There is no one future tense in English. Instead, there are several verb forms that can refer to future time. Sometimes several forms are possible to express a future meaning such as:
a) The most common use of will is as an auxiliary verb to show future time. It expresses a future fact or prediction – at some time in the future this event will happen. This use is uncoloured by ideas such as intention, decision, arrangement, willingness, etc.
e.g. I’ll be thirty in a few days’ time. You’ll feel better if you take this medicine.
This is the nearest English has to a neutral, pure future tense.
b) will for a prediction can be based more on an opinion than a fact or evidence. It is often found with expressions such as I think…, I hope…, I’m sure…
e.g. I think Labour will win the next election. I’m sure you’ll pass your exam.
2. going to.
Going to can express a prediction based on a present fact. There is evidence now that something is sure to happen. We can see the future from the present.
e.g. Look at the sky! It’s going to be a lovely day.
NB. - Sometimes there is little or no difference between will and going to.
e.g. We’ll (We’re going to) run out of money if we aren’t careful.
- We use going to when we have physical evidence to support our prediction.
e.g. Liverpool are going to win. (It’s 4-0, and there are only 5 minutes left.)
- We can use will when there is no such outside evidence. Our prediction is based on our own personal opinion. It can be more theoretical and abstract.
e.g. I reckon Liverpool will win. (Said the day before the match.)
II. Decisions, intentions and arrangements.
Will is used to express a spontaneous decision or intention made at the moment of speaking.
e.g. I’ll phone you back in a minute.
2. Going to.
Going to is used to express a future plan, decision, or intention made before the moment of speaking.
e.g. When she grows up, she’s going to be a ballet dancer. We are going to get married in the spring.
NB. - In a formal style we use will rather than going to to talk about future events that have been previously arranged in some detail.
e.g. The meeting will begin at 9 a.m. Refreshments will be available from 8.30 onwards.
3. Present Continuous.
The Present Continuous is used to express personal arrangements and fixed plans (especially social and travel arrangements) when the time and place have been decided.
e.g. I’m having lunch with Brian tomorrow.
The Present Continuous is used to refer to arrangements between people. It is not used to refer to events that people can’t control.
e.g. It’s going to rain this afternoon (NOT It’s raining this afternoon).
4. Present Simple.
We can often use either the Present Simple or will to talk about future events that are part of some timetabled or programmed arrangement or routine. However, we prefer the Present Simple for fixed, unchangeable events:
e.g. Does/ will the sale finish on Thursday or Friday? BUT The sun rises (the train leaves) at 5.16 tomorrow.
NB. We normally use the Present Simple, not will in time clauses (with conjunctions such as after, before, by the time, when, while, until, as soon as), and in conditional clauses (with conjunctions such as if, in case, provided, suppose, unless, etc.)
e.g. I’ll let you know when I decide.
If you call her, give her my regards.
Remember, however, that when when is used as a question word (not as a time word), we use future forms.
e.g. I’m not sure when they will visit us.
We also use future forms with if (=whether) when it is used after expressions which show ignorance, uncertainty, doubt, etc. such as I don’t know, I wonder, I doubt, etc.
e.g. I don’t know if/whether he’ll move house.
I doubt if/whether she’ll pass her exams.
5. Future Continuous.
The Future Continuous expresses an activity that will be in progress before and after a time in the future. Often it is the result of a previous decision or arrangement.
e.g. When it goes into orbit, the spacecraft will be carrying 30 kilos of plutonium.
We can also use the Future Continuous to talk about a future activity that is part of the normal course of events or that one of a repeated or regular series of events.
e.g. Dr Jones will be giving the same talk in room 103 at 10.00 next Thursday.
NB. When we don’t want to indicate willingness, intention, invitation, etc., we prefer to use the Future Continuous instead of will. For example, if guests have stayed longer than you wanted, and you don’t know when they are leaving, you might ask:
e.g. Will you be staying with us again tonight? (asking about their plans) rather than Will you stay with us again tonight? (they might think this is an invitation).
III Other uses of will and shall.
