How did women support the Patriot ideas on the homefront?



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How did women support the Patriot ideas on the homefront?
Authors: Barbara Baker, Drew DiMaggio

Grade Level: 5


Materials:

  • Introduction Quote from “Revolutionary Mothers: Women in the struggle for America’s independence” p13 text and Discussion Questions (powerpoint or print out)

  • Source A: Abigail Adams Event Description –

Letter from Abigail Adams to John Adams, 30 - 31 July 1777 [electronic edition]. Adams Family Papers: An Electronic Archive. Massachusetts Historical Society. http://www.masshist.org/digitaladams/

  • Source B: Hannah Griffits Poem

“The Female Patriots” Published Anonymously in the Pennsylvania Chronicle December 25, 1769. Retrieved from the National Humanities Center June 2013 at: http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/makingrev/crisis/text4/townshendactsresponse1767.pdf

  • Discussion Cards to go with Sources

  • Document Analysis Graphic Organizer

  • Writing Prompt Rubric


HCPSS Curriculum Connections

This task would be completed during the 5th grade unit, The American Revolution.


Curriculum Objective(s):

The student will be able to…



  • identify what actions women participated in that helped support the events leading up to the American Revolution.

  • Identify the costs, including opportunity costs, and benefits of colonial decisions such as whether or not to buy products on which British taxes were imposed. .

CCSS Writing Standards addressed:

  • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.



Historical Thinking Skills Assessed:

  • Contextualization


Background for the Teacher

After the Seven Years War between Britain and France the British were in debt and needed the help from the colonists to pay the debt they had fighting this war on their ground. The war ended in 1763 with the Treaty of Paris and Britain victorious. Through the Treaty of Paris, Britain claimed all French land east of the Mississippi River.

The resulting law passed by Britain in 1763 was the Proclamation of 1763, which prevented colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains to protect them from angry Native Americans. This angered many of the colonists who had been promised western lands as payment for service in the French and Indian War.
Defending Britain’s newly acquired land (colonies) was three times more expensive than before the war. Therefore, economic policy toward the colonists changed. Policies that were enacted during this time period were frustrating to colonists resulting in many different ways to rebel.

The polices that were put in place angering colonist were the Sugar Act of 1764, Stamp Act of 1765, Townshend and Intolerable Acts.


These all increased the tension in the relationship between the colonies and Britain, causing resistance and rebellion. Women soon became a part of this rebellion behind the scenes. In order to support this cause for rebellion against the British women became even more self-sufficient for their families. They began making their families clothes learning to weave and sew became very important to the woman as they made sure to not purchase any products for their homes that would support the British. They were also known to their own soaps. Women began creating large groups of supporters and reached out to other women by reaching out through newspapers. One famous gathering of women who did this was in Edenton, North Carolina. It was there where fifty-one women signed an agreement to boycott tea and other English products and sent their agreement to British newspapers to show their rebellion.
Women also played a role in war at times. Women like Debra Sampson are famous for disguising themselves as men in order to help fight in the war. Other women, followed the army camp to cook and take after the men because they had nowhere else to go.
In Hannah Griffits poem, they refer to a man named George Grenville. George Grenville was a British Whig statesman who rose to the position of Prime Minister of Great Britain. Grenville was born into an influential political family and first entered Parliament in 1741. He is best known for his policy, the Stamp Act, a common tax in Great Britain onto the colonies in America, which provoked widespread opposition in Britain's American colonies and was later repealed.
Context Setting -- The Hook

  • Activate Prior Knowledge- Begin the task by asking students to share what they remember about the events leading up to the American Revolutionary War? What were some of the events that angered the Colonists after the Seven Year’s War? What were some of the events that angered the British government after the Seven Year’s War?

  • Think-Pair-Share about who was responsible for rebelling against the British and how did they rebel? (students will focus on the Boston Tea Party, Tarring and Fathering) Teacher Note- Students have not heard the woman’s perspective prior to this activity, therefore helping them remember about the Acts that Britain had in place for the colonists is important to help

  • Read Aloud Quote from Revolutionary Mothers Text and answer Discussion Questions as a class


Document Analysis

  1. Explain to students that they will be reading two documents that also have a translated version that has been adapted from their original form to make it easier for students to understand. Preview the documents, focusing on the difficult vocabulary terms.

