How does this relate to your topic table for each topic. Does this relate to my topic? Yes no how?



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Midterm Review Packet- Period 1

Directions: As your classmates are going through each topic, answer the questions they have written for you (if applicable) and fill out the How does this relate to your topic table for EACH topic.

Does this relate to my topic? YES NO

HOW? (You must answer how whether or not you think that this topic is related to yours.)

Write this IN YOUR NOTEBOOK.

**Remember what we established for proper audience etiquette!

Geography- Aishzjae

Water Ways

Harbors:



  • Became ports for ships

  • Good for imports and exports

  • Sped up commerce

Rivers

  • Mode of transportation

  • good for trading

  • connected to ports

Mountains

  • biggest barrier for settlers

  • where settler territory ended

  • where indian territory began

  • they extend from Maine to Alabama

Great Plains

  • Flat,grassy areas of land

  • Good soil/climate

  • southern plains used for cotton

  • northern plains were used for agriculture (farming, i.e corn, beans etc)

Mini Quiz- Jordi

Early Interactions with Native Americans- Toyin

Once upon a time in a big piece of land known as present day America, there  were a group of people known as native Americans. They lived peacefully for years in their tribes untroubled  by other people in the world. They had their cultural beliefs in many gods,. They believed in a tribal government having no central ruler. Monogamy did not matter.

 Suddenly,colonials started inhabiting their land. They came on many ships. These colonials settled in places like Virginia. Jamestown it was called. The natives looked at these new pale faced settlers and  welcomed them by sinking one of the ships. This was probably because of what happened when the spaniards previously visited the natives. In time the natives warmed up to the settlers by offering them food. Chief Powhatan a well known native chief was one of the natives who believed in showing the colonials hospitality. He even insisted on showing them how to plant food. Well as the old saying goes you can lead an old horse to water but you can’t let it drink from it. The natives taught the colonists how to farm but the colonists did not keep up with the farming themselves.  The colonials were more focused on a way to get rich quick than finding their own food, so they grew very dependent on the natives for food. One colonial , captain John Smith believed that the natives should be treated the same way the spaniards treated them by making the natives work as slaves.They did this by increasing their demands in food causing the natives to grow tired of them.

 Powhatan  noticed that the colonials did not offer him and his tribe members the same  hospitality he offered them, he also also that  no Colonial men married any native women. The natives agreed with Powhatan and so the natives began to terrorize( as they would call it) the colonials by burning their supply’s. The colonials retaliated by burning the natives crops. In addition to that they kidnapped Powhatan’s  favorite daughter Pocahontas( before you play colors of the wind) this was a serious offence. In the end however a colonial named John Rolf married her so this pairing doused the flames between the natives and colonials. This did not last that long because shortly after marriage Pocahontas died and then shortly after that Powhatan died as well. After their deaths the hostilities between the colonials and natives increased once more. In the end the people of Jamestown mostly starved to death.

 Most Europeans thought they could convert indians into christians,this was also another source of anger between the colonists and indians.

Colonial Period- Alecia and Dejon

Independence Movement/ Revolutionary War- Joanmaris and Cynerah

Articles of Confederation- Lorena

Articles of Confederation


Basic Facts:

-adopted by Continental Congress on November 15,1777

-first attempt for a constitution

-ratification by all thirteen states on March 1, 1781

-created loose confederation of sovereign states and a  weak central government

-more power to state governments

-eventually led to the Constitutional Convention in 1787

-present U.S Constitution replaced it on March 4, 1789


Important Milestones:

-June 11, 1776: Continental Congress resolved “that a committee be appointed to prepare and digest the form of a confederation to be entered  into between the colonies.”

-June 12,1776: The committee members were appointed “to prepare and digest the form of a confederation to be entered into between these colonies.”

-July 12, 1776: The first draft was presented to the Continental Congress

-November 15, 1777: Was adopted by Continental Congress

-November 17, 1777: Articles of Confederation were submitted to the states with a request for immediate action

-June 26, 1778: Articles were ordered to be engrossed (having all one’s attention or interest absorbed by someone or something)

-June 27, 1778: First engrossed copy was found to be incorrect, a second copy was ordered

-July 9, 1778: Second engrossed copy of Articles was signed and ratified by delegates from eight states(New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and South Carolina)

-July 21, 1778: North Carolina delegates signed the ratification of the Articles

-July 24, 1778: Georgia delegates signed ratification

-November 26, 1778: New Jersey delegates sign ratification

-May 5, 1779: Delaware delegates sign ratification

-March 1, 1781: Maryland delegates sign ratification, Articles finally ratified by all thirteen states

