I. introduction to women in ancient roman culture a. General remarks



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WOMEN IN ANCIENT ROME
I. INTRODUCTION TO WOMEN IN ANCIENT ROMAN CULTURE

A. GENERAL REMARKS

1. AS ROME DEVELOPED FROM SMALL CITY -STATE TO REPUBLIC

2. & THEN TO EMPIRE

3. STATUS OF WOMEN CHANGED AS LAWS CHANGED

4. BUT AT NO TIME RESTRICTED AS ATHENIAN WOMEN DURING CLASSICAL PERIOD

5. ROMAN WOMEN ALLOWED TO MOVE ABOUT FREELY

6. THEY JOINED THEIR HUSBANDS & OTHER RELATIVES & GUESTS AT MEALS

7. WENT TO PUBLIC GATHERINGS

a. LIKE DURING EMPIRE TO GLADIATORIAL CONTESTS & OTHER ENTERTAINMENT

8. BY LAW ROMAN WOMAN'S CONSENT NECESSARY IN MARRIAGE CHOICE

9. ROLE OF MARRIED ROMAN MATRON CONSIDERED ESPECIALLY NB & HONORABLE ONE

10. AT VARIOUS TIMES WIVES, SISTERS OR MOTHERS OF OFFICE HOLDERS OR EMPERORS

a. HAD GREAT INFLUENCE OVER POLITICAL AFFAIRS OF ROME

11. NEVERTHELESS ROME DURING ITS 1000 YEAR HISTORY

12. PATRIARCHAL IN ORGANIZATION

13. LITERATURE, PHILOSOPHY & ARTS DOMINATED BY MEN

14. ONLY IN AREA OF RELIGION DID SOME ROMAN WOMEN HAVE POWERFUL PUBLIC ROLES

15. NOT RELATED TO FAMILY LIFE & PRIVATE POWER

B. FOUNDING OF ROME

1. MYTHICAL STORY OF NUMITOR, KING OF LATIUM

2. AMULIUS WANTED THRONE SO KILLED NUMITOR'S 2 SONS

3. & REQUIRED NUMITOR'S ONLY DAUGHTER, RHEA SILVIA TO BECOME VIRGINAL PRIESTESS FOR GODDESS VESTA

4. BUT RHEA FELL ASLEEP & MARS, OVERWHELMED BY HER BEAUTY SEDUCED HER

5. SHE GAVE BIRTH TO TWINS, BUT AMULIUS DEMANDED TWINS BE DROWNED

6. BUT INSTEAD THEY PLACED ON RAFT, DRIFTED ASHORE

7. & LATER SUCKLED BY FEMALE WOLF

8. TWINS, ROMULUS & REMUS KILLED AMULIUS WHEN THEY GREW UP

9. & SET OUT TO BUILD THEMSELVES KINGDOM ON HILLS OF ROME

10. IN ORDER TO GET WIVES FOR THEIR NEW KINGDOM,

11. ROMULUS & REMUS INVITED NEIGHBORING SABINES TO PARTY

12. SEIZED SABINE WOMEN & DROVE OFF THEIR HUSBANDS

13. IN MORNING MARRIED WOMEN

a. ENTITLED "RAPE OF SABINE WOMEN"

b. GREAT RUBENS DEPICTION IN ART

14. WHEN HUSBANDS EVENTUALLY RETURNED ARMED FOR BATTLE

15. WOMEN NOW PREGNANT ASKED FOR PEACE,

a. SAYING THEY HAD LOST ONE SET OF HUSBANDS & DIDN'T WANT TO LOSE THEIR NEW HUSBANDS

16. THUS SABINES JOINED ROMANS OR LATINS

17. & TOGETHER WITH ETRUSCANS COMPRISED 3 ORIGINAL TRIBES OF ROME

18. CITIZENSHIP OF ROME RESTRICTED TO MALES 15 YRS OR OLDER WHO WERE NOT SLAVES OR ALIENS

19. & WHO WERE DESCENDENT OR HAD BEEN ADOPTED INTO 1 OF 3 ORIGINAL TRIBES

20. POPULATION DIVIDED INTO 3 MAJOR GROUPS

a. PATRICIANS FROM DESCENDANTS OF ROMAN CITIZENS

b. PLEBEIANS FREEMEN HAD NO POLITICAL POWER IN EARLY YEARS

c. SLAVES

21. UNDER SUCCESSION OF KINGS 753-509 B.C.

22. ROME BUILT GREAT STATE & SET STAGE FOR FUTURE

23. NEXT ROME BECAME REPUBLIC FROM 509-27 B.C. WHEN DEPOSED LAST KING TARQUIN

24. DURING REPUBLIC STRUGGLE BETWEEN PATRICIANS & PLEBEIANS

25. ENDING WITH PLEBEIANS BEING GIVEN RIGHT TO VOTE

26. PLEBEIANS ALSO REQUESTED WRITTEN LAW WHICH RESULTED IN FAMOUS LAW OF TWELVE TABLES

a. WRITTEN IN 449 B.C.

b. LATER ON PLEBEIANS ALLOWED TO MARRY PATRICIANS

27. ALL DURING REPUBLIC TIME ROME CONQUERED REST OF ITALIAN PENINSULA, THEN WENT ON TO EXPAND ITS EMPIRE AROUND MEDITERRANEAN SEA

