Honors American Cultures Mr. Berardelli Guide Questions: The Great Depression and the New Deal, 1929-1939 chapter 24



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Honors American Cultures

Mr. Berardelli

Guide Questions: The Great Depression and the New Deal, 1929-1939

CHAPTER 24

The BIG IDEA: Americans have faced periods of economic difficulty that have challenged the responsiveness and adaptability of United States government and the resiliency of the American people.
Hard Times: (p. 717–722)

  • Objective: Identify & explain the causes of the 1929 stock market crash.

  • Objective: Summarize the reasons why the Great Depression occurred.

  • Objective: Analyze President Hoover’s philosophical and leadership response to the market crash and depression.



The Bull Market:

1) Identify & explain: Bull market - ________________________________________________

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2) What weakness was developing within the market? _________________________________

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3) What was “buying on the margin” and why was this risky? ____________________________

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The Crash:

4) Why did the stock market crash? _______________________________________________

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5) What was Andrew Mellon’s evaluation of the slump? ________________________________

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Underlying Weaknesses:

6) Why is it inaccurate to say that the stock market crash caused the Great Depression? ______

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7) What were the underlying causes of the Great Depression? __________________________

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Mass Unemployment:

8) What were the statistics of mass unemployment? __________________________________

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9) What did it mean to be unemployed and without hope in the early 1930s? _______________

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10) Which groups found it easiest to keep work?

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Hoover’s Failure:

11) What was Hoover’s response to the Depression and its massive suffering? _____________

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12) How were the needs of the unemployed addressed in the early years of the Depression?

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13) What did Hoover say in his 1931 State of the Union address? ________________________

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14) What was Hoover’s plan and what assumption was it based on? ______________________

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Protest and the Election of 1932:

15) What was the nature of the protests and how did they affect the election of 1932?

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16) How extensive was the Democratic victory in both the executive and legislative branches?

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Additional Notes: _____________________________________________________________

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FDR AND THE FIRST NEW DEAL: (p. 722 – 726)


  • Objective: Describe the government responses under the Roosevelt administration to the social and economic problems associated with the Great Depression.


FDR the Man:

17) What personal experience did he have that transformed him?

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18) What achievements did he have as governor that made him nationally popular?

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Restoring Confidence:

19) What was FDR’s inaugural message? __________________________________________

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20) What steps did he take to restore the banking system and what success did he have?

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The Hundred Days:

21) What was the Hundred Days? ________________________________________________

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22) What was the “priming the pump” concept? ______________________________________

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23) Identify: a) Harry Hopkins - _________________________________________________

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b) Harold Ickes - __________________________________________________

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Additional Notes: _____________________________________________________________

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LEFT TURN AND THE SECOND NEW DEAL: (p. 726-730)


Roosevelt’s Critics:

24) What were the programs of the following people?

a) Al Smith - ____________________________________________________________

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b) Upton Sinclair - _______________________________________________________

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c) Francis E. Townsend -__________________________________________________

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d) Huey Long - __________________________________________________________

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e) Father Coughlin - _____________________________________________________

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25) Who was potentially the greatest threat? ______________________________________

Why? ______________________________________________________________

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26) Why was labor a force to be reckoned with? ___________________________________
The Second Hundred Days:

27) Why did Roosevelt push for a Second Hundred Days and what were the goals of this second program? ____________________________________________________________

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Labor’s Upsurge:

28) How did the New Deal affect the upsurge of labor? ________________________________

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29) Who was Frances Perkins and what connection did she make between the new unionism and the New Deal? ____________________________________________________________

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The New Deal Coalition at High Tide:

30) What was the New Deal Coalition and how well did it support Roosevelt in the 1936 presidential election? ___________________________________________________________

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31) Who was the Republican candidate and what was the platform of the party? ____________

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Additional Notes: _____________________________________________________________

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THE NEW DEAL AND THE WEST: (p. 730 -735)


  • Objective: Evaluate the impact of the New Deal on the West.


The Dust Bowl:

32) Identify & explain: Dust Bowl - _________________________________________________

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33) What caused the Dust Bowl and what effect did it have on the population? ______________

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34) What federal agencies attempted to relieve the distress and what other steps did they take?

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35) What long term conservation and land use patterns did the government encourage?

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36) Identify & explain: “Okies” - ___________________________________________________

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Additional Notes: _____________________________________________________________

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DEPRESSION-ERA CULTURE: (p. 735-741)

Objective: Summarize how American culture in the 1930s was shaped by the Depression.
A New Deal for the Arts:

37) What innovative programs did the New Deal apply to the arts? _______________________

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The Documentary Impulse:

38) What was the documentary impulse and why was it strong during the Depression? _______

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Waiting for Lefty:

39) What did “Waiting for Lefty” mean and what did it imply generally about some artists’ and intellectuals’ confidence in capitalism? _____________________________________________

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40) How large was the American Communist Party? __________________________________

Speculate about the goals and agenda of the Communist Party__________________________

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41) What was the “Popular Front” and how did it affect left-wing influence? _________________

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42) What was the Abraham Lincoln Brigade? ________________________________________

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Hollywood in the 1930s:

43) How was Hollywood affected by the Depression? _________________________________

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44) What types of movies did Hollywood offer the most of? What types of movies were avoided? ____________________________________________________________________

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45) What were the values communicated by Walt Disney and Frank Capra? _______________

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The Golden Age of Radio:

46) How did the Depression actually help radio expand? _______________________________

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47) What types of series programs were the most popular? _____________________________

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48) How was Roosevelt an example of radio’s potential political influence? _________________

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49) How significant was the radio for news coverage? How reliable was the news? __________

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The Swing Era:

50) What was “swing” and what was it based on? ____________________________________

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Additional Notes: _____________________________________________________________

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THE LIMITS OF REFORM: (p. 741-745)

Objective: Identify the limits of reform and how they affected New Deal Programs.

Objective: Evaluate the overall effectiveness of the New Deal in ending the Depression.
Court Packing:

51) What was meant by the term “court packing” and why did Roosevelt attempt it? What effect did it have on his political power? _________________________________________________

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The Women’s Network:

52) What impact did the Depression and the New Deal have on women? __________________

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53) What was the women’s network? ______________________________________________

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54) What type of First Lady was Eleanor Roosevelt? __________________________________

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A New Deal for Minorities:

55) What did Clifford Burke mean when he said, “The Negro was born in Depression. It only became official when it hit the white man.”? _________________________________________

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56) Cite evidence of discrimination in the local administration of the New Deal. _____________

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57) Why did Roosevelt not make any overt efforts to combat racism? _____________________

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58) What gains were made by Blacks during the New Deal? ____________________________

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59) What was the “Black Cabinet” and who were examples of individuals on it? _____________

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60) How did black voters respond to the New Deal? ___________________________________

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The Roosevelt Recession:

61) Why did Roosevelt cut federal spending in 1937 and what effect did this have on the economy? ___________________________________________________________________

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Additional Notes: _____________________________________________________________

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CONCLUSION:

62) Identify and explain the various legacies of the Great Depression and of the New Deal?

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