1. Will is also a modal auxiliary verb, and so it can express a variety of meanings.
a) offer: I’ll help you carry those bags.
b) willingness: Will you marry me?
c) request: Will you open the window?
d) refusal: My car won’t start.
e) promise: I’ll love you forever.
f) prediction about the present: ‘The phone is ringing’ ‘It’ll be for me.’
g) assumption about the past (with the perfect infinitive): Most people will have forgotten the fire by now.
2. Shall is found mainly in questions. It is used with I and we.
a) asking for instructions: Where shall I put your tea?
b) asking for a decision: What shall we do tonight?
c) offering to help: Shall I cook supper tonight?
d) making a suggestion: Shall we eat out tonight?
IV. Future Perfect (Continuous).
We use the Future Perfect to say that something will be ended, completed or achieved by a particular point in the future.
e.g. By the time you get home, I will have cleaned the house from top to bottom.
We use the Future Perfect Continuous to emphasise the duration of an activity in progress at a particular point in the future.
e.g. On Sunday, we’ll have been living in the house for a year.
I. Will vs. Going to.
1. Complete the text using the verbs given. Choose will or going to with each verb,
depending on which is more appropriate.
1 A: I can't come over during the day.
B: I you tomorrow evening, then, (see)
The method is quite simple, and I'm sure it familiar to most of you already. (be)
Have you seen Karen recently? She another baby, (have)
A: Did you get the theatre tickets?
B: No, I forgot all about them. I them tomorrow, (book)
Wherever you go in Brazil, you the people very friendly, (find)
John says he a politician when he grows up - and he's only 5 years old! (be)
Are these new skis yours? you skiing? (take up)
It's getting very humid - we a thunderstorm, (have)
A: We've got small, medium and large. What size do you want? B: I…….a large one, please, (have)
10 A: Shall I give Ian another ring?
B: Yes, I expect he home by now. (be)
11 A: What are all those bricks for?
B: I a wall at the side of the garden, (build)
I hear you your car. How much do you want for it? (sell)
You can't play football in the garden. I the grass, (cut)
A: What's the matter with Paula? B: She says she ……..
A: She better with some fresh air. (be sick - feel)
15 A: I've been offered a new job in Manchester, so I……..Cameo.
B: When your boss?
A: I'm not sure. Perhaps I to see him later today, (leave - tell - try)
16 A: Did I tell you I dinner with Ken on Thursday?
B: But we a film with Ray and Mary on Thursday. You've known about it for weeks.
A: Sorry. In that case, I ….. a different day with Ken. (have - see - sort out)
2. Put the verbs in brackets into one of the above forms (will or going to).
1 Where are you off to with that ladder? ~ I (have) a look at the roof; it's leaking and I think a tile has slipped.
2 We bought our new garage in sections and we (assemble) it
That sounds rather interesting. I (come) and help you if you like.
3 Why do you want all the furniture out of the room? -
Because I (shampoo) the carpet. It's impossible to do it unless you take everything off it first.
4 Here are the matches: but what do you want them for? ~
I (make) a bonfire at the end of the garden; I want to burn that big
heap of rubbish. ~
Well, be careful. If the fire gets too big it (burn) the apple trees.
5 Have you decided on your colour scheme? —
Oh yes, and I've bought the paint. I (paint) this room blue and the sitting room green.
Why are you asking everyone to give you bits of material? — Because I (make) a patchwork quilt.
I wonder if Ann knows that the time of the meeting has been changed.~
Probably not. I (look) in on my way home and tell her. I'm glad you thought of it.
Leave a note for them on the table and they (see) it when they come in.
I'm afraid I'm not quite ready. ~ Never mind. I (wait).
10 Do you have to carry so much stuff on your backs? ~
Yes, we do. We (camp) out and (cook) our own meals, so we have to carry a lot.
I've been measuring the windows. I (put) in double glazing.
You (wear) that nice dress in a dinghy? ~
Of course not! I (sit) on the pier and (watch) you all sailing. I (not get) all wet and muddy and pretend that I'm enjoying it!
