Houghton Mifflin Social Studies



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i

Houghton Mifflin

Social Studies

United States History

Visit Education Place ® www.eduplace.com/kids

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Consultants



Philip J. Deloria

Associate Professor

Department of History and Program in American Studies

University of Michigan



Lucien Ellington

UC Professor of Education and Asia Program Co-Director

University of Tennessee, Chattanooga

Thelma Wills Foote

Associate Professor

University of California

Stephen J. Fugita

Distinguished Professor

Psychology and Ethnic Studies

Santa Clara University



Charles C. Haynes

Senior Scholar

First Amendment Center

Ted Hemmingway

Professor of History

The Florida Agricultural & Mechanical University

Douglas Monroy

Professor of History

The Colorado College

Lynette K. Oshima

Assistant Professor

Department of Language, Literacy and Sociocultural Studies and Social Studies Program Coordinator

University of New Mexico



Jeffrey Strickland

Assistant Professor, History

University of Texas Pan American

Clifford E. Trafzer

Professor of History and American Indian Studies

University of California

Teacher Reviewers



Skip Bayliss

Surfside Elementary

Satellite Beach, FL

Annette Bomba

Schenevus Central School

Schenevus, NY

Amy Clark

Gateway Elementary

Travelers Rest, SC

Melissa Cook

Machado Elementary

Lake Elsinore, CA

Kelli Dunn

Lindop School

Broadview, IL

Peggy Greene

Upson-Lee North Elementary

Thomaston, GA

Elyce Kaplan

Kumeyaay Elementary

San Diego, CA

Julia McNeal

Webster Elementary

Dayton, OH

Lesa Roberts

Hampton Cove Middle School

Huntsville, AL

Lynn Schew

Leila G. Davis Elementary

Clearwater, FL

Linda Whitford

Manning Oaks Elementary

Alpharetta, GA

Lisa Yingling

Round Hills Elementary

Williamsport, PA

© 2008 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of Houghton Mifflin unless such copying is expressly permitted by federal copyright law. Address requests for permission to reproduce Houghton Mifflin material to School Permissions, Houghton Mifflin Company, 222 Berkeley St., Boston, MA 02116.

Printed in the U.S.A.

ISBN: 978-0-618-83093-0

123456789-DW-14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06

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AUTHORS



Senior Author

Dr. Herman J. Viola

Curator Emeritus

Smithsonian Institution

Dr. Sarah Witham Bednarz

Associate Professor, Geography

Texas A&M University

Dr. Carlos E. Cortés

Professor Emeritus, History University of California, Riverside



Dr. Cheryl Jennings

Project Director Florida Institute of Education

University of North Florida

Dr. Mark C. Schug

Professor and Director Center for Economic Education

University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

Dr. Charles S. White

Associate Professor School of Education

Boston University

Consulting Authors



Dr. Dolores Beltran

Assistant Professor

Curriculum Instruction

California State University, Los Angeles

(Support for English Language Learners)

Dr. MaryEllen Vogt

Co-Director

California State University Center for the Advancement of Reading

(Reading in the Content Area)

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Contents

Contents vi–xxi

About Your Textbook xxii

Reading Social Studies xxvi

Constitution Day xxviii

v

vi



Unit 1 Our Land and First People

Unit Almanac — Connect to Today 2

CHAPTER 1 America's Land 4

Vocabulary Preview Reading Strategy: Predict and Infer 4
Lesson 1 Core Land and Climate 6

Lesson 1 Extend Geography — Trouble from the Tropics 10

Map and Globe Skill Review Map Skills 12

Lesson 2 Core Our Nation's Resources 14

Lesson 2 Extend Technology — The Race for Solar Power 20

Lesson 3 Core Regions of the United States 22

Lesson 3 Extend Biographies — Caretakers of the Earth 26

Lesson 4 Core People and the Land 28

Lesson 4 Extend Geography — Reshaping the Land 32

Chapter 1 Review 34

CHAPTER 2 The First Americans 36

Vocabulary Preview Reading Strategy: Question 36
Lesson 1 Core Ancient Americans 38