-February 21, 1787: Congress approved a plan to hold a convention in Philadelphia to revise Articles of Confederation
More Info:

-Stemmed from wartime urgency

-States distrusted central government because they didn’t want a monarchy

-It failed because the central government didn’t have enough power


Strengths and Accomplishments:

  • Government signed a treaty alliance with France in 1778

  • Government successfully waged a war for Independence against the British

  • Negotiated an end to the  American Revolution in the Treaty of Paris signed in 1783

  • Granted free inhabitants of each state “all the privileges and immunities of free citizens in the several states”

  • Provided for eventual admission of Canada into Confederation

  • Passed Northwest ordinance of 1787, allowed Northwest territories to organize their own governments. Allowed eventually the admission to the Union of no more than 5 states and no fewer than 3, “ordinance banned slavery from region”

  • Established departments of foreign affairs, war, marine, and treasury


Weaknesses:

  • Each state developed its own currency

  • Congress was unable to regulate interstate and foreign commerce

  • Congress was unable to impose taxes

  • No national court system was established to protect the rights of the U.S citizens

  • No executive branch was established to enforce laws

  • Amendments could be added only with the approval of all 13 states

  • Approval of 9/13 states was required to pass a law in Congress

  • One vote was allotted for each state, despite the size of its population

  • It was just a “firm league of friendship”

Constitutional Convention- Ella

Constitutional Convention

Occured May 15, 1776 in Philadelphia at the Independance Hall

This meeting was between the second constitutional congress, they met in order to revise the Articles of Confederation which

Constitution vs. Articles of Confederation- Hailey, Jessy, Kayla

Bill of Rights







1st Amendment

Guarantees freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly & petition

2nd Amendment

Guarantees the right to bear arms

3rd Amendment

Restricts the manner in which the federal government may house troops in the homes of citizens

4th Amendment

Protects individuals against unreasonable searches and seizures

5th Amendment

Provides that a person must be accused by a grand jury before before being tried for a serious federal crime; protects individuals against self-incrimination against and being tried twice for the same crime; prohibits the government from taking private property for public use without paying a fair price for it

6th Amendment

States that any person has  the right to a speedy trial and has a right to know about criminal charges and confront witnesses.

7th Amendment

Guarantees the right to a jury trial in civil cases tried in federal courts.

8th Amendment

The Eighth Amendment forbids the imposition of excessive bail or fines, though it leaves the term excessive open to interpretation.

9th Amendment

States that people have rights beyond stated in the Constitution

10th Amendment

The Tenth Amendment states that the Articles of Confederation was not written to take power away from the constitution or Federal Government but to reinforce separation of power and persevere the power of office.



  • Important factors were Federalists’ offering to support several amendments to the constitution

  • American believed that a constitution should include a clear declaration of the rights of the people

  • Most state constitutions included such declarations : Virginia Declaration of Rights, written by George Mason.

  • Protects civil liberties and government abuse

  • Major Rights were freedom of speech, protection from unreasonable search and seizure, restriction for troops to enter homes of citizens

The Constitutional Convention




  • A historic meeting in which only four months Philadelphia convention made a document that has governed the united states for more than 200 years

  • Document known as the united states constitution

  • The constitutional convention was made because of the unsuccessful meeting in Annapolis, Maryland in the 1786

  • This meeting was to resolve the problems of The Articles of Confederation

  • The constitutional convention drew 55 delegates

  • Rhode Island chose not to attend

  • First act to elect George Washington as president in 1787, in which everyone had to agree

  • Major division was between those who wanted to amend, or revise,The Articles of confederation

  • Was to make a stronger national government, how ever not everyone agreed  to start from scratch

  • Philadelphia convention had been empowered only to amend the Articles

Bill of Rights


  • Protects civil liberties and government abuse

  • Major Rights were freedom of speech, protection from unreasonable search and seizure, restriction for troops to enter homes of citizens




1st Amendment

Guarantees freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly & petition

2nd Amendment

Guarantees the right to bear arms

3rd Amendment

Restricts the manner in which the federal government may house troops in the homes of citizens

4th Amendment

Protects individuals against unreasonable searches and seizures

5th Amendment

Provides that a person must be accused by a grand jury before before being tried for a serious federal crime; protects individuals against self-incrimination against and being tried twice for the same crime; prohibits the government from taking private property for public use without paying a fair price for it

6th Amendment

States that any person has  the right to a speedy trial and has a right to know about criminal charges and confront witnesses.

