prehistory

A. Bering Land Bridge

B. Hundreds of independent tribes

C. Civilizations – Mayans – Central, Incas – South, Aztecs – Mexico

D. Mount Builders – Ohio
II. Early Discoverers


  1. Vikings – Leif Ericsson – Greenland – Northern Canada – 1000 AD

  2. Italian Christopher Columbus – for Spain – 1492

III. Spanish/Portugese Exploration



  1. Reasons for exploring

    1. Wealthy nations – gold based

    2. Renaissance – optimism/humanism – we can do anything

    3. Trade routes

    4. Printing press – ideas spread

    5. Mariner’s compass – exploration possible

  1. Spain – peace w/ Isabella and Ferdinand uniting plus no Moors/Muslims

    1. Conquistadores – Spanish – gold/glory – fighting tradition

  2. Portugal

    1. Looking water route to Asia – brought slavery from Africa

IV. Explorers – conquest – weapons + disease + use rival tribes



  1. Ponce de Leon – fountain of youth

  2. Pizarro – defeated Incas

  3. Cortez – defeated Aztecs/Montezuma

V. Spanish

A. Encomienda System – Spaniard gets land and all inhabitants become laborers

B. Missions – Junipero Serra – San Diego + 21 missions

a. Spread religion – centers of trade/education

VI. Exchange of goods



  1. Improved diet of Europeans – corn, tobacco, tomato, avocado – balanced

  2. Cattle, horses, germs to New World

Colonization


I. England

A. Roanoke Island – 1585 – “lost colony” – forgotten during war – CROATOAN

B. Reasons for Colonization

1. Enclosure – small farmers forced out

2. Unemployed farmers

3. Primogeniture – oldest son

4. Joint Stock Company – investment

5. Peace with Spain

6. Adventure
II. South – Rivers, plantations, seasons – suitable for farming – started by single males


  1. Virginia - Jamestown – Virginia Company – Starving Time – Pocahontas – John Smith

    1. “He who shall not work shall not eat” – John Smith

    2. wrong type of explorers/colonists – age, gender, motivation – gold

    3. John Rolfe – Tobacco – “bewitching weed”

  2. Maryland – Catholic haven

  3. West Indies – Sugar – absentee slave owners – mostly male slaves

  4. Carolinas – linked to W. Indies – Charles

    1. N. Carolina – less aristocratic, independent, some outcasts, religious

  5. Georgia – buffer zone and philanthropic experiment – new start for criminals

III. Northern Colonies – Protestant, shipping, fishing, small farms, harsh winters, harbors



  1. Protestant Reformation – Puritanism – Church of England not reformed/true

    1. Puritans – Separatists – Holland – Mayflower – landed N. of Virginia

      1. Brought “strangers” – useful labor

      2. Mayflower Compact – gov’t by majority

      3. Plymouth Colony – not large or important economically

    2. Non-Separatists – change English religion from within – interact

      1. Massachussetts Bay Colony – City on a Hill – 11 ships, 1000

      2. Church and state – theocracy

      3. Protestant work ethic – follow your calling – God likes effort

    3. Anti-Puritan – Anne Hutchinson – meetings, questioned teaching/banish

    4. Rhode Island – Roger Williams “new and dangerous opinions”

      1. Believed – pay Indians for land, separate church/state, outcasts

    5. Connecticut – Thomas Hooker – women’s rights – Fundamental Orders

    6. New Hampshire – fishing

IV. Middle Colonies – fertile soil, industry, shipbuilding, some aristocrats, plantations/small – farms

    1. New York – Old Netherlands – Dutch company – aristocratic

    2. Delaware – New Sweden

    3. Pennsylvania – William Penn – pacifist, bought Indian land



Colonial Society in the Mid-Eighteenth Century


I. Social Structure/Family Life

A. South – gap wide between rich and poor – hierarchy of wealth and status

1. Planter aristocracy w/ slaves mimicking feudalism of Europe

2. However, these planters were hardworking, involved in day-to-day affairs

3. Few cities – poor transportation

4. Women more powerful – men die leaving property to widows

B. North– not as much disease due to weather, reproduction high – fertile people/not soil

