Homework #5: Chapter 10 Review Short Answer



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Homework #5: Chapter 10 Review

  1. Short Answer: Answer each question in complete sentences. Remember when you see the word describe it means to define or tell what is going in history and then explain its meaning or impact. Be specific in your responses. Write 3 to 4 sentences maximum.

  1. Describe the methods and policies Alexander Hamilton used to put the federal government on a sound financial footing.

  2. Explain how the conflict between Hamilton and Jefferson led to the emergence of the first political parties.

  3. Describe the polarizing effects of the French Revolution on American foreign and domestic policy and politics from 1790 to 1800.

  4. Explain the rationale for Washington’s neutrality policies, including the conciliatory Jay’s Treaty and why the treaty provoked Jeffersonian outrage.

  5. Describe the causes of the undeclared war with France, and explain Adams’s decision to seek peace rather than declare war.

  6. Describe the poisonous political atmosphere that produced the Alien and Sedition Acts and the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions.

  7. Describe the contrasting membership and principles of the Hamiltonian Federalists and the Jeffersonian Republicans, and how they laid the foundations of the American political party system.

B. Putting Things in Order: Put the following events in correct order by numbering them from 1 to 5.


. __________ Revolutionary turmoil in France causes the U.S. president to urge Americans to stay out of foreign quarrels.

. __________ Envoys sent to make peace in France are insulted by bribe demands from three mysterious French agents.

. __________ First ten amendments to the Constitution are adopted.

. __________ Western farmers revolt against a Hamiltonian tax and are harshly suppressed.

. __________ Jefferson organizes a political party in opposition to Hamilton’s financial policies.

C. Matching Cause and Effect: Match the historical cause in the left column with the proper effect in the right column by writing the correct letter on the blank line.


Cause

Effect

. ___ The need to gain support of wealthy groups for the federal government

. ___ Passage of the Bill of Rights

. ___ The need for federal revenues to finance Hamilton’s ambitious policies

. ___ Hamilton’s excise tax on western farmers’ products

. ___ Clashes between Hamilton and Jefferson over fiscal policy and foreign affairs

. ___ The French Revolution

. ___ The danger of war with Britain

. ___ Jay’s Treaty

. ___ The XYZ Affair

. ___ The Federalist fear of radical French immigrant



a. Led to the formation of the first two American political parties

b. Caused the Whiskey Rebellion

c. Led Hamilton to promote the fiscal policies of funding and assumption

d. Guaranteed basic liberties and indicated some swing away from Federalist centralizing

e. Led to imposition of the first tariff in 1789 and the excise tax on whiskey in 1791

f. Aroused Jeffersonian Republican outrage at the Washington administration’s pro-British policies

g. Created bitter divisions in America between anti-Revolution Federalists and pro-Revolution Republicans

h. Caused an undeclared war with France

i. Led Washington to support Jay’s Treaty

j. Caused passage of the Alien Acts


D. Reading for Main Idea and Supporting Details


Any historical generalization must be backed up by supporting details and historical facts. For example, the text states that “the key figure in the new government was smooth-faced Alexander Hamilton ...” (p. 182). This generalization is then supported by details and facts showing Hamilton’s importance, such as his policy of funding and assumption, his customs and excise taxes, and his establishment of the Bank of the United States.

List at least two supporting details or facts that support each of the following general assertions in the text.

1. “President Washington’s far-visioned policy of neutrality was sorely tried by the British” (p. 191).

2. “True to Washington’s policy of steering clear of war at all costs, [President Adams] tried again to reach an agreement with the French. . . ” (p. 194).

3. “Exulting Federalists had meanwhile capitalized on the anti-French frenzy to drive through Congress in 1798 a sheaf of laws designed to muffle or minimize their Jeffersonian foes” (p. 196).

4. “Resentful Jeffersonians naturally refused to take the Alien and Sedition Laws lying down” (p. 197).

5. “As the presidential contest of 1800 approached, the differences between Federalists and Democratic-Republicans were sharply etched” (p. 198).

a. Indicate two clear differences between the parties.


E. Constructing a Historical Argument


Read the prompt below and identify the specific skill being tested; be sure to explain why it is that skill. Determine the position you will take with regard to the prompt. Then, in the space provided below, put together specific and relevant evidence to be used in your argument as well as identifying evidence which goes contrary to your argument.

Prompt: It is common to present Jefferson and Hamilton as very different figures in American History. To what extent is this an accurate characterization?

Jefferson Hamilton

Position With Regard to the Prompt (circle one): Agree Disagree Modify

Develop your Thesis Statement.


F. Applying What You Have Learned (You as a Historian)


  1. What were the philosophical and political disagreements between Hamilton and Jefferson that led to the creation of the first American political parties?

  2. What were the basic goals of Washington’s and Adams’s foreign policies, and how successful were they in achieving them?



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