Lesson 1 Extend History — Tenochtitlán 44

Lesson 2 Core Peoples of the Northwest 46

Lesson 2 Extend Literature — “Chinook Wind Wrestles Cold Wind,?? an American Indian legend 50

Lesson 3 Core Peoples of the Southwest 54

Lesson 3 Extend Biographies — Keepers of Tradition 58

Lesson 4 Core Peoples of the Plains 60

Lesson 4 Extend Primary Sources — Art of the Plains Indians 64

Reading and Thinking Skill Summarize 66

Apply Critical Thinking

Lesson 5 Core Peoples of the East 68

Lesson 5 Extend Geography — American Indian Shelters 72

Chapter 2 Review 74

Unit 1 Review Current Events Project 76

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UNIT 2 Exploration and Settlement 78

Unit Almanac — Connect to Today 80

CHAPTER 3 Age of Exploration 82

Vocabulary Preview Reading Strategy: Monitor and Clarify 82
Lesson 1 Core World Travel and Trade 84

Lesson 1 Extend Geography — The Silk Road 88

Lesson 2 Core New Ideas in Europe 90

Lesson 2 Extend Technology — Tools for Discovery 94

Lesson 3 Core Europeans Arrive in the Americas 96

Lesson 3 Extend Primary Source — Mapping New Lands 102

Lesson 4 Core Conquest of the Americas 104

Lesson 4 Extend Biographies — Spanish Explorers 108

Lesson 5 Core New Spain 110

Lesson 5 Extend Biographies — Leadership in New Spain 114

Map and Globe Skill Use Latitude and Longitude 116

Chapter 3 Review 118

CHAPTER 4 European Settlements 120

Vocabulary Preview Reading Strategy: Summarize 120
Lesson 1 Core A Northwest Passage 122

Lesson 1 Extend Biographies — Rulers of Land and Sea 126

Chart and Graph Skill Use Parallel Timelines 128

Lesson 2 Core Roanoke and Jamestown 130

Lesson 2 Extend Geography — Jamestown 1607 134

Lesson 3 Core New England Settlements 136

Lesson 3 Extend Literature — “This New Land?? by G. Clifton Wisler 140

Lesson 4 Core Dutch and French Colonies 144

Lesson 4 Extend Economics — French Fur Trading 148

Chapter 4 Review 150

Unit 2 Review Current Events Project 152

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UNIT 3 The English Colonies 154

Almanac — Connect to Today 156

CHAPTER 5 New England Colonies 158

Vocabulary Preview Reading Strategy: Predict and Infer 158
Lesson 1 Core Geography of the Colonies 160

Lesson 1 Extend Geography — The Appalachians 164

Lesson 2 Core New England 166

Lesson 2 Extend Readers' Theater — Town Meeting, April 5, 1749 170

Lesson 3 Core Life in New England 174

Lesson 3 Extend Economics — Cod Fishing 180

Chart and Graph Skill Make a Line Graph 182

Chapter 5 Review 184

CHAPTER 6 Middle and Southern Colonies 186

Vocabulary Preview Reading Strategy: Monitor and Clarify 186
Lesson 1 Core The Middle Colonies 188

Lesson 1 Extend Technology — Benjamin Franklin: Inventor 192

Citizenship Skill Make a Decision 194

Apply Critical Thinking

Lesson 2 Core Life in the Middle Colonies 196

Lesson 2 Extend History — Colonial Apprentice, October 17, 1730 200

Lesson 3 Core The Southern Colonies 202

Lesson 3 Extend Literature — “Ann's Story: 1747?? by Joan Lowery Nixon 206

Lesson 4 Core Life in the South 210

Lesson 4 Extend History — Slavery's Past 216

Chapter 6 Review 218

Unit 3 Review Current Events Project 220

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UNIT 4 The American Revolution 222



Unit Almanac — Connect to Today 224

CHAPTER 7 Causes of the Revolution 226

Vocabulary Preview Reading Strategy: Summarize 226
Lesson 1 Core The French and Indian War 228