1. Early marriage = high birth rates, several mothers – death during childbirth

a. Habits of obedience, strong links to grandparents

b. Women’s role not as powerful – no property rights

II. Farm and Town Life

A. Towns in New England united – geography/fear of Indians force close relations

1. Puritanism makes unity important

2. Puritans ran churches democratically – led to democratic government

3. New England way of life – climate, bad soil, made people self-reliant

a. Seasons led to diversified agriculture and industry to survive

b. Dense forests led to shipbuilding
III. Immigration – melting pot from the beginning

A. Germans – left for war, religion, bad economy – settle in Pennsylvania – not pro-British

B. Scotts-Irish – Scottish kicked out of Ireland because not Catholic – settled in mountains

1. Lawless, individualistic – lived in Appalachian hills – whickey making

2. Not wanted by Germans or New Englanders – forced to hills
C. Other groups embraced – French, Dutch, Swedes, Jews, Irish, Swiss

D. Largest immigrant group – slaves


IV. Economy – triangle trade in South – natural resources to England > weapons/textiles to Africa >slaves to Indies/South > sugar to America > England

A. Economy – Agriculture #1 but, putting out system at home – manufacturing/lumbering

B. South – staple crops of indigo, rice, tobacco
V. Great Awakening – people swaying from the lord – God all powerful – must return to church

A. Started by Jonathan Edwards – Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”

B. Powerful, angry, animated speaking spread across colonies – United colonies ***
VI. Education – New England – colleges for lawyers, priests – theology and dead languages

A. Independent thinking not encouraged – discipline severe – stuck in the classics


VII. Colonial Folkways – life not romantic, pretty boring

A. Food pretty high protein, homes poorly made

B. pleasure came from working together – quilting, raising barn, painting, funerals, weddings

Causes of the American Revolution




  1. Revolution Questions

    1. Necessary – Coming of Age/Time Had Come or America would have remained obedient had England not made mistakes

    2. A true revolution or merely transfer of power from one wealthy group to another

    3. Capitalist motivation to keep money in America instead of taxes going overseas




  1. Decades before 1754 – proud to be Englishmen

    1. Colonists annoyed at Navigation Acts, Brits annoyed with chaotic legislatures

    2. Grown apart - could govern selves better than overseas




  1. Causes

    1. Sprit of self-reliance – decades of colonial legislatures, economically independent.

    2. Religious annoyance – haven’t forgotten being kicked out

    3. England trying to improve trade/industry at America’s expense

    4. Colonists should pay for expense –no “taxation without representation”

    5. Enlightenment – well-read Jefferson, Adams

    6. Mercantilism clashes with capitalism – trade w/ everyone




  1. Irritants

    1. America forced to take in British criminals

    2. Northern colonies that wanted to stop slave trade could not

    3. Royal governors looked down noses at colonists




  1. British Debt – Americans seen as Englishmen, must bear cost/taxes

    1. Centuries of fighting/French and Indian War costly

    2. Troops needed to remain in America to protect against Indians




  1. Types of Protests

    1. Speeches – Patrick Henry

    2. Harassment – burning governors homes/tar and feathering tax collectors

    3. Boycotts – refuse to buy British goods

    4. Committees of Correspondence – method of colonies talking

    5. Propaganda/Pamphlets – Common Sense – Thomas Paine




  1. Catalysts

    1. 1763 – Proclamation of 1763 – Colonists can’t move west of Appalachian

    2. 1764 – Sugar Act – duties on sugar, textiles, coffee, wine

    3. 1764 – Currency Act – colonists can’t make paper money – how to trade?

    4. 176 5 – Stamp Act – all legal documents - $ goes back to England – a first.

