How marks are awarded in Higher Essays Introductions



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How marks are awarded in Higher Essays
Introductions

Up to 2 marks can be given in the introduction. To gain these marks you need to put the issue in context by describing the background. You then need to mention all the factors you will argue in a logical order that will show your line of argument.


Eg “The Labour Party gained power in a landslide election victory in 1945 and embarked on a series of reforms based on the Beveridge Report of 1942. They attacked the giants of Want, Disease, Ignorance, Squalor and Idleness. This Essay will detail what they did to attack each of giants, comment on what was successful and reflect on what could have been done better.”
Analysis
Analysis marks can be given at 2 levels. If analysis is given at the level of comments which relate to individual factors only a maximum of 4 marks will be awarded.

Up to 6 marks can be awarded if each comment analyses the factor in terms of the question. This means that instead of just breaking the terms of the Act down, you need to refer back to the question and other factors and pinpoint how your analysis of the factor helps answer the question asked or interacts with other factors.


Examples of straightforward analysis that can gain 4 marks.
Up to 6 marks can be awarded for analysis of the issues raised. To gain these marks in Assessment essays you need to show how the terms of Acts caused the success or failure of the policy rather than just list the terms of the Act.
Eg. The National Insurance Act (Part 2) stated that 7 cyclical industries would be helped. Although this helped some people, more could have been helped had the terms of the Act been more generous. This was a major failing in the Act.
To gain these marks in Reasons essays you need to show how the issue identified caused a change in the thinking of the Government rather than just note the issue.
Eg. The issue of National Security was shown up in the Boer War. This suggested that our ability to protect the Empire in time of war was at risk as we just won after 3 years. This was all blamed on the quality of the troops and showed that if we got involved in another war the quality of our soldiers would have to be better to help us win.
Analysis marks are given when you can show your knowledge and understanding to identify relevant factors or explore links between different parts of the issue, its relationship with the whole question or its relative importance to the issue compared to other issues.

Examples of stems to set up these arguments could be:-
Establishing contradiction or inconsistencies within factors.
While the Act was successful in feeding 11 million children by 1914, it was limited by the fact it was voluntary and more children could have been helped had it been compulsory.”
Establishing contradictions or inconsistencies between factors.
While women’s war work helped them to gain a sense of independence, towards the end of the war the need to leave jobs for returning soldiers suggested that this would be a temporary situation.”
Establishing similarities and consistencies between factors.
In much the same way as the insurance principle was used in the National Insurance Act (Part 1) for ill people, unemployed people were treated a similar way in Part 2 of the Act.
Establishing links between factors.
The realisation that poverty was a national problem led to the fear that if the Liberal Party did nothing, people would move their votes to the Labour Party.”
Exploring different interpretations of these factors.
Some people have considered the reasons for the Liberal Reforms to be mainly based on the Surveys of Booth and Rowntree who showed in a statistical fashion the extent of poverty in Britain while others believe it had more to do with fears of Britain losing its position as a world power.”
An assessment of how successful the Liberals were in solving the problems of poverty.
The National Insurance Act (Part 1) introduced an Insurance scheme to cover wage earners if they became ill. This was important because it sidestepped the hated Poor Law and made help a right rather than a privilege for the people covered.
Evaluation of the reasons why the Liberals introduced social reform of 1906 to 1914.
Rowntree’s investigation (was important) revealed unsuspected levels of poverty in York. If a small town like York had similar levels of poverty as London then poverty was a national problem.

OR

The report by Charles Booth in London provided statistical facts showing that poverty had causes beyond the control of the poor themselves. This was important as many politicians realised that a laissez-faire attitude was no longer acceptable.
An evaluation of the reasons why women won greater political equality by 1928.
The Suffragists used peaceful methods such as petitions, public meetings and sending letters to Members of Parliament. This was important as it led to MPs putting forward Bills to give women the vote.

OR

Militant actions such as the smashing of shop windows and the suicide of Emily Wilding Davison were important in keeping the cause in the headlines and demonstrating how determined women were to achieve the vote
Examples of analysis which link factors back to the question and/or explore the relationship/link between factors that can gain up to 6 marks.
An evaluation of the reasons why women won greater political equality by 1928.
Although the suffragists claimed that over half of the Members of Parliament had told them individually that they favoured votes for women, none of the private Bills of the 1880s and 1890s had succeeded in granting women the vote.