If you leave your keys with the hall porter he (take) the car round to the garage.
Shop assistant: We have some very nice strawberries. Customer: All right. I (have) a pound.
Husband: This bread is absolutely tasteless! I wish we could have home-made bread.
Wife: All right. I (start) making it. I (get) a book about home baking today, and from now on I (bake) all our bread!
16 Mary: Ann's busy baking. Apparently she (bake) all their bread from
Jean: She soon (get) tired of that.
II. Will, Going to, Present Continuous.
1. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense (the present continuous and the future simple).
1 Tom: Where you (go) for your next holiday? (Where have you arranged to go?)
Ann: I don't know yet but we probably (go) to Spain.
We (have) a drink with Peter tonight. (He has invited us.) It's his last night; he (leave) tomorrow.
Ann: Do you think we (see) Bill tomorrow?
Mary: I hope so. He probably (look) in on his way to the airport.
I (see) my bank manager tomorrow. (/ have arranged this.) I'm going to ask him for a loan but I expect he (refuse).
I (know) the result tomorrow. As soon as I hear, I (tell) you.
Jack's mother: Jack (be) ready in a moment. He is just finishing breakfast.
Jack's father: If I wait for him any longer I (miss) my train. I think I (walk) on; he probably (catch) me up.
I probably (come) to London sometime next month. I (give) you a ring nearer the time and tell you when I (come), (when I have decided/arranged to come)
Hotel Porter: You (get) a parking ticket if you leave your car there, sir. If you (stay) the night (have arranged to stay) you (have to) put it in the hotel garage.
Tourist: All right. I (move) it as soon as I've arranged about a room.
9 Ann: I've scorched Bill's shirt. Whatever he (say)?
Mary: Oh, he (not mind). He just (buy) another shirt. He has plenty of money.
10 Peter: We'd better leave a message for Jack. Otherwise he (not
know) where we've gone.
George: All right. I (leave) a note on his table.
Jack: I don't want to get married. I never (get) married. Mother: You think that now. But one day you (meet) a girl and you (fall) in love.
Tom: I (go) to York tomorrow. (/ have arranged to go.)
Ann: You (come) back the same day? (Have you arranged to come
Tom: No. I probably (have) to spend the night there.
13 Peter: You (walk) home? (Have you decided to walk?)
Andrew: Yes. It's too late for a bus.
Peter: But it's pouring. You (get) soaked! Here, take this umbrella. Andrew: Thanks very much. I (bring) it back tomorrow.
14 Jack: I (have) another window put in. (I have arranged this.) They
(start) work on it tomorrow.
Ann: That (make) the room much brighter.
15 You (take) any exams this term? (Have you decided to take an
Yes, I (take) an English exam at the end of the month. ~
Do you think you (pass)? ~
I don't know. If I don't, I (take) it again at the end of next term.
2. Put the verbs in brackets into the present continuous or going to
Where you (go) for your holidays? – I (go) to Norway. -What you (do) there? - I (fish).
Where you (go) this evening? —
I (not go) anywhere. I (stay) at home. I (write) some letters.
Take an umbrella; it (rain).
How long you (stay) in this country? (Have you decided to stay?) ~ Another month. I (go) home at the end of the month. ~
What you (do) then? ~ I (try) to get a job.
5 I (dye) these curtains. —
You (do) it yourself, or (have) it done? — I (have) it done. Who should I take them to?
I've seen the film, now I (read) the book. I've just got a copy from the library. (/ haven't started the book yet.)
You (do) anything next weekend? ~
Yes, my nephews (come) and I (show) them round London. — You (take) them to the theatre? (Have you booked seats?) — No, they're too young for that. I (take) them to the zoo.
8 We (start) early tomorrow. We (go) to Ben Nevis. ~
You (climb) Ben Nevis? ~
Not me. Tom (climb) it. I (sit) at the bottom and (do) some sketching.
