Hong kong human rights monitor report on 1998 Legislative Council Elections



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First Past The Post



Advantages


  1. FPTP has the advantage of simplicity and the tendency to produce representatives with an obligation to safeguard the interest of a particular geographical area. It usually provides a clear-cut choice for voters between 2 main parties. It tends to give rise to single party governments and to a coherent single party opposition which can provide a critical checking role on the government of the day. It is also sometimes argued that FPTP by encouraging broadly based political parties discourages parties based on ethnic or regional divisions which are potentially damaging in a country with ethnic or regional tensions. It also tends to exclude extremist parties from parliamentary representation as unless their support is very geographically concentrated they cannot win seats. This contrasts with the situation under strict proportional representation, where a party with a fraction of 1% of the vote can secure Parliamentary representation.




  1. FPTP retains a link between constituents and their Member of Parliament, who know who their representative is and have the ability to re-elect that representative or throw them out at election time. FPTP allows voters to choose between people rather than just between parties. Finally, FPTP is simple to use and easy to understand.


Disadvantages





  1. The disadvantages of FPTP are firstly that it can exclude minority parties from fair representation. An example was the 1983 British General Election in which the Liberal Social Democratic party won 25% of the vote but only 3% of the seats. FPTP has been shown also to lead to under representation of women and of ethnic minorities as compared with proportional systems. It can create whole regions of a country where only one party is represented in the legislature. It can also be unresponsive to changes in public opinion as a pattern of geographically concentrated support can mean that one party can maintain exclusive executive control in the face of a substantial drop in popular support. FPTP systems can also be vulnerable to gerrymandering i.e. unfair delineation of constituencies boundaries to give one party an unfair advantage.



Proportional representation



Advantages


  1. PR systems faithfully translate votes cast into seats won and thus avoid unfair and potentially destabilising results which can be thrown up by first past the post systems. They give rise to very few wasted votes as almost all votes cast go to elect someone.




  1. PR systems facilitate the representation of minority parties. They also encourage parties to nominate representatives lists, multi-racial, multi-ethnic, and with both men and women candidates, in order to maximize their overall support.




  1. Because PR systems reward minority parties with a minority of the seats they prevent the development of single party domination of large regions of country as can occur under FPTP.




  1. It has been argued that Governments elected by PR are more effective, as Government is not subjected to regular switches between ideologically polarised parties as can occur under FPTP systems.


Disadvantages



  1. The two main claimed disadvantages of PR systems are that they tend to encourage coalition governments, which are often regarded as weak and/or unstable ( although this is not necessarily the case as the example of Germany shows); and that they break or reduce the link between the member of parliament and the constituency. A further disadvantage of coalitions is that some parties are almost permanently in power, which encourages corruption.




  1. PR systems can also give a platform to extremist parties, although this can be avoided by the requirement of a threshold such as 5% before a party gains seats in the legislature.


Alternative vote


  1. Australia is the only country in the world to use a system known as the alternative vote (AV). This is similar to FPTP in that elections are held in single member districts. However voters do not vote for a single candidate but rank the candidates in their order of choice. If no candidate has an overall majority the votes the candidate with the lowest number of first preferences is eliminated and the ballots cast for that candidate is examined for their second preference. The process is repeated until an overall winner emerges. This system appears to work well in Australia, encouraging a constructive process of bargaining “ preference swapping “ which tends to mean that parties must have a broad appeal to attract the second preferences of other parties’ voters. However it is as yet very unclear whether it would work equally well in societies with a less literate and sophisticated electorate. The system was used for 11 years in Papua New Guinea from 1964 to 1975 but was abandoned.

CONCLUSION




  1. There are respectable arguments for both PR and FPTP systems, while the AV system also appears to work acceptably. However as indicated above a key feature of PR is that it is designed to increase the fairness of the election in accurately reflecting the popular will. In Hong Kong the introduction of PR has been done with the intention of increasing the unfairness of the election, as it has the effect of reducing by 2 or 3 the number of seats won by the pro-democracy parties, which would already be grossly under-represented without PR because of the large number of seats which are not directly elected. If movement towards a fully democratic legislature is continued this unfairness will gradually diminish, but under present official plans it will not be eradicated for many years.