28. & FINALLY INTO GAUL OR EUROPE & MIDDLE EAST

29. AS MORE MONEY NEEDED TO MAINTAIN TREMENDOUS MILITARY MACHINERY

30. TAXATION INCREASED

31. & FEW GETTING RICH & POOR GETTING POORER

32. ROMAN CIRCUS SET UP PARTLY TO AMUSE RICH

33. & PARTLY TO DISTRACT DISCONTENTED POOR

34. ROME'S BOUNDARIES EVENTUALLY GREW BEYOND ITS ABILITY TO RULE FROM DISTANCE

35. DISCORD OVER POWER-CONTROL OF ROME ERUPTED INTO SEVERAL CIVIL WARS

36. ESPECIALLY AFTER INAUGURATION OF ROMAN EMPIRE

37. WHICH OFFICIALLY DATES FROM 27 B.C.-476 A.D.

38. 4TH & LAST CIVIL WAR FOUGHT BETWEEN OCTAVIAN, CAESAR'S NEPHEW & MARK ANTONY

39. AFTER ANTONY GAVE ROMAN PROVINCES IN EGYPT TO CLEOPATRA'S CHILDREN

40. ANTHONY REMOVED AS COMMANDER OF EASTERN FORCES

41. & DEFEATED BY OCTAVIAN

42. THEN HE & CLEOPATRA COMMITTED SUICIDE

43. AS SAME TIME AS EMPIRE EXPANDING

44. NEW RELIGION OF CHRISTIANITY TAKING HOLD


II. REPUBLIC PERIOD

A. GENERAL REMARKS RE WOMEN

1. WHILE MEN IN ROMAN SOCIETY HAD BOTH PUBLIC & PRIVATE IDENTITY

2. WOMEN ONLY HAD PRIVATE LIFE

a. SHE WAS SOMEBODY'S DAUGHTER

b. SOMEBODY'S WIFE

c. SOMEBODY'S MOTHER

3. WOMEN PRAISED ONLY FOR THEIR PERFORMANCES IN THESE ROLES

4. CONSPICUOUS BEHAVIOR IN ANY OTHER ROLE BROUGHT NOTORIETY RATHER THAN PRAISE

5. IN EVERY ASPECT OF THEIR LIVES WOMEN EXPECTED TO DEFER TO MEN

6. FATHER - PATERFAMILIAS

a. HAD ABSOLUTE CONTROL OF HIS FAMILY & WIFE

7. IF WOMAN'S FATHER DIED, SHE ENTRUSTED TO CARE OF GUARDIAN

8. EVEN IN HER ROLE AS CHILD BEARER & CHILD REARER

9. WOMAN'S LIFE CONTROLLED BY MEN

10. AN INFANT COULD BE EXPOSED W/O CONSENT OF WOMAN WHO HAD JUST GIVEN IT BIRTH

11. MOTHER WOULD LOSE HER CHILDREN IF SHE WERE DIVORCED

12. PATERFAMILIAS' POWER RELATING TO HIS WIFE

a. HE COULD LEGALLY KILLS HIS WIFE FOR ADULTERY

b. OR DIVORCE HER AT WILL

c. WHEN WOMAN MARRIED HER FATHER'S AUTHORITY OVER HER PASSED COMPLETELY TO HER HUSBAND

d. SHE WAS THEN CONSIDERED INFELIAE LOCO

(1) A CHILD IN THE FAMILY

B. WOMEN AND EDUCATION

1. FEMININE INSTRUCTION RESTED ON 3 FUNDAMENTALS:

a. STUDY OF CLASSICS

b. NEEDLEWORK

c. ART OF PLEASING

2. GREEK TAUGHT AT SAME TIME AS LATIN

3. IT WAS GOOD FORM TO SPEAK LATIN SPICED WITH GREEK WORDS

4. ROMAN WOMEN EXPECTED TO HAVE ENOUGH EDUCATION TO APPRECIATE THEIR HUSBANDS' WORK, WIT, WRITING & OPINIONS

5. AN INTELLIGENT & TALENTED WOMAN HAD TO BE CAREFUL NOT TO APPEAR MORE CLEVER THAN MEN AROUND HER

6. GENERALLY WOMEN EXPECTED NOT TO EXPRESS OPINIONS OF THEIR OWN IN MIXED COMPANY

C. LIFE EXPECTANCY OF WOMEN

1. WHILE SOME FEMALES DIED OF EXPOSURE IMMEDIATELY AFTER BIRTH

2. SOME LIVED TO BE 80

3. BUT MOST WOMEN MARRIED AT YOUNG AGE, RAISED FAMILIES & DIED BEFORE REACHING MIDDLE AGE

4. WOMAN'S LIFE PASSED RAPIDLY

5. SHE MIGHT WELL BE GRANDMOTHER AT 30

6. EPITAPH FOR ROMAN WOMEN

7. HERE I LIE, A MATRON NAMED VETURIA. MY FATHER WAS VETURIUS. MY HUSBAND WAS FORTUNATUS. I LIVED FOR 27 YEARS, & I WAS MARRIED FOR 16 YEARS TO THE SAME MAN. AFTER I GAVE BIRTH TO 6 CHILDREN, ONLY ONE OF WHOM IS STILL ALIVE, I DIED. TITUS JULIUS FORTUNATUS, A SOLDIER OF AUXILIARY LEGION II, PROVIDED THIS MEMORIAL FOR HIS WIFE, WHO WAS INCOMPARABLE & SHOWED OUTSTANDING DEVOTION TO HIM.

