How did the cultivation of a certain crop (name the crop) result in the diversification of societies in North America?
What were the societies in the Northwest and some areas of California like? Be sure to name a tribe to illustrate your information.
What were the societies of the Great Basin and Great Plains like?
What were the societies in the Northeast, Mississippi River Valley, and along the Atlantic seaboard like? Be sure to name various tribes to illustrate your information.
Why did the European nations want to explore and conquer?
How and why did the population in Europe change after the discovery of the new world?
How did improvements and technology and changes to trade cause changes to the economies of Europe and the Americas?
What were the health impacts of Spanish exploration and conquest of the Americas? How did the crops and livestock the Spanish introduced change the ways of life for the Native Americans?
How did the Spanish use native labor in their colonies? Name and explain the economic system the Spanish put in place in its North American colonies.
Explain how the Europeans obtained slaves from West Africa. How did they use these slaves in the New World?
Describe the social structure/hierarchy of the Spanish colonies.
Describe the early interactions between Europeans and Native Americans? What are some examples of how Europeans and Native Americans positively influenced each other?
Why did the Europeans relationship with Native Americans change? Provide examples of how the Natives responded.
Describe the debate among European religious and political leaders about how non-Europeans should be treated. How did Europeans justify their subjugation of Africans and American Indians?
Period 2: 1607-1754
What were Spain’s goals for its colonies? How did it try to achieve those goals? Describe their colony’s societies.
What were France’s and the Netherlands’ (Dutch) goals for its colonies? How did it try to achieve those goals? Describe their colony’s societies.
What were Great Britain’s goals for its colonies? How did it try to achieve those goals? Describe their colony’s societies.
What were the central elements of the Chesapeake and the Carolina colonies? What kind of economy developed there?
What were the central elements of the New England colonies? What kind of economy developed there?
What were the central elements of the Middle colonies? What kind of economy developed there?
What were the central elements of the Southern colonies and the British West Indies? What kind of economy developed there?
Describe the level of self-government Great Britain allowed of its North American colonies during this time, specifically describe the development of self-government in New England and Southern colonies.
Describe the Atlantic economy that developed during this time period. What was exchange? What areas were the foci of these North American colonies?
How did the continued contact between Europeans and Native communities stimulate cultural and demographic changes?
How did the alliances between American Indians and the French, Dutch, British, and Spanish affect their relationships with other native tribes?
How did issues including territorial settlements, frontier defense, self-rule, and trade contribute to the growing mistrust between British colonists and Great Britain?
Explain the causes of British colonists’ conflicts with American Indians, such as Metacom’s War (King Philip’s War).
Explain American Indian resistance to Spanish colonizing efforts in North America, especially the Pueblo Revolt. What was the effect of this revolt?
How and why did the British colonies remain so English?
What racial system developed in the British colonies? How was this difference from the Spanish and French?
How did the presence of different religious and ethnic groups contribute to pluralism and intellectual exchange? What effect did the first Great Awakening and the Enlightenment have on these ideas?
Why did the British colonies experience gradual Anglicization (becoming more English) over time?
How did the British attempt to incorporate its North American colonies into its imperial system more? Why did it not succeed?
How did colonial religious diversity, ideology and political beliefs contribute to resistance to imperial control?
Explain how each region of the British colonies participated in the slave trade.
What is chattel slavery? How did southern colonial laws influence slave’s lives?
How did Africans resist the demeaning aspects of slavery?
Period 3: 1754-1800
Explain why colonial rivalry between Great Britain and France intensified in the 18th century.
What were the territorial effects of the French and Indian War? At what costs did the British obtain this victory?
How and why did the British attempt to prevent the North American colonists from spreading westward? How did Native Americans respond to this expansion westward and the changing imperial influence in North America?
With regard to the collection of taxes, direct colonial representation, an imperial authority, why did the colonists begin to unite against the British empire?
On what arguments did colonial leaders base their calls for resistance to Great Britain?
Explain the role of each of the following in the effort for American independence:
What were Great Britain’s advantages at the war’s outset? Why did the Patriot cause manage to succeed?
Explain how Enlightenment ideas and philosophy influenced American political thinkers’ beliefs in hereditary privilege? How did religion influence Americans’ self-perception?