    5. 1765 – Quartering Act – colonists house and feed British troops

    6. 1765 – Virginia Resolutions – Patrick Henry – only Virginia can tax

    7. 1767 – Towshend Acts – more taxes

    8. 1770 – Boston Massacre – 5 killed after harassment – propaganda wins

    9. 1772 – Gaspee ship attacked and burned – culprits threatened back to England

    10. 1773 – Boston Tea Party – Sons of Liberty mad Tea Act not enforced

    11. 1774 – Coercive Acts/Intolerable Acts – punish Boston

    12. 1774 – First Continental Congress – colonial militia

    13. 1775 – Concord and Lexington – fight starts after Brits try to get weapons

    14. 1776 – Declaration of Independence

Critical Period – 1776-1787




  1. State Constitutions

    1. Kept some of old – provincial assemblies

      1. Colonial self-government for 150 years

      2. “ Powers from the consent of the governed”

    2. Methods – written constitutions

      1. written by provincial assemblies

      2. Mass. – town meetings, state conventions

    3. Format – Dec. of Independence + citizen rights + executive/legislative

      1. weaken powers of governor

      2. white males with property eligible to vote




  1. Continental Congress

    1. 1777 – Articles of Confederation – ratified in 1781

    2. Until ratified – Continental Congress governed

      1. Lost power as war progressed – most talented returned to state

    3. Successes – army, navy, marines, appointed George Washington, supplied army

    4. Failure – financing war – taxes optional




  1. Articles of Confederation - failures

    1. States jealous of others/competitive – 9 of 13 states to pass

    2. Taxes voluntary

    3. Fear of strong executive – no one to enforce laws

    4. Individual trade agreements w/ foreign nations & states – nobody wants to trade with U.S. – fearful of stability

    5. Still left England in possession of frontier




  1. Articles of Confederation – successes

    1. Precedent – something to work with

    2. Northwest Ordinance

      1. Land could be sold to make money for fed gov’t

      2. Add-A-State Plan – Northwest Ordinance 1787

        1. Population + legislature + 60,000 men



  1. Shay’s Rebellion – 1787 – debtors can’t pay and rebel – proved to wealthy that something must be done – catalyst for Constitutional Convention

Making a Nation – 1788-1810


I. Constitutional Convention – 55 delegates meet in Philadelphia – Washington – Presid.

A. Virginia Plan – large state plan – representation based on population

B. New Jersey Plan – small state plan – every state receives equal rep

1. Great Compromise – House + Senate

2. Slaves = 3/5 of the population for House rep counting purposes

C. Bill of Rights – citizens rights to prevent oppressive gov’t - 1791

D. Hesitancy to ratify – Anti-Federalists believe states should have more power – Federalists believe strong executive necessary

1. Federalist Papers convince New York/Virginia – Rhode Island last


II. Finalizing the Executive

  1. Judiciary Act – 1789 – created Supreme Court, federal and district courts

  2. Hamilton’s Plan – if gov’t benefits wealthy, they’ll invest in gov’t

    1. Assume all debt of states – Virginia already paid off debt – get D.C.

    2. Debt good – more people owed, more have stake in success of gov’t

    3. Tariff taxes + duties on whiskey

    4. National Bank – Jefferson wanted states to control $, Hamilton wins

      1. First National Bank – 1791-1811 – Philadelphia

  3. Whiskey Rebellion – proves executive tough – sent in thousands to put down

  4. Alien and Sedition Acts – Adams oversteps power of president – punishes Democratic Republicans – Alien – 5-14 years, jail/Sedition – jail for libel

    1. Virginia/Kentucky Resolutions – states can ignore bad laws – sets states/federal gov’t conflict

  5. Strengthening Supreme Court – Marbury vs. Madison

    1. Supreme Court can say laws are unconstitutional – gives power

IV. Foreign Policy

A. Barbary Pirates

1. Been paying bribes to Tripoli, African Barbary pirates to not steal stuff



  1. sent Navy to Tripoli to fight pirates – finally got peace treaty – America values Navy

B. Lousiana Purchase – wanted New Orleans, got all of Louisiana Territory

1. Napoleon couldn’t have American empire – lost in Haiti

2. Doubled size, 3 cents per acre

3. Created Constitutional Conflict – loose/strict interpretation

a. Says nowhere in Constitution about buying land – Jefferson hypocrite?