D. 3 TYPES OF MARRIAGE

1. DURING MOST OF REPUBLIC

a. ROME HAD 3 FORMS OF MARRIAGE

2. FATHER'S POWER OVER DAUGHTER PASSED TO HUSBAND

a. FROM MANUS OR HAND OF HER FATHER

b. TO MANUS OF HER HUSBAND

3. COEMPTION

a. FORM LEFT OVER FROM EARLIER TIMES

b. WHEN BRIDES OFTEN PURCHASED

c. IN THIS FORM MAKE-BELIEVE SALE OF BRIDE TO GROOM FOR 3 COPPER COINS PAID TO BRIDE'S FATHER OR GUARDIAN

4. USUS


a. USUS EARLY PLEBEIAN MARRIAGE

b. PROBABLY INVOLVED SIMPLE DECLARATION THAT COUPLE INTENDED TO BE HUSBAND & WIFE

c. IF COUPLE LIVED TOGETHER EVERY DAY FOR 1 YEAR

d. HUSBAND GAINED MANUS OVER HIS WIFE

5. CONFARREATIO

a. PROBABLY APPLIED ONLY TO PATRICIANS

b. CONFARREATIO LONG FORMAL & COLORFUL CEREMONY

c. INVOLVING SACRIFICES OF SHEEP OR PIG

d. SPELT BREAD

e. FRUITS, SALT CAKE

f. IN PRESENCE OF 2 PRIESTS & 10 WITNESSES

E. REST OF MARRIAGE STORY

1. BY 200 B.C. THESE 3 FORMS MARRIAGE DYING OUT

2. FREE MARRIAGE (W/O MANUS) BECAME COMMON PRACTICE

3. IN THIS MARRIAGE YOUNG GIRL MARRIED AFTER SIGNS HAD BEEN READ BY FAMILY MALE PRIEST

4. BUT FATHER OF BRIDE CONTINUED TO HAVE GUARDIANSHIP OVER HIS DAUGHTER AFTER HER MARRIAGE

5. HAPPENED DURING TIME WHEN ROMANS BECAME WEALTHY AFTER PUNIC WARS

6. & IF MANUS TRANSFERRED TO HUSBAND

7. THEN HER DOWRY & ANY PROPERTY COULD GO TO HUSBAND

8. & NOT BE KEPT WITHIN HER BIRTH FAMILY

9. LEGAL AGE FOR MARRIAGE - GIRLS - 12

10. LEGAL AGE FOR MARRIAGE - BOYS 14

11. BUT GENERALLY HUSBAND IN 30'S

12. CHRISTIANS WILL USE 12 & 14 AS AGE WHEN MARRIAGES COULD BE CONSUMMATED

13. AS BOYS & GIRLS BETROTHED IN THEIR CRADLE

14. ROMAN LAW DEFINED PURPOSE OF MARRIAGE AS PROCREATION

a. CHRISTIANS WILL CONTINUE THIS PRACTICE

F. WEDDING CUSTOMS

1. AS JUNO, GODDESS OF LOVE & MARRIAGE HONORED WITH FESTIVALS & CELEBRATIONS IN JUNE

2. JUNE BRIDES EXPECTED HAPPINESS & PROSPERITY

3. SO POPULAR MONTH FOR WEDDINGS FROM DAYS OF ROMANS

4. BEGINNING WITH ANCIENT EGYPTIANS & MOVING THROUGH ROMANS

5. IDEA THAT VEIN OF THIRD FINGER OF LEFT HAND RAN DIRECTLY TO HEART

a. REASON FOR WEARING WEDDING RING ON THAT FINGER

6. BRIDAL VEIL ORIGINATED IN ANCIENT GREECE & ROME

a. SYMBOLIZED YOUTH & VIRGINITY

b. BUT FLAME RED

c. EARLY CHRISTIANS CHOSE WHITE OR PURPLE

7. WHITE WEDDING DRESS FOR ROMANS

8. BUT DURING MIDDLE AGES COLORED ONE

a. NOT UNTIL 19TH C. AGAIN WHITE TRADITIONAL COLOR FOR BRIDES

9. BRIDAL BOUQUET ORIGINATED WITH ANCIENT ROMANS

10. THEIR CUSTOM TO LIGHT FIRST LAMP IN COUPLE'S NEW HOME WITH TORCH

11. THEN TOSS TORCH TO WEDDING PARTY

a. IN 14TH C. FRENCH SUBSTITUTED BOUQUET FOR TORCH

b. & ADDED WHOEVER CAUGHT BOUQUET WOULD BE WED NEXT

12. EARLY ROMAN BRIDES CARRIED BOUQUETS OF GARLIC, CHIVES & OTHER STRONG HERBS

a. TO SYMBOLIZE FERTILITY

b. & TO DRIVE AWAY EVIL SPIRITS

13. LATER SMALL STALKS OF GRAIN & LEAVES ALSO CARRIED

14. WEDDING CAKE HAS BEEN PART OF WEDDING CELEBRATION SINCE EARLY ROMANS BROKE THIN LOAF OVER BRIDE'S HEAD AT END OF CEREMONY