Extend Biography — George Washington 232

Lesson 2 Core Early Conflicts with Britain 234

Extend Economics — Taxes in the Colonies 238

Lesson 3 Core Conflicts Grow 240

Extend Literature — “Emma's Journal?? by Marissa Moss 244

Reading and Thinking Skill Identify Causes and Effects 248

Apply Critical Thinking

Lesson 4 Core War Begins 250

Extend Geography — Battle of Bunker Hill 256

Chapter 7 Review 258

CHAPTER 8 The War for Independence 260

Vocabulary Preview Reading Strategy: Question 260
Lesson 1 Core Declaring Independence 262

Lesson 1 Extend Biography — Thomas Jefferson 268

Lesson 2 Core Life During the War 270

Lesson 2 Extend Readers' Theater — Patriot or Loyalist 274

Lesson 3 Core The War in the North 278

Lesson 3 Extend Primary Sources — Valley Forge 282

Map and Globe Skill Read a Battle Map 284

Lesson 4 Core Winning the War 286

Extend Geography — A Global View, 1783 290

Chapter 8 Review 292

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CHAPTER 9 Creating a Nation 294



Vocabulary Preview Reading Strategy: Predict and Infer 294
Lesson 1 Core A New Nation 296

Lesson 1 Extend Economics — Chain of Debt 300

Lesson 2 Core Constitutional Convention 302

Lesson 2 Extend Citizenship — World Constitutions 308

Citizenship Skill Understand Point of View 310

Apply Critical Thinking

Lesson 3 Core The Constitution 312

Lesson 3 Extend History — The Liberty Bell 318

Lesson 4 Core President Washington 320

Lesson 4 Extend Citizenship — Washington, D.C. 324

Chapter 9 Review 326

Special Section: The Government of the United States 328

Unit 4 Review Current Events Project 336
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UNIT 5 The New Nation 338

Unit Almanac — Connect to Today 340

CHAPTER 10 The Early Republic 342

Vocabulary Preview Reading Strategy: Monitor and Clarify 342
Lesson 1 Core People on the Move 344

Lesson 1 Extend Readers' Theater — Flatboat on the Ohio 348

Study Skill Make an Outline 352

Lesson 2 Core The Nation Grows 354

Lesson 2 Extend Geography — Journey of Discovery 358

Lesson 3 Core The War of 1812 360

Lesson 3 Extend Literature — The National Anthem 366

Lesson 4 Core Age of Jackson 368

Lesson 4 Extend History — Trail of Tears 372

Chapter 10 Review 374

CHAPTER 11 A Growing Country 376

Vocabulary Preview Reading Strategy: Question 376
Lesson 1 Core The Industrial Revolution 378

Lesson 1 Extend Technology — Inside a Cotton Mill 384

Study Skill Find and Evaluate Sources 386

Apply Critical Thinking

Lesson 2 Core Immigrants and Reformers 388

Lesson 2 Extend Citizenship — The Reform Movements 392

Lesson 3 Core Texas and the Mexican War 394

Lesson 3 Extend Biographies — At the Alamo 398

Lesson 4 Core Moving West 400

Lesson 4 Extend History — Wagons West! 404

Chapter 11 Review 406

Unit 5 Review Current Events Project 408

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UNIT 6 The Civil War 410

Unit Almanac — Connect to Today 412

CHAPTER 12 Causes of the Civil War 414

Vocabulary Preview Reading Strategy: Predict and Infer 414
Lesson 1 Core Worlds Apart 416

Lesson 1 Extend Economics — King Cotton 420

Chart and Graph Skill Compare Bar, Line, and Circle Graphs Apply Critical Thinking 422

Lesson 2 Core The Struggle For Freedom 424

Lesson 2 Extend Literature — “Stealing Freedom?? by Elisa Carbone 428

Lesson 3 Core Compromise and Conflict 432

Lesson 3 Extend Readers' Theater — A Troubling Law 436

Lesson 4 Core Civil War Begins 440

Lesson 4 Extend Primary Sources — Blue and Gray 446

Chapter 12 Review 448

CHAPTER 13 Civil War and Reconstruction 450

Vocabulary Preview Reading Strategy: Summarize 450
Lesson 1 Core A Nation at War 452