Appendix 7


VOTING FIGURES:

CONSTITUENCY NUMBER TURNOUT RATE

Hong Kong Island 596,244 309,814 51.96

Kowloon East 483,876 263,300 54.41

Kowloon West 411,466 206,682 50.23

NT East 595,341 332,694 55.88

NT West 708,444 377,215 53.25


TOTAL: 2,795,371 1,489,705 53.29
Appendix 8
SHARES OF THE VOTES:

(Geographical Constituencies) Percentage Percentage

of votes of seats

Democratic Party 42.87 15

Democratic Alliance for

the Betterment of Hong Kong 25.23 8.3

The Frontier 10.03 5

Citizens Party 2.81 1.7

Association for Democracy

and People's Livelihood 3.99 ----

Liberal Party 3.4 ----
* The first past the post voting system applies to the Election Committee, and an elector/voter is entitled to vote for as many candidates as there are vacancies and no more. In the case of the Election Committee, that would mean a maximum of 10 votes. The candidate who obtains the greatest number of votes will be elected, followed by the next candidate who has the next greatest number of votes, and so on, until all the vacancies are filled.

Appendix 9



VOTE COUNT AND RESULTS



VOTE COUNT: (Geographical Constituencies)

Hong Kong Island: Votes Seats

Democratic Party 143,843 2

Democratic Alliance for

the Betterment of Hong Kong 90,182 1

Citizens Party 39,251 1

Liberal Party 7,485

Non-affiliated:

Chong Chan-yau 12,377

Jennifer Chow Kit-bing 10,950

Louis Leung Wing On 2,588

Li Hung 935
Kowloon West:

Democratic Party 113,079 2

Democratic Alliance for

the Betterment of Hong Kong 44,632 1

Association for Democracy

and People's Livelihood 39,534

Liberal Party 5,854

Atlas alliance 2,302


Kowloon East:

Democratic Party 145,986 2

Democratic Alliance for

the Betterment of Hong Kong 109,296 1

Non-affiliated:

Harriet Fok Pui Yee 6,339


New Territories West:

Democratic Party 147,098 2

Democratic Alliance for

the Betterment of Hong Kong 72,587 1

The Frontier/ Confederation of

Trade Unions 46,696 1

Neighbourhood and Workers'

Service Centre 38,627 1

New Territories Alliance 25,905

Liberal Party 3,138

123 Democratic Alliance 3,050

The Pioneer 968

Non-affiliated:

Ting Yin Wah 11,176

David Yeung Fuk Kwong 6428


New Territories West:

The Frontier 101,811 2

Democratic Party 84,629 1

Democratic Alliance for

the Betterment of Hong Kong 56,731 1

Liberal Party 33,858

Citizens Party 2,382

Non affiliated:

Andrew Wong Wang Fat 44,386 1

Brian Kan Ping Chee 6,637


VOTE COUNT: (Functional Constituency)

Urban Council: Votes

Ambrose Cheung Wing Sum* 26*

Ronnie Wong Man Chiu 20

Mok Ying Fan (ADPL) 0



Regional Council:

Tang Siu Tong* 25*

Ann Chiang Lai Wan 24

Ngan Kam Chuen (DAB) 0



Heung Yee Kuk

Lau Wong Fat* unopposed



Agriculture and Fisheries

Wong Yung Kan (DAB)* 81*

Lawrence Lee Hay Yue 43

Insurance

Bernard Charnwut Chan* 94*

Chan Yim Kwong (LP) 83

Alex Wong Po Hang 0

Steven Lau Hon Keung 0

Wholesale and Retail

Selina Chow Liang Shuk Yee (LP)* 945*

Wong Siu Yee (HKPA) 276

Dominic Chan Choi Hi 202



Social Welfare

Law Chi Kwong (DP)* unopposed*



Legal

Margaret Ng Ngoi Yee* 1741*

Sylvia Siu Wing Yee 394

Francis Chong Wing Charn 138



Accountancy

Eric Li Ka Cheung* 3556*

Edward Chow Kwong Fai (LP) 1302

Peter Chan Po Fun 609


Transport

Miriam Lau Kin Yee(LP)* 82*

Yuen Mo 36

Medical

Leung Che Hung* 2759

Chan Ki Tak 1172

Health Services

Michael Ho Mun Ka (DP)* 11,420*

Peter Chua Sek Chon 2472

Engineering

Raymond Ho Chung Tai* 2036

Peter Wong King Keung 1112

John Luk Wang Kwong 491



Architechtural, Surveying, Planning

Edward Ho Sing Tin (LP)* unopposed



Labour (3 seats)