15. LOAF MADE FROM WHEAT SYMBOLIZED FERTILITY

16. CRUMBS EATEN BY WEDDING GUESTS BELIEVING THEY BROUGHT GOOD LUCK

17. WHILE CUSTOM OF THROWING RICE AT NEWLYWEDS COMES FROM ORIENT

18. WHERE RICE SYMBOLIZES FERTILITY

19. ANCIENT GREEKS & ROMANS TOSSED KERNELS OF GRAIN OR WALNUTS TO WISH THEM LUCK & PROSPERITY

20. GODDESS VESTA, NOT ONLY RULER OF HEARTH & THRESHOLD

21. BUT OVER VIRGINS

22. SO SHE PROTECTED THEM

23. & IT WAS CONSIDERED BAD LUCK FOR NEW BRIDE TO STUMBLE OR TRIP AS SHE ENTERED HER NEW HOME

24. SO HER HUSBAND CARRIED HER OVER THRESHOLD

G. DOWRY SYSTEM

1. UPPER CLASS BRIDE HAD TO HAVE DOWRY & TROUSSEAU

2. USUALLY 10 MONTHS ALLOWED FOR PROVIDING TROUSSEAU

3. DOWRY PAID IN 3 ANNUAL INSTALLMENTS

4. SOMETIMES FATHER HAD DIFFICULTY MAKING PAYMENTS

5. WHEN CICERO'S DAUGHTER TULLIA

6. MARRIED FOR 3RD TIME

7. CICERO HAD SUCH DIFFICULTY MEETING LAST PAYMENT HE CONSIDERED ARRANGING DIVORCE FOR HER TO AVOID PAYING

H. DIVORCE

1. ALTHOUGH DIVORCE WAS UNCOMMON IN EARLY PERIOD OF ROMAN HISTORY

2. IT WAS PERMISSIBLE ON SPECIFIC GROUNDS

3. ALL OF WHICH INVOLVED AN OFFENCE COMMITTED BY ONE OF PARTNERS

4. BUT MORE REASONS HUSBANDS COULD OBTAIN DIVORCE THAN WIFE

a. WIFE'S POISON ATTEMPT AGAINST HIM

b. EXCESSIVE DRINKING BY HIS WIFE

c. WIFE COUNTERFEITING HOUSEHOLD KEYS

(1) SOME SCHOLARS FELT TO KEEP WOMAN FROM LOCKED WINE CELLAR AS WINE-DRINKING CAPITAL OFFENSE FOR WOMEN

d. WIFE'S ADULTERY

(1) IN FACT IF ADULTERY DIVORCE WAS OBLIGATORY

(2) OTHERWISE HER HUSBAND WAS CONSIDERED TO CONDONE THE ACT

(3) & SO LOST ANY CLAIM TO THE DOWRY

(4) AS WELL AS MAKING HIMSELF LIABLE TO PROSECUTION AS HIS WIFE'S PIMP

e. IN SOME CASES THE JULIAN LAW OF 17 B.C. PERMITTED FATHER OF AN UNFAITHFUL WIFE TO KILL BOTH THE WOMAN & HER LOVER

f. BUT PROBABLY NOT OFTEN RESORTED TO BY FATHERS

g. & THE HUSBAND WAS NOT PERMITTED TO KILL HIS WIFE, BUT HE MIGHT KILL HER LOVER

h. BARRENNESS OF WIFE

(1) WIFE ALWAYS RESPONSIBLE FOR THIS

(2) EXCEPT IN OBVIOUS CASES MALE IMPOTENCY

5. DIVORCE NOT AS EASY FOR WIFE BUT POSSIBLE

a. IF HER HUSBAND DESERTED HER,

b. IF HE WAS CONVICTED OF CERTAIN CRIMES

c. OR MADE PRISONER OF WAR

6. BY 2ND C. B.C. DIVORCE HAD CEASED TO BE A RARE OCCURRENCE

7. & BY AUGUSTAN AGE IT HAD BECOME PUBLIC SCANDAL

a. ESPECIALLY IN UPPER CLASSES

8. CAESAR & CICERO BOTH DIVORCED TWICE & MARRIED 3 TIMES

9. SENECA SAYS OF THE WOMEN OF HIS DAY THAT THEY COUNTED THEIR YEARS NOT BY CONSULS (HIGHEST OFFICIAL OF ROMAN GOVT) BUT BY THEIR HUSBANDS

10. CHRISTIAN FATHER TERTULLIAN LIVING IN 2ND & 3RD CENTURIES AD IS CREDITED W/THE EPIGRAM

a. DIVORCE WAS NOW LOOKED UPON AS ONE FRUIT OF MARRIAGE

11. BY 1ST CENTURY AD DIVORCE NOT ONLY COMMON, BUT PROCEDURALLY EASY TO OBTAIN

12. EITHER HUSBAND OR WIFE COULD RENOUNCE THEIR COMMITMENT TO EACH OTHER

13. HUSBAND FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR CHILDREN IF DIVORCE -

14. WHETHER MOTHER GOT CUSTODY OF NOT

a. CHILD SUPPORT

I. CONCUBINES

1. LIKE COMMON LAW RELATIONSHIP TODAY

2. ROMAN COULD LEGALLY HAVE A CONCUBINE BUT ONLY 1 AT A TIME

a. & NOT AT SAME TIME AS HE WAS MARRIED

3. FROWNED ON FOR A BACHELOR TO KEEP MORE THAN 1

4. USUALLY ONE HAD A CONCUBINE RELATIONSHIP W/SOMEONE WHEN A VALID MARRIAGE NOT POSSIBLE

a. SENATOR & FREED SLAVE

5. BUT COULD BE WHEN GIRL'S FAMILY NOT UNABLE TO RAISE A DOWRY

6. CONCUBINE'S CHILDREN ILLEGITIMATE

a. NO RIGHTS TO FATHER'S INHERITANCE

J. EXPLOITATION OF WOMEN

1. IT IS CLEAR ROMAN WOMEN EXPLOITED MANY DIFFERENT WAYS

2. SOME DIRECTLY AS PROSTITUTES & SLAVE-CONCUBINES

3. OTHERS AS WIVES & MOTHERS

4. ONE FORM DIRECT EXPLOITATION

a. LEGACY-HUNTING

5. UNSCRUPULOUS MEN, GREEDY FOR MONEY & PROPERTY BEFRIENDED ELDERLY UNMARRIED WOMEN OR CHILDLESS WIDOWS

6. IN HOPE OF BEING WRITTEN INTO WILL FOR SERVICES RENDERED

7. TRICK TO CHOOSE WOMEN AT DEATH'S DOOR THROUGH DISEASE OR OLD AGE

8. OLD MEN W/O HEIRS VICTIMS OF THIS RACKET TOO

K. NAMING OF CHILDREN

1. DURING REPUBLIC WOMAN HAD ONLY 1 NAME

a. FAMILY NAME

b. NO SPECIFIC GIRL NAMES

c. MASCULINE ENDINGS CHANGED TO FEMALE ENDINGS

2. IF MORE THAN 1 GIRL

a. USED ELDER OR YOUNG

b. OR PRIMA, SECUNDA

3. BY TIME OF EMPIRE WOMAN HAD 2 NAMES

a. BUT AGAIN TAKEN FROM FAMILY & FATHER'S NAME

b. FABIA HONORATA

(1) DAUGHTER OF FABIUS HONORATUS

c. AURELIA VICTORINA

(1) DAUGHTER OF AURELIUS VICTOR

4. ROMAN BOY HAD 3 NAMES IF CITIZENS

a. MARCUS TULLIUS CICERO

(1) MARCUS = ONE'S OFFICIAL TRIBE

(2) TULLIS = PERSONAL NAME

(3) CICERO = ONE'S FAMILY NAME

L. UNIQUE LAWS & CUSTOMS RELATING TO WOMEN

1. RESPECTABLE WOMEN NOT SUPPOSED TO USE COSMETICS, PERFUME OR HAIRPIECES TO SEDUCE THEIR HUSBANDS

a. AT LEAST DURING REPUBLIC ERA

b. BUT THIS DID NOT LAST

2. ACTUALLY BOTH MEN & WOMEN DYED THEIR HAIR

3. BLACK LIKE BRITONS, BLOND LIKE GERMANS OR RED OR HENNA

4. ONE OF OVID'S GIRLFRIENDS HAD UNFORTUNATE EXPERIENCE WITH HAIR DYE

5. DIDN'T I TELL YOU TO STOP MESSING AROUND WITH COLOR OF YOUR HAIR? NOW YOU HAVE NO HAIR LEFT TO DYE. IF YOU HAD LEFT IT ALONE, WHO HAD THICKER HAIR THAN YOU? AND WHEN YOU LET IT DOWN, IT USED TO HANG TO YOUR WAIST. IT WAS VERY FINE- SO FINE THAT YOU HESITATED TO CURL IT WITH CURLING IRONS...AND IT WAS EASY TO MANAGE, NATURALLY CURLY, AND DIDN'T CAUSE YOU ANY TROUBLE.



