How did Byzantium grow rich? Trading made them richer & richer



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How did Byzantium grow rich?

  • Trading made them richer & richer

  • Farm goods, fur, honey & slaves for spices, gems, metals & cloth

  • major Byzantine industry was weaving silk…smuggled silk worms from China in bamboo sticks!

What made all this possible?

  • Location, location, location!... Constantinople in the perfect geographical spot 4 trade

  • Btwn Black & Aegean Seas and btwn Europe Asia trade routes

  • Heavily taxed all trade goods

  • Constantinople surrounded on 3 sides by H2O & one side by a huge wall…easily protected!

  • Good, safe harbors for trade boats & warships

What were some cultural achievements of Byzantium?

  • Gave the world new methods in the arts

  • Preserved & passed on Greek & Roman culture

  • Highly educated & creative

  • Built 100’s of churches & palaces

  • Justinian built the Hagia Sophia…religious center of Byzantium…still stands…converted to a mosque when the Turks defeated Byzantium…now a museum

  • Mosaics=picture made of tiny pieces of glass …usually pictures of saints or Christian holy figures…found inside churches & monasteries…very expensive!! Emperors paid for them…takes a LOOOOONG time to make one!

  • Several women served as regents=stand in for a leader who is too young or ill to lead

  • Divorce was rare

  • Women gained rights b/c of Empress Theodora

  • Women expected to stay home & care for kids, not lead independent lives

  • Family life was important and stressed.

  • Education was respected & encouraged…supported by gov’t…boys went to school, girls taught at home

  • Byzantine authors wrote about & stressed religion…copied & passed on the writings of ancient Greece & Rome

  • Byzantine civilization became a “grab-bag” of cultures w/ Greek, Egyptian, Slav, Persian, and Roman influences


What were the policies & reforms of Justinian & Theodora?

  • Justinian was a strong leader from CE527-565

  • Theodora was co-leader who advised Justinian & encouraged him to give women ++rights like owning land

  • Theodora told J to stay instead of flee an uprising which saved the throne & strengthened J’s power

  • T & J had no children…she died of cancer in CE548…many artworks w/her portrait b/c of his deep love for her

  • J wanted to regain lost Roman lands to bring back “Rome”

  • Gained Italy, N. Africa, some of Persia & tiny bit of Spain

  • Reorganized the army to strengthen it…put soldiers on horses=cavalry

  • Used Greek Fire=Byzantine flame thrower secret weapon! (grenades of GF too!)…highly feared!!

  • Too big, too fast & too expensive to control, so lands gained were lost after J died


Influenced modern European law & laws are easier to understand so laws are followed

Ordered the law code to be reformed


Laws were too difficult to understand & disorganized

cause Justinian’s Code effects

What did I learn from the video?

  • 30,000 people died during riots re: heavy taxes @ hippodrome b/c J ordered it…took only minutes. CE532

  • J was born as a Slavic peasant

  • Basil II was a great military leader…CE 1000ish

  • 20 yrs after Hagia Sophia was finished an eq destroyed the center dome

  • Isadora & Ingenus were Hagia Sophia architects

  • Under J, the BE was as big as it would ever get

  • CE 1453, Turks used gunpowder & cannon to bring down the wall around Constantinople

  • J did not have a lot of fans b/c he was harsh to those who did not believe the way he did

  • Byzantium was a cultural power

  • J believed his legacy was to bring back Rome

  • Hippodrome could hold 100,000 & held chariot race

How did Byzantine gov’t & church work together?

  • Emperor crowned in religious ceremony

  • Emperor in control of church & gov’t…spiritual & political leader

  • United in goal of spreading & preserving Christianity…worked closely together to achieve this goal

What were the religious conflicts btwn Christian church in BE & Christian church in West Europe?

  1. Use of icons= picture or image of holy people used in worship

  • BE NO icons in CE700’s

  • iconoclasts=image breakers destroyed all icons in BE

  • WE icons are okay

  • By mid 800’s icons okay in BE

  1. Who is the top leader

  • Pope= leader in WE (Rome)

  • Patriarch= leader in BE (Constantiople)

  • Both claimed to be the supreme leader of the Church, but only one can be the supreme leader

  1. Refused to help each other in times of need; when getting attacked & can’t help themselves

  • Pope crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor b/c he helped Rome defeat an invader

  • Angered the BE

  1. Differences in opinion on who had the most power, gov’t or church

  • BE: gov’t over church

  • WE: church over gov’t

**CE 1054 The Great Schism= permanent split of the Catholic church into:

Roman Catholic w/pope

http://i1186.photobucket.com/albums/z362/manic_expression3/catholic_cross.gif

Byzantine Catholic w/patriarch

http://www.museumstorecompany.com/images/products/20215.jpg




Byzantine Catholic Church

Roman Catholic Church

Central city


Constantinople

Rome

Leader


Patriarch

Pope

Help defend each other

no

no

Relationship w/ gov’t

Gov’t over church-worked together

Church over gov’t-often fought

Use of icons


Yes, NO!!!, yes

YEAH!


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