7th Amendment

Guarantees the right to a jury trial in civil cases tried in federal courts.

8th Amendment

The Eighth Amendment forbids the imposition of excessive bail or fines, though it leaves the term excessive open to interpretation.

9th Amendment

States that people have rights beyond stated in the Constitution

10th Amendment

The Tenth Amendment states that the Articles of Confederation was not written to take power away from the constitution or Federal Government but to reinforce separation of power and persevere the power of office.



  • Important factors were Federalists’ offering to support several amendments to the constitution

  • American believed that a constitution should include a clear declaration of the rights of the people

  • Most state constitutions included such declarations : Virginia Declaration of Rights, written by George Mason.

  • Protects civil liberties and government abuse

  • Major Rights were freedom of speech, protection from unreasonable search and seizure, restriction for troops to enter homes of citizens

Constitution VS. Articles of Confederation

(1776-1800)



Kayla Reyes
Constitution: Plan of government that describes the different parts of the government and their duties and powers.


  • Most of these constitutions were established during the Revolution, well before the U.S adopted the federal Constitution.

  • The state of Pennsylvania introduced bold new ideas about the government. Written in 1776, the Pennsylvania Constitution gave voting rights to all white men 21 years of age or older who paid taxes.

  • Pennsylvania became the first to open the voting process o ordinary people not just wealthy gentlemen.


Articles of Confederation: Plan the established, in 1781, a limited national government in the US, later replaced by the Constitution of the US.


  • The national government created by the Articles had only one branch: a legislature, or Congress, made up of delegates from the states.

  • Today, the Congress is one of the three separate branches of America.

The Legislative Branch: (Or Congress) Is the part of the government that is responsible making laws.

Executive Branch: Headed by the President, executes, or puts into action, the laws passed by the congress.

Judicial Branch: Made up of the courts and judges who interpret and apply the laws in cases brought before them.

Comparisions
                                                    Constitution                   Articles of Confederation

Levying Taxes

Congress could request states to pay taxes

Congress has right to levy taxes on individuals

Federal Court

No system of federal courts

Court system created to deal with issues between citizens, states

Regulation of Trade

No provision to regulate interstate trade

Congress has right to regulate trade between states

Executive

No executive with power. President of U.S merely presided over congress

Executive branch headed by President who chooses Cabinet and has checks on power of judiciary and legislature

Amending Document

13/13 needed to amend documents

2/3 of both houses of Congress plus 3/4 of state legislatures or national convention

Representation of states

Each state received one vote, regardless of size

Upper house (Senate) with 2 votes; lowerhouse (House of Representatives) based on population

Raising an army

Congress could not draft troops, dependent on states to contribute forces

Congress can raise an army to deal with military situations

Interstate commerce

No control of trade between states

Interstate commerce controlled by Congress

Disputes between states

Complicated system of arbitration

Federal court system to handle disputes

Sovereignty

Sovereignty resides in states

Constitution the supreme law of the land

Passing laws

9/13 needed to approve legislation

50%+1 of both houses plus signature of President

Constitution: Basic Principles- Jordi, Orffy, and Ammanie

George Washington-Luis



  • First president of the US.

  • Was commander of the continential Army

  • President of the constitutional convention.

  • Was president from april 30, 1789- march 4, 1797

  • Was general of the continential Army from june 15, 1775- december 23, 1783

  • He was a slave owner himself  for 56 years starting from the age of 6.

  • Freed all his slaves after the death of his wife.

  • His view of slavery changed over time.

  • Was a Lieutenant during the french and  indian war.

  • During the French-Indian War he became aide-de-camp to general  Edward Braddock.

  • Nickname “Father of Our Country”

  • Born in February 22, 1732

  • Died around 10:00-11:00 at night on december 14, 1799

  • Washington did not attend college

  • Left school at age 15

  • Started school at age 6

  • Had an affinity for math

  • He started his career as a surveyor for Culpepper county in Virginia at age 17.

  • Married at age 26 to Martha  Dandridge Custis.

  • He was 6’2 and 200 lbs

  • Spend 3 years in this job before joining the military.

  • Favorite food were cream peanut soup, mashed potatoes with coconuts, and string beans with mushrooms

  • Had an intrest in agriculture

  • Fighting to defend NY was no easy task for Washington.