6. NOW YOUR HAIR HAS FALLEN OUT, AND YOU ALONE ARE RESPONSIBLE. YOU YOURSELF MIXED THE POISON AND PUT IT ON YOUR HEAD.

7. DURING REPUBLIC MAN COULD DIVORCE HIS WIFE WHO WENT OUT WITHOUT HER HEAD COVERED

8. VEIL OR HOOD SIGNIFIED RESPECTABLE WOMAN

9. THIS PRACTICE WILL CONTINUE AT URGING OF PAUL IN CHRISTIANITY - 1 COR. 11:10

10. WINE DRINKING BY WOMAN CONSIDERED CAPITAL CRIME

a. SHE COULD BE CONDEMNED TO DEATH

11. IT THEREFORE CUSTOM FOR MALE RELATIVES TO KISS WOMAN TO DETERMINE WHETHER SHE HAD BEEN DRINKING WINE

12. IF SHE WAS ACCUSED BY HER HUSBAND HER RELATIVES COULD BE WITNESSES IN HER DEFENSE

13. A MAN COULD DRINK WINE WITHOUT PENALTY

M. WOMEN'S REVOLT AGAINST OPPIAN LAW 195 B.C.

1. ANCIENT MEDITERRANEAN WORLD USED SUMPTUARY LAWS TO FORCE ITS CITIZENS TO ECONOMIZE IN LUXURIES

2. ESPECIALLY IN WARTIME

3. THESE LAWS USUALLY AFFECTED WOMEN MORE IMMEDIATELY THAN MEN

4. SUMPTUARY LAWS MUCH USED BY ALL GOVERNMENTS DURING

a. MIDDLE AGES

b. STILL IN EVIDENCE DURING REFORMATION

c. & PURITAN COLONIES OF AMERICA

5. DURING PUNIC WARS BETWEEN ROME & CARTHAGE

6. TRIBUNE C. OPPIUS INITIATED LAW FORBIDDING ROMAN WOMEN TO

a. WEAR THEIR JEWELS

b. PURPLE OR GOLD EMBROIDERY

(1) SYMBOLS OF RANK & STATUS

c. & TO DRIVE IN CARRIAGES IN CITY

7. AFTER ROMAN DEFEAT OF CARTHAGENIAN LEADER HANNIBAL IN 202 B.C.

8. ROMAN WOMEN BECAME INDIGNANT THAT OPPIAN LAW STILL IN FORCE FOR THEM

9. WHEREAS THEIR HUSBANDS HAD NOT BEEN SIMILARLY DEPRIVED

10. THEY MARCHED ON SENATE EN MASSE IN 195 B.C.

11. COMPARISON WITH EARLY 20TH C. SUFFRAGETTES IN ENGLAND

12. TO DEMONSTRATE PUBLICLY IN STREETS AT TIME OF DEBATE WHETHER TO REPEAL IT OR NOT

13. & TO PERSUADE THEIR MENFOLK TO VOTE FOR REPEAL

14. READ CATO'S SPEECH

15. HOPING TO PERSUADE SENATORS TO REPEAL LAW

16. TRIBUNE L. VALERIUS WON REPEAL OF OPPIAN LAW BY SAYING IN EFFECT

a. GIVE THE WOMEN THEIR BAUBLES, THESE WILL SATISFY THEIR TRIVIAL MINDS AND KEEP THEM FROM INTERFERING IN MORE SERIOUS MATTERS

N. RAPE & FORNICATION

1. FORNICATION WAS CRIME FOR WOMEN

a. EVEN AUGUSTUS EXILED BOTH HIS DAUGHTER & GRANDDAUGHTER FOR ILLICIT INTERCOURSE

2. SOME UPPER-CLASS WOMEN PROTESTED AGAINST THE CURTAILMENT OF THEIR FREEDOM BY REGISTERING WITH AEDILES AS PROSTITUTES

a. MAGISTRATES

3. THEN LAWS OF STUPRUM OR CRIMINAL FORNICATION WOULD NOT APPLY TO THEM

4. RAPE PUNISHMENT SAME AS ANCIENT HITTITES, ETC.

5. IF GIRL HAD BEEN WILLING, HER PENALTY BEING BURNED TO DEATH

6. IF SHE HAD BEEN UNWILLING SHE WAS STILL PUNISHED ALTHOUGH HER PENALTY LIGHTER

7. FOR SHE SHOULD HAVE SCREAMED & BROUGHT NEIGHBORS TO HER ASSISTANCE

8. CONSTANTINE ALSO SPECIFIED CAPITAL PUNISHMENT FOR FREE WOMAN WHO HAD INTERCOURSE WITH SALVE

a. BURNING FOR SLAVE HIMSELF

9. THIS PENALTY OUTCOME OF PERPETUAL CONCERN THAT FREE WOMEN WOULD TAKE SAME LIBERTIES WITH SLAVES AS MEN DID
III. ROMAN RELIGION