4. Lewis and Clark explore – sets off wave off Westward movement

5. Increases nationalism – pride for U.S.

6. Federal gov’t power now shifting west – away from New England/Virginia

C. Monroe Doctrine – follows Washington’s Farewell

1. US stay out of Europe, Europe stays out of Americas – our sphere of influence


V. American System – Henry Clay’s idea federal gov’t pays for roads, canals, business

A. Protects American business through high tariffs – 25% - buy US goods vs. better/cheaper European goods

VI. Avoiding conflict – Missouri Compromise – draws slave line – keeps slavery in U.S.
The War of 1812
I. Causes Foreign– France and England attacking American merchant ships/impressment


  1. French Revolution turns violent – Jefferson’s Democratic-Republicans favor

  2. Washington stays out – Neutrality Proclamation 1793 – U.S. just beginning

  3. Jay’s Treaty – Britain won’t attack in future, but won’t pay for past attacks

  4. Washington’s Farewell Address – stay out of foreign alliances – policy for next 100 years

  5. Adams next president – XYZ Affair – American ambassadors not bribed

  6. Jefferson deals with France

    1. Embargo Act – don’t trade with anyone – totally fails/destroys econ.

    2. Nonintercourse Act – Trade w/ everyone but Britain/France

    3. Macon’s Bill No. 2 – Madison – trade again w/Britain France

II. Causes Domestic



  1. British forts along frontier

  2. Helping Native Americans fight colonists moving west

    1. Wipe out Canada – Indians will have no home base/British support

b. Tecumseh tries to unite Indians – big battle lost at Tippecanoe
III. Federalists opposed to war

  1. Take Canada – a ton more farmers to join Democratic Republicans

  2. Hurting trade

  3. Supported Britain

  4. Later have Hartford Convention and threaten to have New England break away

    1. Signals end of Federalist Party – bad idea to talk of new country during wartime

IV. Importance



  1. Peace Treaty changes nothing – status quo ante bellum – same as before

  2. Gives war hero – Andrew Jackson

  3. Gives national song – Star Spangled Banner

  4. Unites Americans against common enemy

  5. American beginnings of strong navy – USS Constitution – Old Ironsides

Jacksonian Democracy
I. Definitions

A. Series of reforms – altering federal government and bringing vote to people

B. Andrew Jackson and Democratic Party running country

C. Contradiction – period of slavery and horrible treatment of Native Americans – Jackson also develops “monarchical” attributes

D. Attractive candidate - Andrew Jackson attractive – war hero, man’s man, self-made wealth, westerner – “old hickory” “man of the people”
II. Causes – economic shift + no longer belief that aristocracy of old should rule all


  1. Causes by economic and social changes - shift in power

    1. Transportation + immigration takes power from plantation aristocracy and New England elite

    2. Cotton increase power of Southern economy

    3. Westward movement – taking of Native American/Hispanic land

  2. Non large property holding whites get worried

    1. Immigrants, non-slaveholding Southerners, westerners nervous that they will be abused by growing capitalists

  3. Who should rule? Old aristocracy/new wealthy/majority of other whites

  4. During Era of Good Feelings – Supreme Court and Federal government choices looked like power was moving toward an elite few in fed. gov’t

III. Reforms – radical shift to create equality for all white men - take power from moneyed elite and ignore class -meritocracy



  1. Political – voters, campaigns, election process

  1. End state property requirements for voting

  2. Electors chosen by people not state legislatures

  3. Changed elections – buttons, kissing babies, parades, bbqs, free drinks, smear campaign – Jackson marriage illegal – wife died soon after

  4. Spoils system – give gov’t jobs to people who helped get elected

      1. “Kitchen cabinet” – old friends

  5. Increased power of executive – ignored Supreme Court, vetoed laws

  1. Economic changes – men should be economically independent

1. Southerners want low tariffs and more states rights

a. Jackson makes high tariffs first to increase national economy – lowers during second term