Lee Kai Ming* 212

Chan Wing Chan (DAB)* 212

Chan Kwok Keung* 204

Chan Yun Che 99

Ng Yat Wah 49



Tourism

Howard Young (LP)* unopposed*



Industrial (First)

Kenneth Ting Woo Shou (LP)* unopposed*



Industrial (Second)

Lui Ming Wah* 186*

Ngai Shiu Kit(HKPA) 107

Sports, Performing Arts Culture

and Publication

Timothy Fok Tsun Ting* 561*

Wu Chi Wai (DP) 258

Finance

David Li Kwok Po* unopposed*



Financial Services

Chim Pui Chung* 125*

Fung Chi Kin 117

Henry Wu King Cheong(HKPA) 47

Syed Bagh Ali Shah Bokhary 17

Education

Cheung Man Kwong (DP)* 34,864*

Li Sze Yuen 5319
Commercial (First)

James Tien Pei Chun(LP)* unopposed*



Commercial (Second)

Philip Wong Yu Hong* unopposed*



Real Estate and Construction

Ronald Arculli (LP)* 206*

Jimmy Tse Lai Leung 92

Import and Export

Hui Cheung Ching (HKPA)* unopposed*



Textiles and Garment

Sophie Lau Yau Fun (LP)* unopposed*



Information Technology

Sin Chung Kai (DP)* 1543

Edward Yung Kai Ning (HKPA) 456

Ringo Chan Kei Fu 423


Key:
ADPL: Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood

DAB: Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong

DP: Democratic Party

HKPA: Hong Kong Progressive Alliance

LP: Liberal Party

ELECTION COMMITTEE

Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong

Yeung Yiu Chung#* 441

Chan Kam Lam#* 432

Thomas Pang Cheung Wai 226


Hong Kong Progressive Alliance

Ambrose Lau Hon Chuen#* 504

David Chu Yu Lin#* 469

Choy So Yuk#* 397

Charles Yeung Chun Kam# 380
Liberal Party

Ho Sai Chu#* 386


Association for democracy

and People's Livelihood

Law Cheung Kwok# 259


New Territories Association

of Societies/DAB

Cheung Hok Ming# 273



Non-Affiliated

Rita Fan Hsu Lai Tai#* 628

Ng Leung Sing#* 539

Ng Ching Fai#* 530

Ma Fung Kwok#* 466

Peggy Lam Pei Yu Dja# 346

Kan Fook Yee# 300

Hui Tak Fai# 214

Pang Hang Yin 212

Maria Joyce Chang Sau Han# 149

James Chiu# 141

Stephen Yam Chi Ming# 137

Ho Ka Cheong 97

Leung Tsz Leung 85

Lee Kwong Lam# 83

Siu See Kong 56


Key: *Wins seat

# Also an Election Committee member


FOR THE RECORD

Youngest Winner: Bernard Charnwut Chan Age:33

Oldest Winner: Szeto Wah Age:67

Highest Promotion of votes: Cheung Man Kwong 34,864 votes 86.76%

Highest Proportion of votes for geographical list:

Democratic Party in Kowloon East - 145,986 55.8%

Lowest Proportion of votes for geographical list:

Lam Chi Leung 968 votes 0.26%



Appendix 10*


Breakdown of Electors for Functional Constituencies

Name


(a)

Estimated



(b)

No. of Electors Registered









Potential

Electorate



Bodies

Authorised Representative

Individuals

Total

Registration Rate (%)










(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)=(i)+(iii)

(b)(iv)/(a) x 100

1

Urban Council

50







50

50

100.0

4


Agriculture and Fisheries

170

165

165




165

97.1

7


Education

79,800







61,290

61,290

76.8

14


Labour

535

409

360




409

76.4

15

Social Welfare

5,350

189

160

3,209

3,398

63.5

17


Tourism

1,200

838

648




838

69.8

19


Commercial (Second)

5,500

705

368

1,093

1,798

32.7

21


Industrial (Second)

1,700

553

353




553

32.5

23


Financial Services

730

416

267

116

532

72.9

28

Information Technology

7,950

137

124

3,010

3,147

39.6




TOTAL

233,739

11,909

10,083

127,075

138,984

59.5

* Information from the Electoral Affairs Commission’s Report on the Elections.