Lesson 1 Extend Primary Source — The Gettysburg Address 458

Lesson 2 Core The Human Face of War 460

Lesson 2 Extend Biographies — Courageous Women 464

Lesson 3 Core The War Ends 466

Lesson 3 Extend Geography — A Global View, 1865 470

Lesson 4 Core Reconstruction 472

Lesson 4 Extend Economics — The South After the War 478

Study Skill Compare Primary and Secondary Sources 480

Apply Critical Thinking

Lesson 5 Core The Challenge of Freedom 482

Lesson 5 Extend History — African American Education 486

Chapter 13 Review 488

Unit 6 Review Current Events Project 490

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UNIT 7 Transforming the Nation 492

Unit Almanac — Connect to Today 494

CHAPTER 14 Changes on the Plains 496

Vocabulary Preview Reading Strategy: Monitor and Clarify 496
Lesson 1 Core Linking East and West 498

Lesson 1 Extend History — Railroad Workers 502

Map and Globe Skill Read a Time Zone Map 504

Lesson 2 Core Life on the Great Plains 506

Lesson 2 Extend Geography — Sod Houses 512

Lesson 3 Core Cattle Ranchers 514

Lesson 3 Extend Literature — “In the Days of the Vaqueros?? by Russell Freedman 518

Lesson 4 Core Conflicts on the Plains 522

Lesson 4 Extend Primary Source — Battle of the Little Bighorn 528

Chapter 14 Review 530

CHAPTER 15 Big Business and Big Cities 532

Vocabulary Preview Reading Strategy: Summarize 532
Lesson 1 Core The Rise of Big Business 534

Lesson 1 Extend Technology — Electric Lights 540

Lesson 2 Core Immigrants in America 542

Lesson 2 Extend Citizenship — Statue of Liberty 546

Lesson 3 Core Growing Cities 548

Lesson 3 Extend Economics — Steel City 552

Lesson 4 Core Time of Reform 554

Lesson 4 Extend History — The Great Migration 558

Reading and Thinking Skill Identify Fact and Opinion 560

Apply Critical Thinking

Chapter 15 Review 562

Unit 7 Review Current Events Project 564

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UNIT 8 The Twentieth Century 566

Unit Almanac — Connect to Today 568

CHAPTER 16 Becoming a World Power 570

Vocabulary Preview Reading Strategy: Question 570
Lesson 1 Core New Territories 572

Lesson 1 Extend Geography — Panama Canal 576

Lesson 2 Core World War I 578

Lesson 2 Extend Primary Source — “Over There!?? 584

Lesson 3 Core The 1920s 586

Lesson 3 Extend Literature — Poetry of the Harlem Renaissance 590

Lesson 4 Core The Great Depression 592

Lesson 4 Extend Biography — Eleanor Roosevelt 596

Map and Globe Skill Read Population Maps 598

Lesson 5 Core World War II 600

Lesson 5 Extend History — D-Day 606

Chapter 16 Review 608

CHAPTER 17 Americans Face Changes 610

Vocabulary Preview Reading Strategy: Monitor and Clarify 610
Lesson 1 Core The Cold War 612

Extend History — The Berlin Airlift 616

Chart and Graph Skill Make a Timeline 618

Lesson 2 Core Life in the 1950s 620

Extend Economics — The Baby Boom 624

Lesson 3 Core Civil Rights 626

Extend Biography — Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. 630

Lesson 4 Core Life in the 1960s 632

Extend Citizenship — Vietnam Veterans Memorial 636

Chapter 17 Review 638

Unit 8 Review Current Events Project 640

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UNIT 9 Linking to the Present 642



Unit Almanac — Connect to Today 644

CHAPTER 18 Our Nation and the World 646

Vocabulary Preview Reading Strategy: Monitor and Clarify 646
Lesson 1 Core Challenges of the 1970s 648

Extend History — Women's Rights Movement 654

Lesson 2 Core The 1980s 656

Extend Geography — The Fall of Communism 660

Map and Globe Skill Compare Maps with Different Scales 662

Lesson 3 Core Life in the1990s 664

Extend Technology — High-Tech Geography 670

Lesson 4 Core Twenty-first Century Begins 672

Extend Citizenship — 9/11 Heroes 676

Chapter 18 Review 678

CHAPTER 19 America Today and Tomorrow 680

Vocabulary Preview Reading Strategy: Summarize 680
Lesson 1 Core Neighbors in North America 682