Founding Fathers- Sergio

Founding fathers are the signers of the declaration of independence .The declaration of indepedence was not approved until july 4,1776 which is today celebrated as independence day.The declaration of indepence had a committee instaed of indivuals as it could of been writtened baisely .Thr document did much more than declare a nations indepence it made the guiding principles that america government and society to live and follow by.Singers are the ones who founded the nation major key figures   George Washington,John Adams ,John Jay,James Madison,Alexander Hamilition,Thomas Jefferson and Bejamin Franklin .Framers where not apart in the founding of the nation but were the ones who created the system,ideas. Fun fact Bejamin Franklin was both a founding father (singer) and a framer as well.

Alexander Hamilton- Alan



Alexander Hamilton
Born: January 11, 1757, Charlestown, Saint Kitts and Nevis

Died: July 12, 1804, New York City, NY

In office: September 11, 1789 – January 31, 1795

Political Party: Federalist

  • One of the founding fathers

  • One of the most influential and interpreters and promoters of the U.S. Constitution,

  • Founder of the nation's financial system

  • Founder of the first American Political Party

  • 1st United States Secretary of the Treasury

  • https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/s865dnalbrrulfcobykisbmon8qnlfbfdfqcs-cc4uyehhcyt2iiapnsiwhztykn2gcwy9ta70mbndcxwgyw0baw-bg7srbkf2p95xbua9xltp9wmjwkshmwuffxekp4ewSignature

  • he arrived in the colonies as a teenager

  • member of the Continental Congress

  • an author of the Federalist Papers

  • helped found the first national bank, the U.S. Mint and a tax collection bureau that would later become the U.S. Coast Guard.

  • Hamilton was shot and killed in one of history’s most infamous duels by one of his fiercest rivals, the then Vice President Aaron Burr, in July 1804.

First Bank of the United States- Amber

After the Revolutionary war (September 3rd 1783) America had large amounts of debt to pay off.

  • $10 million dollars were owed to France, Spain, and the Netherlands.

  • This was difficult because they each had a different economic currency.

The first National Bank of the United States

  • The National bank was granted for a twenty years (20) by the United states Congress on February 25, 1791.

Alexander Hamilton (1757-1804)

  • Alexander was a federalist party

  • First secretary of the Treasury.

  • He believed the national bank was necessary to improve and stabilize the nation credit.

Complications

Main three Goals

  • Pay off all war debts

  • Raise money for the new government

  • Establish a national bank and create common currency.

Extra Information

  • George washington was hesitant to sign the “Bank Bill” into law. (Making the bank constitutional)

  • On February 25th, 1791 Washington was convince the constitution authorized measure thus him signing the “Bank Bill” into law.

Results

  • After Alexander Hamilton left office (1795) the new secretary of the treasury Oliver Wolcott, Jr stated to congress more money was needed because of gov. finances.

  • Two possible ways to achieve this was…

    • selling gov. shared stocks with the bank

    • Raising taxes.




  • The first choice was quickly agreed by congress.

  • Hamilton tried to organize opposition measure which was unsuccessful.




  • Bank charter was expired in 1811.




  • Thus followed the Bank of North America and it succeeded by the Second Bank of the United States.

Thomas Jefferson- Masalene

Louisiana Purchase- Ariel



  • Westward Expansion

  • French territory that included New Orleans

  • Why is New Orleans important? It provides a port entrance to the United States

  • US Now has access to Mississippi River

  • Napoleon Bonaparte

  • Sell all of French claims known as Louisiana

  • Monroe And Livingston offered Napoleon $15 million for the Louisiana purchase

  • Hoped congress and the president would support them

  • Jefferson was troubled because Constitution did not mention purchase of foreign lands

  • Wary of spending large amounts of public money

  • Jefferson approves sale

  • Purchase increased National debt and size of the U.S.

  • Had enormous impact on U.S. history

Nationalism/Sectionalism- Raven and Jane

Sectionalism- Loyalty to a particular region

Difference Between:

~The North were fortunate primarily industrial in nature, factories developed.

~The South was primarily based upon plantations and large family farms.

Reasons for Sectional Conflict:

~Slavery was a major cause of sectionalism due to the fact that the Northerners found it to be an abomination or didn’t care about it as much.

~The South relied on slavery so much they left all slaves in charge of labor and cleanliness of the house, economic success also had a part of it.

~Unions: The workers formed to protect their interests in pay, working conditions, and working hours.

~Native-born Protestant Americans who were alarmed by the influx of immigrants and distrusted the Roman Catholicism, practiced by the Irish and many of the Germans.

Nativism (Anti-Immigrants): The policy of protecting the interest of the native-born.

~The Southerners crops were sold to cotton mills in England, and the ships returned with cheap manufactured goods produced in Europe. By the early 1800s, Northern factories were producing many of those same goods, and the Northern politicians were able to pass heavy taxes on imported goods from Europe so that Southerners would have to buy goods from the North.