2. Westerners want cheaper land + relief from debt collectors and banks

a. Vetoed Second National Bank – supported “pet banks” in states



  1. Interstate roads good – roads within states not good

V. Opposition – for nonwhites a total disaster



  1. Wealthy planters feared him – federal government getting too much power

    1. Threaten nullification of tariffs – secession

  2. Whigs – named for anti-king movement of Revolutionary War – King Andrew

  3. Racial treatment - Western movement assumed Hispanics and Native Americans inferior races – “manifest destiny” policy pushed

    1. Trail of Tears – even Europeanized Cherokees kicked out

  4. Allowed slavery to continue – white supremacy

    1. Fought abolitionists – allowed gag rule on slavery in Congress

E. Propagandists – supported wealthy but said they acted for commoners
Creating an American Culture – 1790-1860
I. Religion – by 1850 ¾ claim to be religious, but not most far from Puritan form

A. Deism – God is great clockmaker – founding fathers

B. Unitarianism – God is loving creator, father figure, people control destiny

C. Second Great Awakening – attempt to return to conservative religious practice

1. Effects – more converted, some churches destroyed, others created

a. Methodists/Baptists – poor attracted/non-traditional

2. Camp Meetings – traveling preachers, thousands gather, get “saved”

D. Mormon – Joseph Smith – organized, group dynamic – new message from God

1. Feared by neighbors – voted as unit, polygamy, not individualistic

2. Brigham Young moved to Utah


II. Education Reform – creation of public schools/state sponsored universities

  1. Before – public schools seen as for poor only – convinced that education benefits society

  2. Little Red Schoolhouse – not effective, multiple grades one room, poorly trained teachers

  3. Horace Mann – longer school term, better teacher training/pay

  4. Universities start for women + state supported universities

  5. Create common school texts to be shared across nation – Webster’s Speller

III. Reform Movements – inspired by Great Awakening – on earth you should try to combat evil



  1. Women – considered keeper’s of nation’s morals – led movement

    1. Gained more power – especially on frontier – supply and demand

B. Some say those involved for self-centered reasons – they get to create society to benefit self

  1. Temperance – excess drinking affecting labor, family, crime, and rowdy social occasions

  2. Jails – not just punishment but help “penitentiaries” (penance) or “correctional facilities”

  3. Mentally ill – Dorothea Dix – better treatment living conditions at mental hospitals

IV. Transcendentalists – avoid conformity, get to know nature, think about world, Civil Disobedience


V. Literature – Begins to be dark – looks at faults of human soul – Edgar Allen Poe
VI. Utopian Movements – design perfect societies where everyone works together

  1. Over 40 attempted – failed – uncommon sexual practices + lazy people

    1. People end up desiring independence and market economy/free enterprise

  2. Oneida – free love

  3. Shakers – religious group, celibacy

VII. Alexis de Tocqueville – What then is this American?

A. America successful because based on meritocracy not birth
Native American Treatment


  1. 17th and 18th Century - disease

A. New England – lived separate – Squanto interpret saved > Thanksgiving

1. King Phillip > relative Squanto’s tribe > unites New England

2. Pennsylvania/William Penn & Rhode Island/Roger Williams buy land

3. 1704 Deerfield Massacre – raid/tomahawk/kidnap

4. Albany Plan of Union – Franklin – union 1754 w/ Iroquois against other tribes

B. Virginia – “starving time” > stealing > Indian Raids

C. Spanish – encomienda – slavery, missions - California

D. French – worked with – fur trappers

E. French and Indian War – 1757-1763 – Proclamation Line of 1763 – no west of Appalachians


  1. 19th Century

A. War of 1812 – 1795-1809 48 million acres sold to gov’t

1. Battle of Tippecanoe – Tecumseh – united – treaties others Indians – defeated

a. British helped > Native Americans warpath > kill settlers > war begins

B. Andrew Jackson – move > west Mississippi

1. 94 Treaties – some peaceably, some fought

2. Seminoles – Florida swamps – Chief Osceola – 1830s

3. Cherokees – Americanized – Georgia

1. Clothes, farms, factories, schools – Sequoya – alphabet

2. Worcester v. Georgia – Marshall saved lands

3. Jackson “Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it.”

a. Trail of Tears – 1838 – 15,000 – 1500 died

C. 1850-1900 – 420,000 > 250,000 left

Sectionalism 1820-1860
The South – low immigration, huge income disparity, replicated Medieval Europe