A. GENERAL REMARKS

1. OVER THE CENTURIES AS ROME CONQUERED OTHER PEOPLE

2. ROME INCORPORATED OTHER RELIGIOUS BELIEFS & PRACTICES

3. FROM DIVINATION OF ETRUSCANS

a. FLOCK OF BIRDS - PATTERN

b. ENTRAILS OF SACRIFICED ANIMALS

4. GODDESSES OF FATE

5. OLYMPIAN PANTHEON - BUT NAMES CHANGED

6. MOST OF THE PRACTICES FROM EARLY REPUBLICAN DAYS WERE SUPPORTED BY THE STATE

7. IMPORTED LATER ONES FROM EAST LIKE MITHRACISM FOR ROMAN SOLDIERS & WORSHIP OF ISIS

8. AMONG NUMEROUS CULTS DEVELOPED BY ROMANS

9. WERE THOSE WHICH ENLISTED DIVINE AID TO UPHOLD IDEALS OF FEMALE CONDUCT

10. WOMEN RANKED ACCORDING TO CLASS DISTINCTION BETWEEN PLEBEIANS & PATRICIANS

11. BY MORAL STANDARD SEGREGATING RESPECTABLE WOMEN FROM THOSE WHO FOLLOWED DISREPUTABLE PROFESSIONS

12. AMONG THE VARIOUS CULTS & PRACTICES

a. PRAYERS UTTERED FOR BEAUTY OF DAUGHTERS WHEN PASSING TEMPLE OF VENUS

b. OFFERINGS MADE TO GODDESS OF CHILDBIRTH IN EVENT OF PREGNANCY

c. GREAT IMPORTANCE ATTACHED TO OMENS

d. LIVIA WHEN EXPECTING TIBERIUS WANTED TO KNOW IF SHE WOULD HAVE A SON

e. SHE TOOK EGG FROM UNDER SITTING HEN & REHEATED IT UNTIL IT HATCHED

f. CHICK SPORTED FINE CREST

g. ANOTHER STORY WHEN LIVIA VISITING HER PROPERTY IN VEII SOON AFTER HER MARRIAGE TO AUGUSTUS

h. SAW EAGLE DROP WHITE HEN WHICH CARRIED LAUREL TWIG IN ITS BEAK

i. PIOUS LIVIA HAD CHICKEN CARED FOR & PLANTED TWIG

j. HEN HAD NUMEROUS PROGENY CAUSING HOUSE TO BE SURNAMED "OF THE HENS"

k. AS FOR THE TWIG IT SOON GAVE BIRTH TO A LAUREL GROVE

l. LAUREL USED TO CROWN CAESARS AT THEIR TRIUMPHS

m. BUT IT WAS NOTICED TREE DIED EACH TIME CAESAR DIED

n. WHOLE GROVE DIED WITH NERO

B. FORTUNA VIRGINALIS OR VIRGO (VIRGIN)

1. PATRONESS OF YOUNG GIRLS AS THEY CAME OF AGE

2. ADOLESCENT GIRLS DEDICATED TO THIS GODDESS THEIR LITTLE TOGAS THEY HAD WORN IN GIRLHOOD

3. AFTER DEDICATION GIRL DONNED STOLA

a. DRESS RESPECTABLE MATRON

b. DISTINGUISHED FROM TOGA-CLAD PROSTITUTE

4. ANALOGOUS CEREMONIES FOR BOYS INCLUDING DONNING OF DRESS OF MEN

5. & DEDICATION OF FIRST BEARD

a. CLEARLY PUBERTY RITES & NOT CONCERNED DIRECTLY WITH MARRIAGE

6. BUT SINCE PUBERTY & MARRIAGE OFTEN CAME AT ABOUT SAME TIME IN GIRL'S LIFE

7. DEDICATION OF HER GIRLHOOD CLOTHING MAY HAVE MARKED BOTH OCCASIONS

C. FORTUNA PRIMIGENIA = PRAENESTE

1. UPON HER MARRIAGE BRIDE PASSED TO PROTECTION OF FORTUNA PRIMIGENIA (FIRSTBORN, PRIMORDIAL OR FIRST TO SIRE OF PRAENESTE