9 Uncle: I hear you (go) to the regatta tomorrow. You (sail) in it?
Niece: No, but we (take) our cameras. We (try) to photograph the
10 You (not ask) your boss to give you a fire in your office? —
It isn't worth while. I (leave) at the end of the week. —
Really? And what you (do) then? You (have) a holiday? ~
No, I (start) another job the following Monday. I hear you've bought a caravan. You (use) it for your holidays? —
No, I (live) in it. I (start) moving my things next week. —
What you (do) with your house? ~
I (sell) it to the man who sold me the caravan. He (get) married next
12 Mrs Jones (go) to hospital. She (have) her appendix out. -
Who (look) after the children?-
Her sister (come) down from Scotland.
13 He isn't happy at his boarding school. I (send) him to a day school. ~
Have you decided on the other school? ~
No, but I (see) (have an appointment with) the headmaster of the Park School this afternoon. I'll probably send him there.
14 Tom (arrive) tomorrow. —
He (spend) the weekend here or (catch) the night train back as usual? ~
He (spend) the weekend. He (give) a lecture on Friday and (attend) a big reception on Saturday.
He (bring) his wife with him? (Has he arranged to bring his wife?) ~ Yes. She (do) some shopping while he (give) his lecture.
3. Cross out any answers that are wrong or very unlikely. If two answers are possible, consider the difference in meaning, if any, between them.
1 It's not a deep cut, but it a scar.
(a) will leave (b) is going to leave (c) is leaving
2 Did you know I a new car next week?
(a) will buy (b) am going to buy (c) am buying
3 'I'm not sure how I'll get to the concert.' 'We can take you. We …….. you up at 8.00.'
(a) will pick (b) are going to pick (c) are picking
4 I'm sorry I can't come for dinner. I ……to York tonight.
(a) will drive (b) am going to drive (c) am driving
5 The new road the journey time between the cities significantly.
(a) will cut (b) is going to cut (c) is cutting
6 I have to go now. I you back later today.
(a) will call (b) am going to call (c) am calling
7 Don't go out now. I lunch and it'll be cold by the time you get back.
(a) will serve (b) am going to serve (c) am serving
8 Unless help arrives within the next few days, thousands………
(a) will starve (b) are going to starve (c) are starving
III. Present Simple.
1. Use the present simple of one of these verbs to complete the sentences if possible. If not, use will.
accept change get give out go lend look after
miss play rain read start stop want
We…….. our exam results on the 20th August.
Jack. our cats while we're away next week.
I think I'll take an umbrella in case it
There is a reading list to accompany my lecture, which I…………at the end.
The new drug on sale in the USA next year.
The concert at 7.30, not 7.15 as it says in the programme.
Provided it raining, we'll go for a walk this afternoon.
What if I my plans and decide to stay in Taiwan longer? Will I need to renew my visa?
9 We…. Sue when she leaves, but she says she'll keep in touch.
Unless my parents me some money, I won't be able to go on holiday this year.
Tonight France Germany in a match important for both teams.
It is unlikely that the government the court's decision.
Supposing I to transfer a file from one computer to another? How do I do that?
By the time you this letter, I should be in New Zealand.
2. Complete the sentence with the present simple or a future form of the verb in brackets.
1We will usually respond to enquiries immediately we (receive) them,
2 When we (reach) an agreement, we'll ask our legal department to draft a contract.
3 Work on the second stage of the project (begin) as soon as the first stage (prove) successful.
4 Until the economic situation (improve), the company (not risk) any further investment in this field.
5 A detailed break-down of the figures (appear) on our web site as soon as both companies (sign) the agreement,
6 Our office (contact) you the moment we (have) any news.
7 Our human resources team (then assess) your application before we
(decide) whether you can go forward to the next stage.
8 By the time the banks (reach) an agreement on this issue, the amount
of debt (be) out of control.
3. Complete these texts with either present simple for the future or present continuous for the future with the verbs given. If neither of these is correct, use will or going to.
1 A: Alan Johnson (1) (join) us for dinner. You know, the novelist.
B: Yes, I've read some of his books.
A: I'm sure you (2) (like) him. His latest book (3) (come) out at
the end of this week. If you want, I'm sure he (4) (give) you a signed copy.