  1. Cotton Kingdom – 1788 – South dying, overworked land, unmarketable products

    1. Slavery increased – Eli Whitney – Cotton Gin

      1. Increased labor also improved Northern shipping industry

    2. ½ cotton in world from the South, England 75% from South

      1. England economy depended on Southern cotton

  2. Planter Aristocracy – “cottonocracy” – oligarchy – few control many

    1. Biggest planters controlled social, political, economic life

    2. Women bought into system – controlled households

  3. Poor whites – accepted system, dream of moving up, needed racial superiority

  4. Scotch Irish – Appalachian Mountains – “white trash” – civilization ignored

  5. Nature of Slavery

    1. One 20th century view – slavery ending, owners paternalistic, blacks naturally inferior – need to be taken care of

        1. Not true – economically still expanding, not dying

        2. Paternalistic – selfish method just to get more labor

        3. Slaves fake laziness as method of coping/rebel

    2. Black women must balance as white caregiver, laborer, family anchor

The North – industry, manufacturing, heavy immigration – urbanized

A. Immigration – 95% came to the North

a. Irish – NY/Boston – low skilled labor – left due to potato famine

b. German – left due to crop failures, democracy failure of 1848 revolution

1. Midwest – contributed - gave US literature, kindergarten, Christmas tree


The West – young attracted, adventurous opportunities

  1. Gradually destroyed land – overworked, just moved on – pushed out Indians, animals

  2. Frontier – belief that you can always start out fresh out West

  3. More equality for women, supply and demand, they can leave if not treated properly

Squatters – simply move to land, build house, claim property
Westward Expansion


  1. Gradual Expansion of Frontier – Each addition adds to slavery issue, moves frontier, Indian problems

    1. Proclamation of 1763 – Colonists not west of Appalachians – annoys colonists

    2. Treaty of 1783 – Britain gives US land to Mississippi

    3. 1803 - Louisiana Purchase – Napoleon realizes he can’t keep French empire - $15 mil

      1. Brings up issue of constitutionality of president purchasing land

      2. Lewis and Clarke – ecology, Native Americans, surveying, claiming Oregon

        1. Open up westward movement

    4. 1820s-1830s – Texas – Mexico encourages movement – $.12 per acre – become Catholic

      1. After Santa Anna – Alamo – country Republic of Texas

      2. Not annexed right away – fear it would be broken into many slave states

    5. 1846 – Polk – 54 40 or Fight! – extend America into Canada above Washington

      1. America can’t fight Mexico and Britain – agree to make boundary above Wash.

    6. 1946-1848 – Mexican War – looks like land grabbing – Zachary Taylor creates catalyst

      1. Defeats Mexico City – Guadalupe Hidalgo gives Southwest – 1848 Gold discover




  1. Transportation

    1. Turnpikes – toll roads – 1812-1825

    2. Cumberland Road – federal road – 1806-1850 connects Midwest to Virginia

    3. Canal Building – 1825-1840 – Erie Canal starts

      1. 1 ton of goods now for 1 cent per mile not 20 cents per mile

      2. Takes away farming from Northeast – moves to Midwest

      3. People can now move to Midwest and get supplies still to Atlantic Ocean

    4. Steamboat – 1810-1840 – up and down rivers – not mercy of wind

    5. Railroads – bought by federal government, made privately

      1. Faulty creation, corruption, accidents of both railroads and steamship building

    6. Mail – 1896 – finally mailbox delivery – before if rural must go to post office

    7. Morse/Telegraph – 1844




  1. Towns – build city infrastructure first, people come later

    1. Frame + nails – quick building

    2. Wagons – families come out – Oregon Trail – leave Independence, MO – near St. Louis

    3. Passing of frontier after Civil War

    4. Buffalo slaughter – 15 million down to 1 thousand – sport – destroys Native American lives

    5. Mining towns – boom bust – Northwest territories – become ghost towns – no other source of income – minerals gone, town gone