APPENDIX 11: REAL ESTATE CONSTITUENCY (Same Addresses)


Tai Fung Engineering Co Ltd

28/Fl Standard Chartered Bank, Building 4, Des Voeux Rd, Central

- Chi Pan Company Ltd. (address same as above)

- Hang Lung Real Estate Agency Ltd (address same as above)

- Hang Tak Co. Ltd. (address same as above)

- Amoy Properties Ltd. (address same as above)

- Stanman Properties Ltd.(address same as above)

- Dynomia Co. Ltd (same as above)

- Polcalitan Ltd. (same as above)
Real Maker Development Ltd.

12/Fl Tsim Sha Tsui, Salisbury Road

- Saky Investment Ltd (same as above)

- Sidak Investment Ltd (same as above)

- Octerworth Entreprises Ltd (same as above)

- Cheer Result Ltd (same as above)

- Tat Lee Construction Co. Ltd (same as above)

- Jade Pine Ltd (same as above)

- Full Speed Development Ltd (same as above)

- Jumbo Funds Ltd (same as above)

- Better Chief Ltd (same as above)

- Golden Leaf Investment Ltd. (same as above)

- Kotachai Ltd. (same as above)

- Timeshare Development Ltd (same as above)

- Pridegate Ltd (same as above)

- Rich Century Ltd. (same as above)

- Murdoch Investment Inc. (same as above)

- Multipurpose Investment Ltd. (same as above)


Sun Hung Kai Properties Holdings Investments Ltd.

45/Fl, Sun Hung Kai Centre, 30 Harbour Road, Wan Chai

- Sun Hung Kai (NT) Shopping Ltd (same address)

- New Town Properties Holding Investment (same address)

- Estate Care Property Management Ltd (same address)

- Sanfield Building Contractors Ltd (same address)

- New Town Service Apartment Management Co. Ltd (same address)

- New Town (NT) Properties Ltd. (same address)

- Royaltelle International Ltd. (same address)

- Royal Park Hotel Management Ltd (same address)

- Shun Fai Construction Company Ltd (same address)

- Manfield Building Contractors Ltd. (same address)


Camleigh Investment Ltd.

6/Fl. World Wide house, 19/Fl Des Voeux Road Central

- Hung Kong Investment Co. Ltd (same address)

- Fordluxe Development Ltd. (same address)

- F Man Construction Co. Ltd (same address)

- Millap Ltd (same address)

- Kowatex Investment Ltd. (same address)

- Join Fortune Development Ltd. (same address)

- Shung King Development Ltd. (same address)

- Henderson Investment Ltd (same address)

- Henderson Land Development Co Ltd. (same address)

- Hong Yick Properties Management Ltd (same address)

- Golden Dragon Development Co ltd (same address)

- Egeria Investment Ltd. (same address)

- Delord Investment Ltd (same address)
Great Eagle Co. Ltd.

33/Fl Great Eagle Centre 23 Harbour Road.

- Great Eagle Estate Agents Ltd.(same address)

- Great Eagle Properties Management Co. Ltd. (same address)

- Great Eagle Project Management Ltd. (same address)

- Kiu Kwong Investment Corp. Ltd

8/Fl Chio Shang Building 92 Queen's Road East, Hong Kong

- Kiu Kwan Estates Ltd. (same address)

- Kui Wing Investment Corp Ltd. (same address)

- Shui On Construction Ltd.

12/Fl New Kowloon Plaza 38 Tai Kok Tsui

- Shui On Building Contractors Ltd. (same address)

- Hsin Chong Land Ltd.

5/Fl Devon House, 979 King's Road Quarry Bay

- Hsin Chong Construction Company Ltd (same address)

- Paul Y Construction Co. Ltd.

31/Fl Paul Y Centre 51 Hung To Road, Kwun Tong

- Paul Y - ITC General Contractors Ltd. (same address)

- Paul Y - ITC General Contractors Ltd (same address)
UDL Argos Engineering & Heavy Industry Co Ltd

11/Fl Nanyang Plaza, 57 Hung To Road Kwun Tong

- UDL Contracting Ltd (same address)

- UDL Kenworth Engineering Ltd.(same address on 10/Fl)






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