2 A: Have you heard that BWM (1) (sack) 300 workers?
B: That's bad news. Supposing they (2) (close) completely - that would be
A: But I've heard that they (3) (build) a new factory in Ireland. If you read
today's local newspaper, you (4) (see) a long article on it.
IV Future Simple, Future Continuous, Future Perfect (Continuous).
1. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form.
Jack usually gives me a lift home, but we both (come) home by train tomorrow as his car is being repaired.
He says he (meet) us at the bus stop, but I'm sure he (forget) to turn up.
Don't ring now; she (watch) her favourite TV programme. — All right. I (ring) at 8.30.
I wonder what I (do) this time next year. ~ I expect you still (work) at the same office.
I'd like to double-glaze the bedroom windows. -
All right. I (get) the materials at once and we (do) it this weekend.
Wait a bit. Don't drink your tea without milk. The milkman (come) in a minute.
What are you doing next weekend? -
Oh, I (work) as usual. I'm always on duty at weekends.
8 Air hostess: We (take) off in a few minutes. Please fasten your seat
9 He (come) if you ask him.
10 I arranged to play tennis with Tom at nine tonight. ~
But you (play) in semi-darkness. You won't be able to see the ball.
I (get) you some aspirins if you like. The chemist's still (be) open. ~ No, don't bother. The office boy (go) out in a minute to post the letters; I (ask) him to buy me some.
It (be) very late when she gets home and her parents (wonder) what's happened.
I never (be) able to manage on my own. ~
But you won't be on your own. Tom (help) you. Look—his name is bracketed with yours on the list. ~
Oh, that's all right. But Tom (not help) me: I (help) Tom. He always takes charge when we're on duty together.
I (write) postcards every week, I promise, and I (try) to make them legible. If necessary I (type) them.
Typist: Are you in a hurry for this letter, Mr Jones? Because I (type) Mr White's letters at four o'clock and if yours could wait till—
Mr Jones: I'd like it a little earlier than four if possible. Typist: All right. I (type) it for you now.
16 What happened at last night's meeting? I hear there was quite a
Come and see me and I (tell) you. I don't want to talk about it on the phone.
I'm going to Switzerland next week. -You're lucky. The wild flowers just (come) out.
This time next month the snow (melt) and skiing will be over.
The first day of the term will be horrible, for everybody (talk) about their holidays and (show) photographs of marvellous foreign beaches, and as I haven't been anywhere I (feel) terribly out of it.
I (tell) her what you say but she (not believe) it.
2. Supply the correct form of the verbs
Normally the perfect forms are not used with state verbs:
e.g. By the end of the meal they were friends.
In this example the state we are speaking about does not come to an end at the given moment.
A. (Future Simple vs. Future Perfect).
B. Future Perfect vs. Future Perfect Continuous.
By the time I’m 70, I (not to work) I (to retire).
By next summer I expect I (to be fully qualified), I (to pass) all exams.
I suppose in another few weeks the ice (not to be) there, it (to melt).
You say, you love me, but a year from now I expect you (not to know) my name, you (to forget) it.
We can’t phone him at 11. He (to be) in bed. – I don’t think so. I’m certain he (not to go) to bed.
Our house ( to be ready) by next Thursday. The builder (to finish) it.
By the end of the week I (not to have) any money left. I (to spend) it.
When I see her again, I’m sure she (to be) very different. She (to change).
In a couple of years her life (to be) very different. She (to get married, to settle down).
They expect us at 7. By that time I (to be through) with the work, I (to type) the last letter by then.
By the year 2050, many cities (to double) in size.
By the 22nd century, world population (to grow) to about 6 billion.
By that time we (to use up) many of the world’s natural resources.
Hopefully, we (to find) alternative sources of energy by then.
By 2050, robots (to replace) people for many boring jobs.
1. Underline the best verb form.
When my daughter goes to school we (to live) here for 5 years.
We’ll get there at 8.30 at the earliest. They (to wait) for an hour. Mother will be very cross.