OR

Valuable though publicity was, some argued that the campaign of violence was actually damaging the cause by giving the impression that the militant suffragettes were irresponsible and so did not deserve the vote.
Evaluation of the reasons why the Liberals introduced social reform of 1906 to 1914.
The shock of the Boer War and the realisation that our trading position had been drifting for years led to a realisation that the quality of our workers needed to be improved.
Evaluation of the reasons why the Liberals introduced social reform of 1906 to 1914.
The surveys of Booth and Rowntree were important as they forced the government to realise the scale and extent of the problem. As these surveys were done in a statistical manner the government could not discredit them. The fears of losing votes to Labour and worry of losing their position as a world power were also a spur to increasing social reform.
Examples of paragraphs using evidence in context.
To what extent did the Liberal Reforms of 1906 to 1914 make a significant improvement to the lives of the British people?
The Liberal government tried to improve the lives of the elderly by introducing old age pensions in 1908. The Old Age Pensions Act gave a pension of 5 shillings a week to single people over 70 and 7s 6d to married couples. (Knowledge used to support a factor) The Old Age Pensions Act was important as it helped many poor people who before would have had to work until they died, or who would have had to rely on the support of their families. (Straight forward analysis – 4)

However many elderly people were excluded from claiming pensions because they did not meet the strict qualification rules. In addition the old age pensions only covered people over 70 which meant that many old people got nothing at all. Therefore this (evidence) shows that the Liberals did not significantly improve the lives of the elderly in Britain. (Evaluation of an individual factor)
The Liberal government tried to improve the lives of the elderly by introducing old age pensions in 1908. The Old Age Pensions Act gave a pension of 5 shillings a week to single people over 70 and 7s 6d to married couples. (Knowledge used to support a factor) While the pensions provided by the Liberal Government were below what Rowntree considered to be the minimum necessary for someone to remain above the “poverty line”, the Old Age Pensions Act helped many poor people who before would have had to work until they died, or would have had to rely on the support of their families. (analysis - example of contradiction or inconsistencies within factors – Analysis 6)

However many elderly people were excluded from claiming pensions because they did not meet the strict qualification rules. In addition the old age pensions only covered people over 70 which meant that many old people got nothing at all. Therefore this (evidence) shows that the Liberals did not significantly improve the lives of the elderly in Britain. (Evaluation of an individual factor)
Evaluation.
There are up to 4 marks available for evaluations making a judgement based on evidence. These marks are awarded for developing a line of argument which makes a judgement on the issue and explains the basis on which the judgement was based. The argument should be presented in a balanced way making evaluative comments which make judgements on individual factors and can use counter arguments or alternative interpretations to build a case.

Evaluation involves making a judgement based on criteria.


Evaluation

4

0

0 marks


No evidence

of an overall judgement

being made


1 mark for an isolated evaluative comment on an individual factor that recognises the topic of the question

2 marks for making isolated evaluative comments on different

factors that recognise the topic of the question



3 marks for connecting

evaluative comments to build a line of argument that recognises the issue



4 marks for connecting evaluative comments to build a line of argument focused on the terms of the question

Evaluation involves


  • Evaluative comments (judgements) showing how well the factors address the question or issue.

  • Developing a line of argument with a judgement on the issue along with reasons.

  • Counter arguments and alternative interpretations to help build the line of argument.

Up to 2 marks can be given for comments on individual factors.

Up to 3 or 4 marks can be given if the judgements are linked to create a coherent line of argument.
Examples of ways to demonstrate evaluation
The extent the factor is supported by evidence.
The evidence that school meals increased by 11 million in 8 years shows that the Provision of Meals Act had a significant effect on the health of the affected children.”
The relevant importance of factors.
The fact that the NUWSS membership increased massively between 1912 and 1914 while the WSPU membership decreased shows that many people who still agreed with the idea of women’s suffrage were unimpressed with the violent tactics of the latter group.”
Due to the reports of Booth and Rowntree there was genuine recognition that social improvement was necessary. However, probably more significant was the need for a fit working class for economic and military reasons.
Counter-arguments including possible alternative interpretations.
One factor in favour of the WSPU was that they broke the public silence about the issue of women’s votes, however, as most of the publicity was negative this did not really help their case.”
While some historians argue that the government could not refuse to grant voting rights to women because they had contributed so much to the war effort, other historians believe the war may in fact have delayed the vote as womenwere already winning new rights before 1914.
The overall impact or significance of the factors when taken together.
While each of these factors individually may have had little effect on its own, when they are taken together they became extremely important.”