What were the colonists (especially patriots) belief in government and rights? What two documents illustrate these principles clearly? Explain how they do so.
How did the American Revolution influence some individuals and groups’ position on the abolition of slavery and political democracy in new state and national governments?
Explain the idea of Republican Motherhood. How did it positively impact women’s role in American political culture?
How did the American Revolution and the ideals of the Declaration of Independence influence France, Haiti, and Latin America?
Describe the structure of the new state governments. What were the qualifications for voting and citizenship?
What was the intent of the framers of the Articles of Confederation? What difficulties would arise for the Articles of Confederation following the Revolution?
Describe the negotiations, collaborations, and compromises among the state delegates to form a constitution? What was the type of government system that formed as a result?
Explain the compromises delegates came to regarding representation of slave states in Congress and the role of the federal government in regulating both slavery and the slave trade?
Explain the differences between Anti-Federalists and Federalists? What was argued in the Federalist Papers? Why was the Bill of Rights adopted?
What precedents did George Washington and John Adams establish that put the principles of Constitution into practice?
How did issues regarding the following areas lead to the formation of political parties? What were these parties and who led them?
Relationship between the national government and the states
How did ideas about national identity find expression in works of art, literature, and architecture?
What were the goals of many American Indians post-independence? What was the relationship like between Great Britain and American Indians and what effect did this have on its relationship with the United States?
What effect did continued movement westward and growth of a frontier culture have on social, political, and ethnic tensions?
Explain how Congress attempted to organize the westward settlements through the Northwest Ordinance and Land Ordinance in the 1780s. Assess their effectiveness.
Describe how the Constitution defined the relationship between American Indians and the National government? What problems would this cause during the 1780s and 1790s?
Describe the Spanish settlements in western North America. Why did those societies develop that way?
What were the diplomatic challenges the United States had with Spain and Britain in the 1780s and 1790s (post-independence)?
How did the war between France and Britain resulting from the French Revolution create challenges to the U.S. over free trade and foreign policy? What political disagreements developed from it?
What did Washington warn in his Farewell Address?
Period 4: 1800-1848
Explain how political parties continued to debate the following issues in the early 1800s:
How did the Supreme Court establish the judicial branch as the primary determiner of the Constitution? How did it assert that federal laws took precedence over state laws? Be sure to mention specific court cases.
Explain why Jacksonian Democrats and Clay’s Whigs formed in the 1820s and 1830s regarding disagreements about the following:
The role and powers of the federal government
The national bank
Federal funding of internal improvements
How did regional interests influence political leaders’ positions on slavery and economic policy?
What were the causes and effects of the Second Great Awakening?
Describe how American elements, European influences, and regional cultural sensibilities combined to make the unique American culture that developed in the early 1800s.
Explain how liberal social ideas and Romantic beliefs in human perfectibility influenced literature, art, philosophy, and architecture.
How did enslaved blacks and free African Americans try to protect their dignity and change their status?
What were the goals of voluntary organizations? How did they try to achieve those goals?
What strategy did early abolitionists use to free more slaves in the North? What strategy did early abolitionists use to try to gain freedom in the South? What were the results of these strategies?
What were the goals of the women’s rights movements? How did they try to reach those goals? What event was the culmination of these efforts and ideals in the antebellum period?
Define the Market Revolution and explain how the Market Revolution came to be.
Describe the innovations which increased production efficiency.
What role did the government play in the creation of regional interdependence, which was a characteristic of the Market Revolution? Why did the Midwest and Northeast become more closely connected than either region was with the South?
How did the Market Revolution change how Americans supported their families?
How did the Market Revolution influence the standard of living and social classes in the United States?
How did gender and family roles change in response to the Market Revolution?
Explain international migration into Northern cities and internal migration westward.
How did Southern cotton production promote the development of national ties with the North and international commercial ties?
Explain how decisions by Southern business leaders during the Market Revolution contributed to the growth of a distinctive Southern regional identity.
Explain the plans to unify the U.S. economy, like the American System. Why did some oppose these plans?