2. PATRONESS OF MOTHERS & CHILDBIRTH

3. MEN INTERESTED ALSO IN HER PROMISE OF VIRILITY, MATERIAL SUCCESS & ECONOMIC PROSPERITY

4. ECLECTIC & POLYTHEISTIC NATURE OF ROMAN RELIGION

5. AS FAR BACK AS 496 B.C. GODDESSES & GODS OF ASIA & GREECE CAME TO ROME

D. VESTAL VIRGINS

1. VESTAL VIRGINS HAD HELD POWERFUL FASCINATION ON HISTORIANS & NOVELISTS ALIKE

2. TO INVENT PARALLEL YOU WOULD HAVE TO IMAGINE THAT IN WHOLE OF MODERN ITALY THERE WAS ONLY 1 BODY OF NUNS

3. & ONLY 6 NUNS AT THAT

4. & THEN YOU WOULD HAVE TO IMAGINE THEM PERFORMING THEIR HOLY DUTIES UNDER CAREFUL WATCH OF GOVT OF ROME

5. ICONOGRAPHY OF VESTAL VIRGINS GOES WAY BACK

6. CHIEF VIRGIN

a. REPRESENTED FOR RELIGIOUS PURPOSES WIFE OF PRIMITIVE KING

b. OR DAUGHTERS OF ORIGINAL ROYAL HOUSE

7. DUTIES

a. DREW WATER

b. ENSURED SACRED FIRE NEVER WENT OUT

c. ATTENDED NUMBER OF RELIGIOUS CEREMONIES OF STATE

8. FOOD & NOURISHMENT OF STATE

9. WHICH SACRED FIRE SYMBOL

10. DEPENDED FOR ITS MAINTENANCE ON ACCURATE PERFORMANCE OF THEIR DUTIES

11. & ON THEIR REMAINING VIRGINS

12. BUT CHASTITY DIFFICULT TO MAINTAIN THROUGHOUT APPROXIMATELY 1000 YEARS OF HISTORY OF VESTALS

a. UNTIL ORDER DISSOLVED IN A.D. 394

13. VIRGINS CHOSEN BY LOT EVERY 5 YRS.

a. IN TIME RECRUITED WITH DIFFICULTY

b. GREAT FAMILIES DID NOT WANT THEIR DAUGHTERS TO BE VESTAL VIRGINS

14. CHILD COMMITTED TO 30 YRS OF VIRGINITY

15. WHEN 40 COULD LEAVE & MARRY

16. NOT SURPRISINGLY FEW LEFT PRECINCTS

17. OCCIA, STARTED AS NOVICE IN 38 B.C.

18. DIED AFTER 57 YRS OF SERVICE

19. IN A.D. 19 JUNIA TORQUATA VESTAL VIRGIN 64 YRS

20. PRIVILEGES

a. TRAVELLED THROUGH ROME IN CARRIAGES AT PUBLIC FESTIVALS

b. ATTENDED IN PUBLIC BY LICTOR

c. DIDN'T NEED TO TAKE OATH WHEN TESTIFYING

d. COULD ANNUL DEATH SENTENCE OF PRISONER IF ENCOUNTERED HIM ACCIDENTLY ON WAY TO HIS EXECUTION

21. WHEN WIDOW OF AUGUSTUS CONSECRATED, THEY MADE RESPONSIBLE FOR HER CULT

22. ALSO RESPONSIBLE FOR GUARDING NB DOCUMENTS

a. WILLS OF LEADING STATESMEN

23. VESTALS JUDGED GUILTY OF VIOLATING THEIR CHASTITY

a. CONDEMNED TO BE BURIED ALIVE

b. THEORY WAS THAT IF VESTAL VIRGIN INNOCENT

c. VESTA HERSELF WOULD RESCUE HER

d. BUT NONE EVER SAVED

e. ONLY ABOUT 10 CONDEMNED TO THIS

24. BUT WHEN ROMANS DEFEAT AT CANNAE 216 B.C.

25. VESTALS CAME UNDER SUSPICION FOR IT WAS CONCEIVABLE THAT THEIR MISCONDUCT HAD CONTRIBUTED TO DISASTER

E. VIRTUE OF WOMEN IN ROME

1. PROSECUTION OF VESTALS IS SPECIFIC EXAMPLE OF GREEK & ROMAN THOUGHT CONNECTING VIRTUE OF WOMEN & WELFARE OF STATE

2. IF BONA FIDE SECULAR VIRGIN DOOMED TO DEATH BY STRANGULATION

a. LIKE YOUNG DAUGHTER OF SEJANUS WHEN SHE IMPLICATED IN HER FATHER'S SCHEMING

b. SHE WAS DEBAUCHED BY HER EXECUTIONER WHEN ROPE ALREADY AROUND HER NECK

c. BECAUSE IT INAUSPICIOUS TO EXECUTE VIRGIN

3. CORNELIA

a. DAUGHTER OF SCIPIO AFRICANUS

(1) HERO OF FINAL BATTLE AGAINST CARTHAGE

b. WIFE OF TIBERIUS - ARISTOCRAT

c. MOTHER OF GRACCHI BROTHERS, TIBERIUS & GAIUS

d. CORNELIA ALWAYS HELD UP AS EXEMPLARY WOMEN IN ROMAN HISTORY

F. SIBYLLINE ORACLES

1. SIBYLS - WISE PRIESTESSES & PROPHETESSES OF GOD APOLLO

2. RESPONSIBLE FOR CREATING BOOKS OF DIVINELY INSPIRED ANSWERS TO WORLDLY QUESTIONS

3. IN MAJOR CRISES GOVT CONSULTED SIBYLLINE BOOKS FOR ANSWERS

4. IT WAS PRIESTS OR AUGERS WHO CONSULTED BOOKS

5. IT IS NOT KNOWN WHAT BOOKS CONTAINED FOR NONE OF ORIGINAL 9 SURVIVES

G. CULT OF CYBELE

1. GREAT MOTHER GODDESS FROM ASIA

a. TO ROME VIA ANATOLIA

2. CYBELE ALWAYS CLOSELY IDENTIFIED WITH GODDESS RHEA

a. KNOWN AS MOTHER OF ZEUS

3. GREAT FESTIVALS CELEBRATED AT ROME UNTIL 268 AD

4. EMBRACED BY SUCH EMPERORS AS

a. CLAUDIUS & AUGUSTUS

5. VARIOUS VERSIONS OF DEATH OF ATTIS

a. RETELL STORY OF DYING SON/LOVER OF CYBELE

b. SON FIRST TIED TO TREE & THEN BURIED

c. 3 DAYS LATER LIGHT APPEARED IN BURIAL TOMB

d. & ATTIS ROSE FROM DEAD

e. BRINGING SALVATION WITH HIM IN HIS REBIRTH

6. IN TIME OF CRISES ROMANS CALLED ON CYBELE OR ISIS FOR HELP

7. E.G. WHEN SIBYLLINE BOOKS FORETOLD THAT HANNIBAL WAS GOING TO ATTACK ROME IN 205 B.C. BY MARCHING HIS ELEPHANTS OVER ALPS