      1. Women gain equality here first – state voting first – have power supply/demand

F. Cattle drives big until fenced in – changes American landscape

Causes of the Civil War




  1. Slavery – not on the minds of Northern soldiers when war started, but clearly an issue that pervaded all of the social, political and economic causes

    1. Would there have been a split without slavery – no – root of all conflicts

    2. Conflicts existed from birth of nation




  1. Economic – two competing industries – industrial north vs. agrarian south – free labor vs. slave labor

      1. Tariff battle for almost a century – south wants low, north high

        1. Believed in nullification of Congressional laws

          1. Goes back to Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions regarding Alien and Sedition Acts

        2. South needed low tariffs because they existed on King Cotton

ii. Recession of 1857 causes bigger divide


  1. Political

    1. Representation in Senate/Congress

      1. Every new state could ruin balance – both sides feared other side would try to mandate their society on the other federally

      2. Ostend Manifesto – slavery in Cuba as well as slavery in West? – bad news

    2. State power vs. Federal power

      1. Southern states still felt states were sovereign – goes back to Federalist/Anti-Federalist battle

c. Free Soil Party – 1847 – no slavery in territories


  1. Social – North sees south as aristocratic medieval country, South sees North as corrupt immigrant urban

    1. Abolitionisism – slavery moral wrong – Second Great Awakening

    2. Anti-aristocratic ethos – common man better than gentry south




  1. Catalysts – events that made both sides look evil, and created larger tension

    1. Compromise of 1850 – CA admitted, popular sovereignty, DC no slaves, tougher/enforced fugitive slave act

    2. Uncle Tom’s Cabin – Stowe – first glimpse in Europe and North of life in South

    3. Fugitive Slave Act – force Northerners to return blacks to South

    4. Kansas-Nebraska Act – 1854 split territories– dissenters create Republican Party

      1. Popular Sovereignty – let states decide for themselves – ignore 1820 compromise

      2. Bleeding Kansas –Fight for control

        1. Pottawatomie Creek Massacre – Brown hacks bodies - radical

      3. Caning of Sumner – Senate violence after anti-South speech

    5. Realignment of Parties

      1. Whigs die

      2. Republicans – Northern party to outlaw slavery Free Soil + anti-slavery Whigs and Democrats

    6. Dred Scott – Justice Taney – slaves aren’t human/can’t sue – Comp. 1820 illegal

    7. Lecompton Compromise – bad Constitution proposal where your only choices were limited slavery or full slavery – anti-slavery people don’t even vote

    8. Lincoln Douglas Debates – run for Senator – Lincoln proves more logical for why slavery should not be expanded – loses Senate, but gains prominence

    9. John Brown – Harper’s Ferry – tries to take over South – idiot or martyr?

    10. Election of 1860 – S.C. threatens and does secede after Lincoln elected

The Civil War


I. The Union Homefront

A. Mobilization and Finance

1. First conscription – can buy way out, Lincoln asks for more troops before Congress meets

2. Increased tariffs, income tax, sold bonds, printed currency “greenbacks”

3. War profiteers – industry/manufacturing make a lot of money – some corrupt

B. Suspension of Civil Liberties/Ignoring the Constitution

1. Lincoln thought better to save United States than follow Constitution

A. Blockade, increased army, $2 million for army purchases – none of this in Constitution

2. Needs to keep border states

A. Suspends habeus corpus – don’t tell why arrested

B. “supervised” voting – colored ballots – march past armed guards

C. Newspapers/editors influenced/pressured


II. Southern Home front – President Jefferson Davis declared martial law – suspended habeus corpus

A. Confederate Constitution – can’t have strong fed. gov’t

B. Mobilization and Finance – must have conscription – leads to class conflict – poor serve

1. Tariffs hard to collect due to blockade – money made through bonds

2. Prints a lot of money with no value – extreme inflation
III. Foreign Affairs/Diplomacy – must gain European support (South) keep Europe out (USA)