Extend Economics — The Effects of NAFTA 688

Citizenship Skill Resolve Conflicts 690

Apply Critical Thinking

Lesson 2 Core United States Today 692

Extend Literature — “In America?? — Poems 696

Lesson 3 Core Citizenship and Democracy 698

Extend Readers' Theater — Citizen Sara 702

Chapter 19 Review 706

Unit 9 Review Current Events Project 708

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References

Citizenship Handbook R1

Pledge of Allegiance R2

English, Spanish, Chinese, Tagalog, Arabic, Russian



Character Traits R4

Historical Documents R6

The Mayflower Compact, 1620 R6

Speech Against the Stamp Act, William Pitt, 1766 R7

Speech to Parliament on Conciliation with America, Edmund Burke, 1775 R7

The Declaration of Independence, 1776 R8

The Constitution of the United States, 1789 R11

from The Federalist, No.10, 1787 R28

“The Star-Spangled Banner,?? 1814 R29

from President John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address, 1961 R30

“I Have a Dream?? Speech, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., 1963 R31



Presidents of the United States R32

History Makers—Biographical Dictionary R36

Facts to Know—The 50 United States R46

Resources R48

Geographic Terms R48

Atlas R50

Gazetteer R62

Glossary R67

Index R78

Acknowledgments R89
xvii

Extend Lessons

Geography

Trouble from the Tropics 10

Reshaping the Land 32

American Indian Shelters 72

The Silk Road 88

Jamestown 1607 134

The Appalachians 164

The Battle of Bunker Hill 256

A Global View, 1783 290

Journey of Discovery 358

A Global View, 1865 470

Sod Houses 512

Panama Canal 576

The Fall of Communism 660



Reader's Theater

Town Meeting, April 5, 1749 170

Patriot or Loyalist 274

Flatboat on the Ohio 348

A Troubling Law 436

Citizen Sara 702



Economics

French Fur Trading 148

Cod Fishing 180

Taxes in the Colonies 238

Chain of Debt 300

King Cotton 420

The South After the War 478

Steel City 552

The Baby Boom 624

The Effects of NAFTA 688



Citizenship

World Constitutions 308

Washington, D.C. 324

The Reform Movements 392

Statue of Liberty 546

Vietnam Veterans Memorial 636

9/11 Heroes 676

Biography

Dawn Wright 26

Mei-Po Kwan, William Wood 27

Victor Masayesva, Jr. 58

Fred Begay, Leslie Marmon Silko 59

Yo Yo Ma 89

Amerigo Vespucci 103

Ponce de León, de Soto, Coronado 108

Cabeza de Vaca, Estevanico Dorantes 109

Bartolomé de las Casas 114

Junípero Serra, Popé 115

King Philip II of Spain 126

Queen Elizabeth I of England 127

Benjamin Franklin 192

Dr. Theresa Singleton 217

George Washington 232

Thomas Jefferson 268

Abigail Adams, Benjamin Banneker 324

William Thornton 325

Horace Mann, Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Dorothea Dix, Frances Elizabeth Willard 393