  2. In groups of 3 -4 students, have each student read one of the two different sources. After reading, direct students to answer the discussion questions attached with the source to help them summarize the source they just read.

  3. After they have had the opportunity to discuss and summarize the source, with their group (or individually) complete the Document Analysis Chart for their source.

  4. Have students switch to the other source in their groups and repeat steps 2 and 3 in their groups.


Corroborating Evidence and Constructing Interpretations -- Close Analysis

  • Direct the students to review their Document Analysis Graphic Organizer to compare and contrast the two approaches the women took to protest at this time. Students should be given time to complete a group venn diagram that compares the two sources and decide which was the more effective way of protesting.

  • It might be helpful for the teacher to do a read aloud/think aloud of the sourcing information at the bottom of each document.


Thoughtful Application- What do you think is the most effective way a woman could support the Patriot cause on the homefront?

Lead a class discussion explaining to students that these two sources demonstrate two very different ways of protesting against merchants. Abigail Adams describes a violent approach that some women participated in while “The Female Patriots” asks women to protest in a non-violent manner.


To assess their understanding, students are being asked to choose which act of protest they believe is more effective that they would support and why.

* In order to help students develop their opinion and support, students should be given the opportunity to partner up in small groups to discuss their ideas of the pros and cons of both ways to protest merchants. (There is an example of a brainstorming sheet that can be provided to help students who struggle with getting their ideas across in the Materials list)While they discuss together the essential question should be on the board for them: What role the women played on the homefront to support the Patriot cause.



    • Using the writing rubric- Explain that at this time, each student is responsible for an opinion writing to explain what they believe was the most effective way a woman could support the Patriot Cause on the homefront by choosing from the following:

      • Create a letter from the perspective of a woman on the homefront to a friend in another area of the colonies explaining how you believe you should protest merchants and why she should do the same

      • Create a newspaper article that would have been published anonymously persuading other women to make the same choice as you have with protesting merchants on the homefront




Source A: Abigail Adams Event Description







An eminent, wealth, stingy merchant (also a bachelor) had a hogshead of coffee in his store, which he refused to sell ... under six shillings per Pound. A number of Females, some say a hundred, some say more, assembled with a cart and trunks, marched down to the Whare House and demanded the keys which he refused to deliver. Upon which one of them seizd him by his Neck and tossed him into the cart. Upon his finding no quarter, he delivered the keys when they tipped up the car and discharged him; then opened the Warhouse, hoisted out the Coffee themselves, put it into the trunks and drove off… A large concourse of men stood amazed silent Spectators.
Letter from Abigail Adams to John Adams, 30 - 31 July 1777 [electronic edition]. Adams Family Papers: An Electronic Archive. Massachusetts Historical Society.


Vocabulary/Phrases to know:

Eminent- standing out so as to be noticed
Stingy- not generous
Shillings- a form of money
Quarters- Place of shelter

Concourse-a meeting produced by voluntary or spontaneous coming together

Source B : “ The Female Patriots”




If the sons, so degenerate! The Blessings despise

Let the Daughters of Liberty nobly arise;

And tho’ we’ve no Voice, but a negative here.

The use of the Taxables, let us forebear,

(Then merchants import till your Stores are full,

May the buyers be few and your Traffic be dull.)

Stand firmly resolv’d & bid Grenville to see

That rather than Freedom, we’ll part with our Tea.

And well as we love the dear Draught when a dry,

As American Patriots, our Taste we deny


Source: “The Female Patriots” Published Anonymously in the Pennsylvania Chronicle December 25, 1769.


Translated Version:




If the Sons (of Liberty) can’t control themselves,

Let the Daughters of Liberty come forward.

And tho’ we don’t have a say, but my complaints here,

The use of the taxed items, let us refrain.

(Then merchants import until your stores are full,

May the buyers be few and your store’s traffic be slow.