By the time you come out here we (to tramp) over Crete for 2 weeks.
They (to complete) the new bridge by the end of the year.
By the end of this week I (to wait) seventeen weeks for my phone to be repaired.
Do you realize that on August 15, we (to live) in this house for 50 years?
I hope you (to finish) this report by the end of the day.
She (to leave) for work before the children get home from school.
We (to fly) non-stop for fourteen hours before we get to Calcutta.
They (to complete) work on the great dam by the end of this decade.
Radio waves from earth (to travel) for hundreds of light years before anyone picks them up.
By this time next week I (to work) on this book for a year.
1 'Have you decided yet?' 'Yes, I'll have /I have
the roast beef, please.'
2 A: How will I have known / will I know that I have won a prize?
B: You are receiving / will receive an email giving full details.
3 Quick get out of the car! It's going to burst /It's bursting into flames at any minute!
4 Don't come round before midday because I'll be cleaning /1 clean the house until then.
5 Sorry I can't come on Thursday evening. I'm going to work / I'm working late on an important project
6 The cost of construction is almost certainly rising/ will almost certainly rise before the end of the year as wage increases begin to take effect.
7 The conference is going to begin / begins next Friday morning at 9.00. h Here's the money you asked for - €1000. What will you / are you going to do with it?
8 Why don't you give Helen this cheap perfume instead of the expensive one! She won't have known / won't know the difference!
9 I just want to remind everyone that we'll be holding /we hold a Latin-American evening at the town hall this Friday.
Next Saturday, Daisy 1) is flying/flies
to Paris for a business meeting. Her secretary has already booked the flight. The plane 2) will leave/leaves
at nine o'clock in the morning and one of her business clients 3) will have met/will be meeting
her at the airport when the plane lands. She doesn't know how long the meeting will last, but she 4) will have returned/will have been returning
home by Thursday evening.
Florence 1) is going to become/will be becoming
a doctor when she finishes medical school. She thinks she 2) will probably work/will have probably worked
in a hospital for most of her career. This time next month, she 3) will have revised/will be revising
hard for her exams. By the time she gets her degree she 4) will have been studying/will have studied
medicine for five years. Florence hopes she 5) will have passed/will pass
all the exams with excellent grades.
2. Choose all possible forms. A, B or C, to complete the sentence.
1 'The fish is very fresh. And the beef is very good too.' 'I think …….... the fish.'
2 'There's someone knocking at the door! Who can it be at this time of night?'
'………. Helen. She said she might come round to watch the midnight movie on TV.
3 'I've just received some new sales figures……… them very much, I'm afraid.'
4 Over the next six months, the company…………ten new supermarkets in France.
5………….. with this kind of problem before, I expect, so I'll leave you to get on with it.
6 According to sources close to the prime minister's office, the foreign minister…………….
7 Well, that's all for today……………you next week at the same time, if that's all right.
8 Next year……………. some time travelling, and then look for a teaching job.
9 The problem we have with Jack is that he……………..insist on opening all the windows in the cold weather.
10 There's not much bread, I'm afraid. I hope………………..eat it all before the others arrive!
11At this rate, by the time we get to the party, most people…………
12The riot police are running into the square. There……………trouble!
1 A I'm going to have
2 A That's going to be
3 A You're not going to like
4 A is going to open
5 A You are going to deal
6 A is on the point of resigning
7 A I'm going to see
8 A I'm spending
9 A is going to
10A you won't
11A will leave
12 A is going to be
B I'll have
B That'll be
B You won't like
B will be opening
B You are dealing
B is due to resign
B I'm seeing
B I'm going to spend
B is about to
B you aren't about to
B will have left
B will be
C I'm about to have
C It's due to be
C You're not liking
C is opening
C You'll have dealt
C is about to resign
C I'll see
C I'll spend
C you're not going to
C are on the point of leaving
C is due to be
3. Supply the correct form of the verbs given in brackets.
1 'Can I talk to you for a moment?'' Sorry, I (leave)