Davy Crockett 398

Susanna Dickinson, Juan Seguin 399

Clara Barton 464

Elizabeth Van Lew, Mary Chesnut 465

Crazy Horse, Sitting Bull, Custer 528

Thomas Edison, Lewis Latimer 540

Georgia Douglas Johnson 590

Langston Hughes 591

Eleanor Roosevelt 596

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. 630

Maya Lin 637

Primary Sources

Art of the Plains Indians 64

Mapping New Lands 102

Valley Forge 282

Blue and Gray 446

The Gettysburg Address 458

Battle of the Little Bighorn 528

“Over There!?? 584

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History

Tenochtitlán 44

Colonial Apprentice, October 17, 1730 200

Slavery's Past 216

The Liberty Bell 318

Trail of Tears 372

Wagons West! 404

African American Education 486

Railroad Workers 502

The Great Migration 558

D-Day 606

The Berlin Airlift 616

Women's Rights Movement 654

Literature

“Chinook Wind Wrestles Cold Wind,?? an American Indian legend 50

“This New Land?? by G. Clifton Wisler 140

“Ann's Story: 1747?? by Joan Lowery Nixon 206

“Emma's Journal?? by Marissa Moss 244

The National Anthem 366

“Stealing Freedom?? by Elisa Carbone 428

“In the Days of the Vaqueros?? by Russell Freedman 518

Poetry of the Harlem Renaissance 590

“In America??—Poems 696



Technology

The Race for Solar Power 20

Tools for Discovery 94

Benjamin Franklin: Inventor 192

Inside a Cotton Mill 384

Electric Lights 540

High-Tech Geography 670

Skill Lessons

Map and Globe Skills

Review Map Skills 12

Use Latitude and Longitude 116

Read a Battle Map 284

Read a Time Zone Map 504

Read Population Maps 598

Compare Maps with Different Scales 662

Skill Practice: Reading Maps 15, 23, 39, 47, 55, 69, 86, 92, 97, 146, 161, 168, 175, 189, 203, 204, 287, 345, 355, 396, 402, 433, 444, 453, 507, 516, 525, 544, 573, 593, 634, 649, 673, 674, 685

Chart and Graph Skills

Use Parallel Timelines 128

Make a Line Graph 182

Compare Bar, Line, and Circle Graphs 422

Apply Critical Thinking

Make a Timeline 618

Skill Practice: Reading Charts 197, 236, 315, 388, 483, 555

Skill Practice: Reading Graphs 288, 369, 379, 418, 462, 509, 515, 548, 621, 652



Study Skills

Make an Outline 352

Find and Evaluate Sources 386

Apply Critical Thinking

Compare Primary and Secondary Sources 480

Apply Critical Thinking

Skill Practice: Primary Sources 132, 241, 263, 320, 424, 506

Skill Practice: Reading Visuals 62, 137, 212, 229, 279, 381, 523, 538



Citizenship Skills

Make a Decision 194

Apply Critical Thinking

Understand Point of View 310

Apply Critical Thinking

Resolve Conflicts 690

Apply Critical Thinking

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Reading and Thinking Skills

Summarize 66

Apply Critical Thinking

Identify Causes and Effects 248

Apply Critical Thinking

Identify Fact and Opinion 560

Apply Critical Thinking

Reading Skills/Graphic Organizer

Cause and Effect 54, 84, 136, 196, 250, 278, 320, 360, 400, 432, 514, 548, 592, 626, 672, 692

Compare and Contrast 68, 96, 104, 144, 160, 210, 270, 388, 416, 572, 612, 682

Sequence 38, 202, 228, 286, 440, 522, 578, 600, 648

Problem and Solution 22, 90, 174, 188, 234, 302, 354, 378, 424, 482, 506, 554, 586

Main Idea and Details 46, 122, 166, 296, 344, 394, 460, 620, 656

Draw Conclusions 14, 60, 110, 130, 368, 472, 542, 632

Predict Outcomes 240, 262, 466, 498

Categorize 6, 312, 664

Classify 28, 452, 534, 698
Visual Learning

Become skilled at reading visuals. Graphs, maps, and timelines help you put all the information together.