Stand firmly decided & show George Grenville,

That we’d rather part with our tea than our Freedom.

And as much as we love the dear drink when we’re thirsty,

As American Patriots, we will deny our taste


.

Historian reviewing the resources- _________________________________



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Analyzing A Document

Contextualizing

Source Titles:

Abigail Adams Event Description

“The Female Patriots”

What is happening at this time that influenced this event? Think: why are these women participating in this event?









How does this event change your opinion of women at this time?










How do you think this event influenced other women at this time?










How did this support the Patriotic cause?










What is happening at this time that influenced this event? Think: why are these women participating in this event?






Why did they choose to protest this way?












***** DISCUSSION QUESTIONS SAMPLE ANSWER KEY*****

Discussion Questions- Abigail Adams Reading:


1.When was this written? What was happening when this was written?
2. Based on Abigail’s description, summarize who the merchant is:
( student responses should be that he is a rich and very careful with his money)
 
3. Where did the women gather? Why are they there?
( Students should identify that the merchant was making them pay a lot of money for the coffee he had in the store. The women were mad about him charging so much money and were there to get the coffee)
 
4. What did the women demand from the Merchant? Did he give it to them?
( Students should understand that The women demanded the key to his store/warehouse to get the coffee. He did not give it to them)
 
5. What did the women do to the merchant? Why did they do that?
(Students should understand that when he did not give them the keys, they grabbed him “by his neck” and put him into the cart that they had brought with them that had no space for him to comfortably stay. He was fearful of what they were going to do and then offered the key.
 
. 6. Once the warehouse was open what did the Women do?
Students should understand that the women than take (steal) all of his coffee for themselves and leave.
Discussion Question Answers for “The Female Patriots”

1. When was this written? What was happening at this time?
2. What does “The use of the taxed items, let us refrain” mean?

The taxed items are tea, clothing, stamps, and other paper products that were being taxed due to the Stamp Act, Tea Act, etc. To refrain is to keep yourself from having, so she is suggesting that women refrain from using those products.




3. What is she suggesting when she says “ May the buyers be few and your store’s traffic be slow” ?

She is predicting and wishing that if the women band together, the stores will have very few customers.

 
4. Why does she say that women will “deny their taste”?

She says that the women will not drink what they like to drink.


 
5. Who do you think George Grenville could be? A Patriot or a Brit?
Why do you think that?
 
I think George Grenville is a Brit because in the poem it says that the women will “show George Grenville” that they would rather have freedom than the products that they like.
Historian reviewing the resources- __****SAMPLE ANSWER KEY ****__________________
Analyzing A Document






Abigail Adams Event Description

“The Female Patriots”

What is happening at this time that influenced this event? Think: why are these women participating in this event?



This event happens after the declaration of Independence. At this time the country is at war and women are left at home to take care of the house, food, children and land. The women are trying to get coffee that the merchant was holding from them by making it too expensive so he could give it to the British soldiers. The women needed coffee so they attacked.



There is a tax on British goods and tea because of the Stamp Act

How does this event change your opinion of women at this time?





* Accept all reasonable responses*

Women can now be seen as aggressive and taking part in the war.



* Accept all reasonable responses*

Women can now be seen as doing what it takes to help rebel against Great Britain.



How did this event influence other women at this time?





* Accept all reasonable responses*

* Accept all reasonable responses*

What effects did this have on the Revolutionary War?





* Accept all reasonable responses*

* Accept all reasonable responses*



Student Name




Position/Idea is stated clearly

/2

Provided support from both Source A and Source B

/2

Thoughts are expressed clearly-Sentences make sense and are complete thoughts

/2

Identified the positive consequences of your action

/2

Identify the negative consequences of your action

/2

Comments:


Total Score:




Student Name




Position/Idea is stated clearly

/2

Provided support from both Source A and Source B

/2

Thoughts are expressed clearly-Sentences make sense and are complete thoughts

/2

Identified the positive consequences of your action

/2

Identify the negative consequences of your action

/2

Comments:


Total Score:







“The Female Patriots”

Abigail Adams Protest


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