2 Actually, I (pass) Sue's house tomorrow, so if you like I could leave the books for her.
3 David and Susan (get married) in May, but they've had to change their plans.
4 We (give) a party for Professor Allan on Friday evening, and we'd like you to come.
5 I've done a lot of revision, but I'm sure that when I sit down to do the exam I (forget).
6 Chris doesn't do much work He (spend) the whole day drinking coffee and looking out of the window.
7 Come back about 4.30 I (finish) the report by then, and you can take a copy.
8 I don’t think I (be late), but I'll let you know if I get delayed.
9 Quick, run! The bomb (expode)!
4. Supply the correct form of the verbs given in brackets. Use only Future or Present tenses.
A. My car is being repaired and I don't know when it 1) (be) ready. I doubt whether I 2) (be able to) collect it before the weekend. I wonder if John 3) (give) me a lift to the party on Saturday. I'll ask him when he (come) home.
В. I was calling to ask if you'd like to go out after we 1) (finish) work tomorrow or if you 2)(want) to watch a video instead. Call me back as soon as you 3) (get) in.
I'll wait until I 4) (hear) from you.
I will leave the hotel early in case there 1) (be) a lot of traffic. I don't know how long the journey 2) (take) or what time the plane 3)(land), but I 4) (call) you as soon as I 5) (arrive) at the airport. Then, I will wait until you 6) (come) to collect me.
. Paula is drinking tea as she is waiting for Charles. She wonders if he 1) (be) late as usual. She will wait until the clock 2) (strike) five and then she will call him in case he 3) (forget).
. Next month, Maggie 1)
(go) to Australia to visit her sister, who she hasn't seen for fifteen years. The plane 2) (leave) early in the morning and 3) (stop off) at Singapore before flying onto Sydney. It 4) (be) a very long, tiring journey, but Maggie is very excited because this time next month, she 5) (begin) her adventure on the other side of the world. She 6) (stay) in Australia for one month. She has booked her flight, so she 7) (fly) back to Britain on 31st May. She hopes that she 8) (visit) lots of fascinating places and seen many interesting things by the time her holidays are over.
. Dear Lionel,
I'm writing to tell you my exciting news. I have won a competition! I think my life 1) (change) a lot now! I 2) (meet) the competition organisers next week to get my prize – a cheque for £50,000.
As soon as I 3) (have) the money, I 4) (buy) a new car, and I 5) (also/redecorate) my house. Hopefully, I 6) (finish) the whole house by the end of June. Then, on the fifth of July, I 7) (fly) to Tahiti for an exotic holiday in the sun. I 8) (return) by the end of July and then I 9) (throw) a big party for all my friends. I hope you 10) (come).
Well, it's almost lunchtime, so I 11) (say) goodbye for now. I promise I 12) (send) you a postcard from Tahiti.
H. If you 1) (like) watersports, you 2) (love) Aquaworld. As soon as you 3) (arrive) at this unique theme park, you 4) (be greeted) by visitor hosts who 5) (show) you to a luxury chalet. Once you 6) (be) in your swimsuit, you 7) (be able to) enjoy a wide variety of watersports, from swimming to water-skiing. You 8) (find) plenty to do and you 9) (have) the chance to try many exciting activities. Aquaworld 10) (open) at 9 am every day and 11) (close) at 8 pm. There 12) (be) special facilities for children and lifeguards 13) (supervise) all activities. Visit Aquaworld for an experience you 14) (never/forget)!
Mark Rawlings and his team are still in the Andes filming Penny, a puma. They have managed to get quite close to the big cat and gain her trust over the last summer. In this instalment of Mark's video diary, he describes how Penny is currently spending a lot of time with a mate, so Mark and his team are sure that she 1) (have) cubs in the spring. If that is the case, they 2) (see) much of her over the winter. In fact, they are unlikely to see much of her until the winter 3) (be) over anyway, as pumas, like most of the large cats, tend to hide away when the weather is bad. If Penny is pregnant, she 4) (have) the cubs by early March and they 5) (leave) the den about three months later. Although Mark doubts whether she 6) (come) out to hunt much in the next few months, he 7) (stay) until she 8) (reappear) Once the team 9) (finish) filming Penny, they 10) (go) to North America to track down the grizzly bear, but Mark 11) (think/be) such a pleasant assignment!