A. Trent Affair – Union takes two diplomats off ship for Britain – looks bad


IV. Military strategy – Mississippi River, Capitals, Blockade “Anaconda”, Attrition, Wait
V. Ending Slavery – Confiscation Act – army seizes property of South – slaves

A. Emancipation Proclamation – after Antietam – frees none – only in seceding states

B. Freedmen’s Bureau – gov’t sponsored agency – goes south to educate blacks

C. Thirteenth Amendment – frees slaves


VI. Major effects – slavery banned, secession issue finally ended, industry can now expand

A. Industry/North decides future path of nation – no longer aristocracy/agrarian

B. Role of Central Government expanded

1. 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments – first amendments that don’t take power away

2. Taxation – printing currency – National Banking System

3. Standing army

4. Freedmen’s Bureau – American sponsored welfare program – precedent

C. Labor Saving Devices – change occupations – move to petroleum/coal jobs

1. Labor moves west looking for jobs

D. Women – took jobs of men – gov’t workers

1. Fighting – spies, impersonating men

2. Nurses – Clara Barton – starts Red Cross later

3. Raised money for cause – soldiers – organized bazaars/fairs/made goods to sell

Reconstruction – 1865-1877


I. Presidential Plans – tough to be successful with Radical Republicans demanding revenge

A. Lincoln – if lived – impeached like Johnson or more sensitive to the South?

1. Believed South never legally withdrawn – 10% plan + create new state gov’t

2. Congressional fear that South would return to aristocracy and re-enslave blacks

a. Wade-Davis Plan – 50% sign oath + emancipation guarantees

1. Lincoln pocket vetoes and allows states to choose either plan

3. Congress is a majority moderate Republicans with some Radical Republicans

B. Johnson – surprised Congress – followed 10% plan and some states reentered

1. State constitutions only have to 1) repeal secession, 2) repudiate debts, 3) ratify 13th Amendment.

2. Johnson pardoned many aristocrats


II. Congressional Reconstruction

A. Pass through 14th Amendment – gives freedmen (former slaves) citizenship

1. Any state that refuses black voting rights – loses reps

2. Former Confederate leaders can’t run for U.S. Congress

3. Repudiates Southern debts

B. Andrew Johnson “Sir Veto” starts vetoing Radical Republican Congress laws

1. 1866 election veto-proofs Congress – they now have 2/3 to overrule

C. Military Reconstruction – Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner – lead Radicals

1. 5 Military Districts run by Union General + 20,000 soldiers – Supreme Court allows

2. Blacks must be allowed to vote – 15th Amendment makes voting permanent

III. Realities of Radical Reconstruction

A. Benefits – Blacks in South AND North can now vote

1. New Southern constitutions written

2. Black participation in Congress – 14 black Congressmen, 2 black senators

3. Improved Southern infrastructure – schools, public works, property rights for women
IV. Impeachment of Johnson – Congress passes laws they know he will have to disobey

A. Tenure of Office Act – Senate approval before any Presidential firings

B. Johnson impeached after firing Secretary of War Stanton

1. Almost impeached, but luckily Senate didn’t because 1) replacement bad 2) would hurt country, 3) Johnson said he’d stop vetoing


V. Overall Assessment of Reconstruction

A. Theory – failed because North cared about helping Republican Party and free slaves quickly

B. Fails because most Northerners stop caring

C. Fails -US beliefs in personal property, self-govt, state control conflict with Reconstruction

D. Opinions – North wronged South through Reconstruction – just as bad as Civil War

1. or…Noble attempt to give equal rights to slaves – blacks received unprecedented freedoms initially



VI. Reconstruction ends - Hayes-Tilden corrupt election 1876 – Hayes wins but agrees to pull out of South.


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