How did the United States government seek influence and control over North America through the following:
American Indian Removal
How did Americans on the frontier view their frontier expansions? How did the American Indians respond to frontier settlements? Explain the subsequent wars and federal efforts to control and relocate American Indian populations.
Why did plantation owners move from the Southeast to the west of the Appalachian Mountains? What happened to the institution of slavery?
How did opinions about slavery in the North and South change?
What were the congressional attempts to compromise between opponents and defenders of slavery? What were the effects of these attempts at compromise?
Period 5: 1844-1877
How did each of the following lead to increased migration to and settlement in the West?
What is Manifest Destiny? What was it based on? How did it influence political debates in the mid 1800s?
Explain how the following issue flared up because of the Mexican American War:
Status of slavery
How did government efforts (specifically legislation) promote Westward migration and development?
Why did the U.S. want to create more ties with Asian countries? How did it attempt to make these connections economically, diplomatically, and through cultural initiatives?
Describe the reasons for international immigration to the United States in the decades prior to the Civil War. Where did these immigrants mostly come from? Describe how they settled when they arrived in the U.S.
Why were nativists opposed to these immigrants? What were the nativists’ goals?
Explain the different labor systems that developed in the North and South. Explain how the position of the free-soil movement reflect one of the reasons why Northerners opposed slavery.
Explain the variety of strategies white and African American abolitionists used against slavery.
How did defenders of slavery defend the institution as a positive good?
Explain how the issue of slavery flared up because of the new western territories from the Mexican Cession.
What compromises were attempted concerning slavery in the mid-1800s? What were the results of these compromises?
How did slavery and anti-immigrant nativism weaken loyalties to the two major parties. Why was the Second Party System replaced by sectional parties like the Republican Party in the North?
Why did Southern leaders decide to secede from the Union in 1860? Describe the decision to secede from the Union in the Southern legislatures. What was the result of this decision?
How did the North and South mobilize for war? How were these policies viewed on the home front?
What was Lincoln and most Union supporters original reason for fighting the Civil War? What was the Emancipation Proclamation and how did it change the purpose of the war? What effects did the Emancipation Proclamation have on the war’s outcome?
How did Lincoln try to reunify the country? What did he say about slavery and American ideals in his Gettysburg Address?
Analyze the reasons for Union victory in the Civil War.
What did each of the Reconstruction Amendments (13, 14, and 15) do?
How did the 14th and 15th Amendments influence the women’s rights movement?
What were the short term successes of Republicans in their efforts to reconstruct the South politically? Why did these efforts fail?
Describe land ownership in the South after Reconstruction. What impact did sharecropping have on African Americans and whites in the South?
How did each of the following progressively strip away African American rights?What was the significance of the 14th and 15th amendment in the 20th century?
Segregation and violence
Supreme Court decisions
Local political tactics
Period 6: 1865-1898
How did the government assist new markets growth in North America?
How did businesses increase the production of goods?
Describe the changes to real wages that occurred in this time and the changes to the gap between the rich and the poor.
What methods did business leaders use to increase profits? What effect did this have on the concentration of the wealth?
Where and why did American businesses and foreign policymakers look outside the U.S. borders?
What were the differing opinions about laissez faire policies in terms of economic well-being.
Explain the changes to the industrial workforce in this period.
Describe the relationship between labor and management regarding wages and working conditions. How did workers organize locally and nationally and what tactics did they use to confront business leaders? Use one example that includes tensions between labor and management, and the government’s response, to illustrate your answer.
What changes did Southern leaders call for under the “New South?” How effective were these efforts?
What were the effects of improvements in mechanization in agricultures?
How did farmers respond to the increasing consolidation in agricultural markets and their dependence on the railroad system?
Why did the People’s Party form? What was its goals?
Who were the internal and international immigrants that flocked to cities at the turn of the 20th century? Explain the causes for each group.
Describe the settlement patterns of these immigrants in the cities. What were their neighborhoods like?
How did Americans respond to the large influx of new immigrants? How did the new immigrants respond to their new home’s culture?
What were political machines and how did they become so powerful in urban areas?
Explain the causes of the growth of the middle class at this time. Why did consumer culture expand?
How did each of the following influence the creation of new communities and commercial centers in the West?