|HOW FAR WAS THE EFFECTIVENSS OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS IN THE 1960S LIMTIED BY INTERNAL DIVISION?
The effectiveness of the civil rights campaign was limited by a number of different things: Malcolm X’s use of violence, the idea of black power, and the internal divisions- this being the most limiting as it sparked off other ideas. But Malcolm X’s use of violence and the idea of black power hindered the effectiveness of the civil rights movement and limited it in other ways.
Internal divisions were limiting the effectiveness of the civil rights movement because they made it look bad, as in the late 1960 at a conference over the campaign when James Meredith was shot at the end, Carmichael of SNCC said that he no longer wanted to work with the NAACP as they were working with the white lawyers and politicians to get equality- when in fact they were the ones that controlled the violence that came against the blacks. This ended with civil rights groups exchanging harsh words and disagreeing over many things- and some even walked out. This then gave the movement a bad name and limited its effectiveness because both whites and blacks didn’t know which campaigns to go to and SNCC expelled all of its white members. This lost white support for the movement- which was key- and limited its effectiveness as it knocked the confidence of many blacks- causing people like Malcolm X and the Black Panthers to have their own strategies within the movement. The numbers turning up to demonstrations were straining, failing to get the desegregation that they wanted at the speed they wanted.
Malcolm X wanted to get desegregation to happen quicker so he decided blacks should use violence. He quickly introduced this idea of violence to the black community and believed that it was about time blacks started to stand up for themselves instead of whites constantly using violence against them. This limited the effectiveness of the civil rights movement in the 1960’s because it meant that white support for the movement dropped dramatically as they didn’t like the way that blacks were using violence and suddenly taking it upon themselves to act as a hierarchy in order to get what they wanted. This again made the movement look bad, and it moderately limited the effectiveness of the civil rights movement, but not as much as the disagreeing groups because this was not as widely broadcast, but it still alienated whites- making them seem separate.
The use of Black Power meant that blacks now wanted separatism instead of integration. The Black Panthers wanted blacks to gain control of the black community and wanted blacks to be in control of their own economies, education and politics- the whole idea of now wanting separatism instead of integration. This limited the effectiveness of the civil rights movement in the 1960s because blacks were now going against wanting desegregation and wanting separatism, meaning that all of the laws that some whites had helped them to pass in the past for desegregation were worthless- and this lost the vital support of the whites- and even the legal system. The loss of the legal system meant that they couldn’t pass any more laws without co-operating with the whites, and this limited the effectiveness of the movement because to be able to gain what they wanted and for everyone to abide by it, it had to be legal- and put through a court. This is more important than the use of violence in terms of how limiting it was towards the effectiveness of the civil rights movement because it meant that blacks had totally alienated the whites and there was a complete breakdown in communication, but the internal communications had sparked this and had a wider effect so had more impact in limiting the effectiveness of the civil rights movement.
So overall it can easily be seen that there are several reasons for the limiting effectiveness of the civil rights movement in the 1960’s such as Malcolm X’s use of violence, Black powers want of separatism and internal divisions. But Internal Divisions sparked off all of these events, and therefore is most important factor in explaining who limited the effectiveness of the civil rights movement in the 1960’s.