The importance of factors in relation to the context.


Given the severity of the winter of 1948, the reforms of the Labour Government between 1945 and 1951 were more successful than they first appeared.”
Despite lacking experience of government and despite facing serious economic problems in the immediate post war years the Labour government was successful in introducing a comprehensive system of social security.
Examples of paragraphs with evaluation in context.
The Labour Government of 1945 – 51 met the needs of the people “from the cradle to the grave”. How valid is this view?
In order to meet the peoples’ health needs “from the cradle to the grave”, the Labour Government introduced the National Health Service which entitled everybody to prescriptions, glasses, dental care and access to a range of welfare services. (knowledge used to support a factor) However the historian Correlli Barnett has suggested that, despite its popularity, the NHS was not a success. Barnett believes that the huge cost of the NHS would have been better spent on modernising British industry. The wealth created could then have financed the NHS and paid for even more welfare reforms. (analysis – example of different interpretations of a factor Analysis 6)

As a consequence of the enormous expense of the NHS, there were less funds available to support the needs of other people in other areas such as housing. (analysis of relationship between factors/ link to the question – taking comment towards analysis 6)

However, taking into account the universal access and the comprehensive provisions and taking into account the post war hardships, in the area of health, the Labour Government did meet the needs of the people “from the cradle to the grave”. (evaluation of an individual factor which recognises the question)
Emmeline Pankhurst established the Suffragettes (WSPU), in 1903 with the motto “Deeds not words”. The militant group were determined to gain media attention for their campaign, using methods such as chaining them to railings and even arson attacks on housing on the houses of members of the government. (Knowledge) This was important because it gained publicity for the WSPU. Despite breaking the law, the newspapers took notice and the Suffragettes had achieved their first objective – publicity.

Even after being arrested Suffragettes would go on hunger strike in prison as a form of protest. However, the publicity was not always positive and it made it easier for women to be branded as as unfit for the vote and therefore politicians used this argument as an example of how women could not be trusted with the vote before 1918. (analysis 6) Historical opinion suggests that the Suffragette cause pushed the Liberal Government, at the time, to discuss women’s right to vote and without them it would not have been considered. Therefore it is clear the Suffragettes were very important in encouraging the right to vote. Although it should be remembered they did little to change government opinion. Despite the fact the different suffrage organisations (WSPU/NUWSS) were looking to gain the same result; votes for women, their differing methods and motives diluted their impact on gaining the vote. (evaluation)
Conclusions
Up to 2 marks can be awarded for answers that provide an overall relative judgement of the factors and evidence argued in the essay.
Eg. “Although much was done by Labour to meet the needs of the British people, they were not always successful. However what was done in such a short space of time, allowing for the problems they faced, their achievement was amazing and, if not fully successful, set up the foundations of the welfare system which now meets the needs of most British people.”
Use of Evidence
Up to 6 marks can be awarded for evidence which is detailed and which is used to support an argument. Marks cannot be given for evidence which does not back up an argument.

To gain these marks the evidence must be relevant to the issue in question, developed by providing additional detail and used to respond to the demands of the question (i.e. explain, analyse etc.)


General information on how to think about your paragraphs.
Take one aspect of the issue.

  • Explain why this was an important aspect of the issue.

  • What evidence do you have that this was an important aspect?

  • Why might some people think this was not such an important aspect?

  • How strongly does the evidence support this aspect as being important?

  • How convincing do you think the argument is for this aspect as being important?


Now do the same for each of the other aspects of the issue in turn.


How do these different aspects relate to each other?

Think about:



  • Linking aspects - does one aspect arise because of another role? Does one aspect influence another?

  • Did one aspect of the issue cause problems in a different aspect?

  • How have different people interpreted these aspects?

  • What order of importance would you place these aspects in?

  • Why do you think they should be in this order?


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