Maps

The United States in the World 2

North American Landforms 7

Political Map of the United States 12

Natural Resources 15

United States Climate Regions 23

United States Population 29

Western U.S. Climates 35

Beringia 39

Pacific Northwest Indians 47

Southwest Indians 55

Plains Indians 61

Eastern Woodland Indians 69

North American Exploration, 1500s and 1600s 80

The Kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai 86

The Silk Road 88

Portuguese Explorers 92

Columbus's First Voyage 97

Columbian Exchange 99

Routes of Balboa and Magellan 100

Spanish Exploration 106

New Spain 111

Longitude and Latitude Globes 116

New Spain, 1750 117

Explorers in Florida 119

European Explorers, 1497–1616 123

Roanoke and Jamestown 131

New England Settlers 138

Dutch and Swedish Colonies 145

French Settlements, 1700 146

Balboa's Route 152

North America, 1740s 156

The Thirteen Colonies 161

The Appalachians 164

The New England Colonies 168

Triangular Trade Routes 175

The Middle Colonies 189

The Southern Colonies 204

North America, 1770 224

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North America in 1750 230



North America in 1763 230

Paul Revere's Ride 251

Battle of Bunker Hill 256

Battles in the North 280

Battle of Long Island 284

Battles in the South and West 287

A Global View, 1783 290

Battle of Yorktown 293

Northwest Territory 297

State Populations in 1790 305

Washington, D.C. 324

Westward Expansion 340

The Wilderness Road 345

The Louisiana Purchase 355

Journey of Discovery 358

The Battle of Lake Champlain 362

The United States in 1828 369

Trail of Tears 372

Canals and the National Road 382

Land Gained from Mexico, 1845–1853 396

Trails West, 1840–1850 402

The United States, 1860s 412

Underground Railroad 426

Growth and Compromise 433

Union and Confederacy 444

Early Battles 1861–1863 453

Battle of Antietam 454

Later Battles 1864–1865 467

A Global View, 1865 470

Major Railroads, 1900 494

Major U.S. Railroads, 1869 499

United States Time Zone Map 504

Settling the Plains, 1870–1890 507

Cattle Trails, 1860–1896 516

Changes for Plains Indians, 1860–1890 525

Western U.S. Timezones 531

Immigrant Neighborhoods 544

Routes to Chicago 549

The Great Migration 558

Major Events, 1900–1970 568

Alaska and Hawaii 573

Panama Canal 576

World War I Alliances 579

Dust Bowl Migration 593

U.S. Population, 1830 598

U.S. Population, 1930 598

World War II in Europe, 1939 601

World War II in the Pacific 604

D-Day 606

U.S. Population, 1890 609

The Cold War 613

North and South Korea 614

Vietnam, 1959–1975 634

United States Population, 2000 644

Oil Importers and Exporters, 1973 649

The Fall of Communism 660

East and West Germany 663

East and West Berlin 663

High-Tech Geography 671

Electoral Votes, 2000 673

Middle East Region 674

Afghanistan 679

Canada 683

Mexico 685

Immigration from Around the World 693

Oil in the Americas, 1973 708

World: Political R50

World: Physical R52

Western Hemisphere: Political R54

Western Hemisphere: Physical R55

North America: Physical R56

United States: Political R58

United States: Physical R60

Charts and Graphs

Mountains around the World 3

Rivers around the World 3

Solar Electricity Prices, 1975–2000 20

Exploration in the 1500s and Today 81

New England Settlers 138

City Populations, 1740s and Today 157

Daily Chores 177

New England Fishing Industry, 1641–1731 180

New England Exports to England, 1728–1733 182

Ships Built in New England, 1700–1706 183

Religious Diversity in the Middle Colonies, 1750 197

xxi

Farming in the 1770s and Today 225



Colonial Imports from Britain, 1764–1768 236

Soldiers at the Battle of Yorktown 288

Debt Cases in Two Counties 300

State Populations in 1790 305

Population Growth, 1800s and Today 341

Population in New States, 1810–1830 369

U.S. Cotton Production 379

European Immigration, 1840–1860 388

North and South, 1860s and Today 413

Manufacturing, 1820–1840 418

Major Crops in Georgia, 1860 423

U.S. Cotton Production, 1820–1860 423

U.S. Agricultural Exports, 1860 423

Confederate Inflation 462

Sharecropper's Account for the Year 1870 483

Immigration, Early 1900s and Today 495

Transcontinental Travel, 1869 499

Average Precipitation 509

Demand and Supply of Cattle 515

U.S. Oil Production in 1879 537

U.S. Population in 1880 and 1910 548

Pittsburgh Steel and Iron Workers 552

Constitutional Amendments 555

African American Population Growth 559

Top Exports in 1970 and Today 569

Car Sales, 1921–1929 587

Money Spent on Housing in the 1950s 621

Women's Education, 1970 and Today 645

Oil Prices (1976–1980) 652