J. What are your hopes for the future?
a) It's hard to make predictions too far into the future, but I think I can
say quite a lot about my life in about ten years' time. I think I 1) (still live) in the same city. By that time I 2) (finish) my studies, and, who knows, perhaps I 3) (find) a good job. And I 4) (probably go out) with the same friends too!
b) I'm optimistic about the future
, so I think that by the time I'm 35, say, 5) (make) my fortune. By then I 6) (run) my own company for about ten years, and I 7) (almost certainly become) a millionaire! So I 8) (drive) an expensive sports car, I hope!
c) I think we should all be worried about what the world 9) (be) like in fifty years' time. By then, I hope that the world's governments 10) (find) an answer to the problem of global warming, but perhaps scientists 11) (still search) for technological solutions. It's quite possible that we 12) (still talk) about the problem, as we are now!
d) By the time I'm fifty, I expect that nearly everything 13) (change) and everyone 14) (try) their best to adapt to new circumstances. For example, I can't imagine that we 15) (use) cars, because by then most of the oil in the world 16) (run out). People 17) (travel) in electric cars, or perhaps we 18) (walk) everywhere. I hope that scientists 19 (solve) the pollution problem, but who knows! Perhaps some other worse problem 20) (come) along by then!
5. Complete the dialogue with verbs from the box. Use suitable forms with future meaning.
arrive be (x3) come finish (x2) have have to meet (x2) pick up work
Can we fix a time for the next meeting? How about the 12th? That's after the sales conference.
I thought something was happening on that day.
Oh yes, you're right. The people from Head Office 1) ………….
What time 2) (their plane)
………… at the airport? Can we have the meeting in the morning?
No, it's all arranged. I 3)…………. them at half past ten, so I 4)…………….. available at all that day.
Well, let's have the meeting earlier in June, then. The sales conference 5) ……………… on the third, doesn't it?
Yes, but we need John's annual figures for the meeting. How are they going, John?
I'm afraid I haven't started them yet, but I 6) ……………. on them next week, gathering information.
………………… ready early in June?
Well, not really. I 8) …………. them by 10 June, but I don't think they 9) ………………. ready before then
So, we're looking at the week starting the 17th. How about two o'clock on that day?
Difficult. I 10)……………….. lunch with the sales manager of Bowman's. Could we make it three?
Yes, but I 11) ………………. the children after school that week
, as usual when the nanny's away, so I 12) …………….. leave here at five thirty. Is that OK?
I think so. Right, so we 13) …………… at three o'clock on 17 June, in the boardroom.
6. Correct the mistakes in these sentences.
Please stop making so much noise or I report you to the supervisor.
As I was about to leave his office, Bob said, 'Let's get together for lunch sometime, will we?'
They came and asked for people to help immediately, so Jenny jumped up and said, T do it!'
When he is released next week, Pat McGuire will spend almost five years in prison for a crime he didn't commit.
I'm going to work on the report at home last night, but I had left all my notes in the office.
It's probably too late to phone Margaret. Do you think she'll go to bed already?
I'm not certain, but I guess it's raining later this afternoon.
Forthcoming books are those that we think to be available soon.
9 I can't believe that you'll sit on a plane to Malta while I'm driving to work tomorrow morning.
10 If I'll finish before you, I wait for you outside.
11 Will Stefan to get these boxes later or is to take them now?
12 I must get to the post office before it'll close or the parcel doesn't arrive in time for Joy's birthday
7. Over to you.
A Make some personal predictions about ten years' time (or choose another length of time).
what you will / won't be doing where you will / won't be what you will / won't have done by then
B 'According to the 2006 Revision, the world population will probably increase by 2.5 billion over the next 43 years, passing from the current 6.7 billion to 9.2 billion in 2050.' Use research in a library or on the Internet to find more predictions about the next fifty years.