8. BUT HE WOULD BE DEFEATED IF MAGNA MATER OR GODDESS CYBELE BROUGHT FROM ASIA MINOR TO ROME

9. SENATE NEGOTIATED TO HAVE BLACK METEORIC STONE BROUGHT TO ROME

a. STONE SAID TO BE REINCARNATION OF GREAT MOTHER

10. AFTER CEREMONIES CENTERING AROUND STONE,

11. HANNIBAL LEFT ITALY

H. CULT OF ISIS

1. ONCE ROME CONQUERED NEAR EAST & EGYPT SPREAD OF ISIS CULT REMARKABLE

a. VERY PROMINENT IN HELLENISTIC ERA

b. & BECAME MAIN COMPETITOR FOR CHRISTIANITY

2. ISIS BECAME MOST WIDELY WORSHIPED GODDESS IN GRECO-ROMAN WORLD

3. FOR IT MET BOTH RELIGIOUS RITUAL & EMOTIONAL NEEDS OF PEOPLE

4. INITIALLY OFFICIALLY RESISTED BY ROMANS

5. IN END HAD LARGER SPHERE OF INFLUENCE THAN ANY OTHER

6. ISIS PROMISED RESURRECTION TO HER DEVOTEES AFTER THEIR DEATH

a. IMMORTALITY

7. WHO WAS ISIS?

8. ISIS NATIONAL DIVINITY OF ANCIENT EGYPT DATING BACK AT LEAST TO 2500 B.C.

9. CULT OF ISIS CAPABLE OF UNLIMITED FLEXIBILITY

10. WHERE OTHERS HAD RIGIDLY PRESCRIBED RULES

11. APPEALED TO BOTH SEXES, BUT PROBABLY MORE TO WOMEN

a. AS ROMAN ARMY'S MAIN RELIGION MITHRACISM

12. REGARDLESS IF ISIS REPRESENTED MATRON OF ROMAN WORLD

a. OR PROSTITUTE

b. FOR SUPPOSEDLY ISIS AT ONE TIME PROSTITUTE HERSELF FOR 10 YRS

13. ISIS ACCEPTED WOMEN FROM ALL RANKS

14. IN THESE HELLENISTIC & ROMAN TIMES ISIS' ATTRIBUTES EXPANDED GREATLY

15. SHE TOOK ON ATTRIBUTES OF MALE DEITIES AS WELL

a. SKY GOD- DOMINION OVER LIGHTNING, THUNDER, WINDS

16. SHE ALSO CREATOR

a. FOR SHE DIVIDED EARTH FROM HEAVEN

17. SHE ASSIGNED LANGUAGES TO NATIONS

18. SHE INVENTED ALPHABETS & ASTRONOMY

19. SHE BECAME PATRONESS OF NAVIGATION & COMMERCE

20. GIVER OF HEALTH, BEAUTY, LOVE, ABUNDANCE, WISDOM

21. THUS ISIS COULD BE ALL THINGS TO ALL PEOPLE

22. BUT AT ALL TIMES LOVING & MERCIFUL WIFE & MOTHER

23. THIS STATUE OF ISIS

a. MARBLE 150-180 A.D. IN BERLIN

b. MORE EGYPTIAN THAN GREEK=LIKE

c. ISIS WEARS LONG GARMENT WITH EGYPTIAN STYLE KNOT AT BREAST

d. HER HEADDRESS IS SABAZIOS HAND

e. SHE HOLDS COBRA IN HER RIGHT HAND & INTERTWINED AROUND HER ARM

f. SHE CARRIES BASKET IN HER LEFT HAND

g. HER PRIESTESSES DRESSED AS THE GODDESS HERSELF DRESSED

h. AS THEY WALKED IN PROCESSION THEY SHOOK SISTRUM - VIBRATIONS REPRESENTED ALL WORLD'S VIBRATIONS, THOSE POWERFUL CREATIVE FORCES

i. IN HER OTHER HAND WAS CARRIED A MILK PITCHER OR A MODEL OF A BREAST TO REPRESENT HER NURTURING POWER

24. ONE OF BEST LITERARY REPRESENTATIONS OF ISIS

a. STORY OF SPIRITUAL CONVERSION OF LUCIUS

b. TOLD BY APULEIUS IN NOVEL THE GOLDEN ASS OR METAMORPHOSES IN 2ND C A.D.

c. WHEN MAN SERVES HIS LUSTS HE BECOMES A BRUTE ANIMAL LIKE LOWLIEST ASS

d. WHEN MAN TURNS TOWARD SPIRITUALITY

(1) REPRESENTED BY ISIS, HE ACHIEVES HIS TRULY HUMAN FORM

25. PART OF THE RITUAL IN WORSHIP OF ISIS

a. HER FOLLOWERS SANG TWICE A DAY IN HER HONOR

b. WENT TO HER TEMPLE TO HAVE THEMSELVES SPRINKLED WITH NILE WATER

c. THEY OBSERVED FASTS & PRESCRIPTIONS OF ABSTINENCE IMPOSED BY PRIESTS

(1) AMONG THEM CHASTITY FOR CERTAIN FESTIVALS

(a) LASTING FROM 10-30 DAYS

(2) TO TRANSGRESS CONSTITUTED SERIOUS SIN

(3) BUT FOR GOOD PRICE PRIESTS WOULD INTERCEDE WITH OSIRIS

(4) & SACRIFICE OF FAT GOOSE OR THIN CAKE WOULD APPEASE HIM

d. BUT SACRIFICE FOR ISIS DID NOT INCLUDE ANIMALS, BUT MILK, HONEY & HERBS

e. SACRIFICE FOLLOWED BY SACRED DANCE OR PERHAPS DRAMA

f. ONE OF HER SYMBOLS

(1) SISTRUM

(a) MUSICAL INSTRUMENT

(b) THESE 2 SISTRUMS ARE FROM ITALY IN FIELD MUSEUM AT CHICAGO

(c) WHILE SISTRUMS ORIGINATED IN EGYPTIAN CONNECTION WITH WORSHIP OF ISIS

(d) INTRODUCED INTO ROMAN WORLD DURING 1ST C AS ISIS WORSHIP SPREAD

(e) SHAPE OF SISTRUM REPRESENTED SACRED ENCLOSURE

(f) RATTLES REPRESENTED INTERPLAY OF 4 ELEMENTS

(g) WHICH ISIS WORSHIPERS BELIEVED INVOLVED IN WORLD

(h) RATTLING SOUNDS REPRESENTED INTERPLAY OF ALCHEMY & VIBRATION WHICH CONTROL ORGANIZATION OF WORLD

26. TIME & AGAIN DECREES PASSED BANNING HER WORSHIP

27. BUT IT ALWAYS RETURNED

28. WHEN AUGUSTUS VICTORIOUS OVER ANTONY & CLEOPATRA & CONQUERED EGYPT

29. AUGUSTUS FORBADE DEVOTEES OF ISIS WITHIN CITY

30. MEANWHILE TEMPLE OF ISIS BUILT ON CAMPUS MARTIUS

31. TIBERIUS HAD IT DEMOLISHED 19 A.D.

32. & HAD IMAGE OF GODDESS CAST INTO RIVER

33. & FORBADE PRACTICE OF CULT TO ROMAN CITIZENS

34. BUT NOTHING CAME OF THIS

35. PERSECUTION CEASED WITH CALIGULA

36. IMPERIAL FAMILY CHIEF AMONG THOSE FAITHFUL TO ISIS

37. BY AD 200 ISIS TEMPLES HAD SPREAD FROM ROME TO

a. FRANCE, HOLLAND & ENGLAND

38. ICONOGRAPHY OF HER WITH INFANT HORUS



39. IS CARRIED FORTH INTO CHRISTIANITY WITH VIRGIN MARY & JESUS



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