Women in the Workforce 654

U.S. Deficit 657

Taxes Collected 1992–2000 665

Service Jobs 667

Canada's Exports 684

Mexico's Exports 687

Trade between the U.S. and Canada, 1993–2001 688

Trade between the U.S. and Mexico, 1993–2001 689

Recent Immigration to the U.S. 693

Rights of Citizens 699

Responsibilities of Citizens 700



Diagrams and Infographics

Cutaway of U.S. Landforms 6

Power from the Sun 21

Hoover Dam 32

Summarize 66

Make a Decision 194

Causes and Effects of the Revolution 248

Chain of Debt 300

Checks and Balances 314

Federal System of Government 315

Points of View 322

Make an Outline 352

Changes to the U.S. Flag 364

Inside a Cotton Mill 384

Three New Amendments 476

Sod Houses 512

Inside a Car 668

Timelines

Spanish Explorations 128

French Explorations 128

Major Achievements of George Washington 232

Battles of Lexington and Concord 252

Major Achievements of Thomas Jefferson 268

Voting Rights 316

The Liberty Bell 318

Pearl Harbor 602

Women's Rights Movement 654

Computer Evolution 666

Unit Preview Timelines 2, 80, 156, 224, 340, 412, 494, 568, 644

Chapter Preview Timelines 4, 36, 82, 120, 158, 186, 226, 260, 294, 342, 376, 414, 450, 496, 532, 570, 610, 646, 680

Lesson Timelines

Lesson Review Timelines

Chapter Review Timelines 35, 75, 119, 151, 185, 219, 259, 293, 327, 375, 407, 449, 489, 531, 563, 609, 639, 679, 707

xxii

About Your Textbook




1 How It's Organized



Units The major sections of your book are units. Each starts with a big idea.

Chapters Units are divided into chapters, and each opens with a vocabulary preview.

xxiii

2 Core and Extend



Lessons The lessons in your book have two parts: core and extend.

Core Lessons

Lessons bring the events of history to life and help you meet your state's standards.



Extend Lessons

Go deeper into an important topic.


Core Lesson

xxiv

Extend Lesson

Learn more about an important topic from each core lesson.

xxv

3 Skills



Skill Building Learn map, graph, and study skills, as well as citizenship skills for life.

4 References




Citizenship Handbook

The back of your book includes sections you'll refer to again and again.


Resources

Look for atlas maps, a glossary of social studies terms, and an index.

xxvi

Reading Social Studies



Your book includes many features to help you be a successful reader. Here's what you will find:

VOCABULARY SUPPORT

Every chapter and lesson helps you with social studies terms. You'll build your vocabulary through strategies you're learning in language arts.



Preview

Get a jump start on four important words from the chapter.



Vocabulary Strategies

Focus on word roots, prefixes, suffixes, or compound words, for example.



Vocabulary Practice

Reuse words in the reviews, skills, and extends. Show that you know your vocabulary.


READING STRATEGIES

Look for the reading strategy and quick tip at the beginning of each chapter.



Predict and Infer

Before you read, think about what you'll learn.



Monitor and Clarify

Check your understanding. Could you explain what you just read to someone else?



Question

Stop and ask yourself a question. Did you understand what you read?



Summarize

After you read, think about the most important ideas of the lesson.

xxvii

READING SKILLS

As you read, organize the information. These reading skills will help you:



Sequence

Cause and Effect

Compare and Contrast

Problem and Solution

Draw Conclusions

Predict Outcomes

Categorize (or) Classify

Main Idea and Details

COMPREHENSION SUPPORT



Build on What You Know

Check your prior knowledge. You may already know a lot!



Review Questions

Connect with the text. Did you understand what you just read?



Summaries

Look for three ways to summarize–a list, an organizer, or a paragraph.

xxviii

SPECIAL HOLIDAY: Constitution Day

We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union …?? These are the words that begin the United States Constitution, the plan for our national government. The leaders who wrote this document in 1787 wanted to create a good government for United States citizens. Today, we celebrate the Constitution during the week of September 17. We call this day Constitution Day and Citizenship Day.



The words “We the people?? show that the national government's power comes from the people of the United States. For the government to work, citizens must take part. They do this by voting, serving on juries, paying taxes, and working as community and national leaders.

National Constitution Center This exhibit in Philadelphia shows delegates debating at the Constitutional Convention.


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