~Southerners believed that individual states had the right to "nullify", or overturn, any law the Federal government passed.

~They also believed that individual states had the right to leave the United States and form their own independent country.

~South Carolina was the first state to secede from the United States, wanting theirr own independence and to avoid unfair tariffs.

~Most people in the North believed that the concepts of "nullification" and "states' rights" would make the United States a weaker country and were against these ideas.



Nullify: Invalidate

King Cotton: Expression used by Southern authors before the Civil War to indicate the economic dominance of the Southern cotton industry, and that the North needed the South's cotton.

Andrew Jackson- Destiny

Was born March 16, 1767, Died June 8, 1845

Was the 7th President of the United States of America (1829-1837)

Was born into a un wealthy Scottish/Irish family

(1st US President to come from an un wealthy background)

"Man of the people"

Was a incredibly courageous and well respected man who often dueled to defend his honor.

Before becoming President he had a very important leadership role in the war of 1812

Was viewed as an American hero because of this.

Won territory of Florida from Spain in 1818.

Andrew Jackson Strengthened the federal (government) power

Enforced the Indian Removal act which was un constitutional

Showed that the president had such power to do so. Giving the president more respect.


Westward Expansion- Amadis

  • Gold Rush - The discovery of gold nuggets in the Sacramento Valley in early 1848 sparked the Gold Rush, arguably one of the most significant events to shape American history during the first half of the 19th century.

  • Homestead Act of 1862 - arms against the U.S. government (including freed slaves and women), was 21 years or older, or the head of a family signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on May 20, 1862. Anyone who had never taken u, could file an application to claim a federal land grant.

  • Pacific Railway Act - This act, passed on July 1, 1862, provided Federal subsidies in land and loans for the construction of a transcontinental railroad across the United States.

  • Manifest Destiny -the belief or doctrine, held chiefly in the middle and latter part of the 19th century, that it was the destiny of the U.S. to expand its territory over the whole of North America and to extend and enhance its political, social, and economic influences.  James K. Polk -  was the 11th President of the United States

  • Missouri Compromise of 1850 -  was passed in 1820 between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States Congress, involving primarily the regulation of slavery in the western territories.

U.S. Civil War- Spring

Abraham Lincoln/ Emancipation Proclamation- Greisy

Abraham Lincoln

- 16th president of the united states

- He served from march of 1861 until his assassination in april 15, 1865.

- One his many accomplishments during his presidency was issuing the Emancipation Proclamation.




  • The Emancipation Proclamation , It was a document with limits but influence a historic change in the lives of the slaves  during the Civil War ( 1861-1865)

  • This document led to a major turning point in the Civil War in that it changed the aim of the war from preserving the Union to being a fight for human freedom.

  • This was major step on the path to the abolition of slavery.

  • Lincoln goal was to proclaim all slaves in Confederate territory to be forever free

  • Emancipation was issued by current president Abraham Lincoln , September 22 , 1862 but took effect in January 1 , 1863. due to the fact President Lincoln advisors at first did not agree with his proposals but with the union victory of battle ofantietam the Emancipation was taken in effect.

  • Although the emancipation took a great effect in the lives of slaves this  document only applied in the states designated as being in rebellion, not to the slaveholding border states of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri or to areas of the Confederacy that had already come under Union control. -

  • Results

  • The Emancipation Proclamation led the way to total abolition of slavery in the United States.

  • This freed only the slaves in Southern states and territories still in rebellion against the United States government.

Allowed for the enrollment of freed slaves into the United States military.

Supreme Court Refresher- Noel



Major Supreme Court Cases
Marbury v Madison (1803) was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the court formed the basis for the exercise of judicial review in the United States under Article III of the constitution (which establishes the judicial branch of the federal government. The judicial branch compromises the Supreme Court of the United States and lower cases created by Congress.

The Issue During Thomas Jefferson’s presidency he appointed Marbury as Justice of Peace of in the district of Columbia. Although he never officially signed it, soon after when the next president (James Madison) came under power, he felt as if Marbury should not be signed as Justice of peace commissioner. Marbury then turned to the Supreme Court for Judicial review on his right to commission The district of Columbia.

The Verdict The court made a unanimous decision (4-0) That although Marbury had the right to be commissioner, they could not force Madison to appoint him this position.
Worchester v Georgia (1832) was a case in which the United States court vacated the conviction of Samuel Worchester and held that the Georgia criminal statute that prohibited Non-Native Americans from being present on Native American lands without a license from the state was unconstitutional.


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