History Timeline Prehistoric (Ancient World)



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History Timeline
Prehistoric (Ancient World)
Prehistoric time is the time when it is generally accepted that there was human life on earth. However, it is a time before people could write and there is therefore little evidence from the time apart from tools, bones and cave paintings (the word prehistoric literally means before history and refers to the fact that there are no records). It is also difficult to pinpoint when prehistory ended and history started as writing was introduced at different times across the world. The prehistoric time is split roughly into three time periods, the Stone Age, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age; these apply at different times to different parts of the world.


25,000 BC

First evidence of modern humans in Britain. They were hunter-gatherers. Classed as the Stone Age which is a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make tools and weapons. Lasted roughly 3.4 million years and ended between 6000BC and 2500BC.

c. 5600 BC

The land bridge joining Britain to Europe is flooded. Britain becomes an Island.

c. 5500 – 4000 BC

Ancient Sumer. An ancient civilisation in modern day Iraq.

c. 4500 BC

Farming techniques are brought over from Europe. Simple pottery begins to be made.

c. 3300 BC

First stone circles and ‘henges’ are erected.

3300 – 1900 BC

The Indus Valley. Based in northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.

c. 3000 BC

New Stone Age begins (Neolithic times).

C. 3000 – 30 BC

Ancient Egypt. Was a well organised society with a pharaoh in charge. People lived on the banks of the Nile (the first civilised society).

c. 2500 BC

Bronze Age begins. Originally made items from copper. Way of life continued as before. Steady population growth. Roundhouses were main form of domestic building.

2150 BC

People learn to make bronze weapons and tools. Soon became skilled at making things from gold, silver and copper. These skills had been brought over from Europe.

c. 2000 BC

Evidence of field systems. Stonehenge completed.

1650 BC

Trade routes begin to form.

1500 – 1100 BC

The Shang Dynasty (China). During this time, 30 separate kings ruled from 7 different capitals. One of the most important contributions during this time was the invention of writing.

1200 BC

Small villages are first formed.

750 BC

Iron Age begins; iron replaces bronze as most useful metal.

500 BC

The Celtic people arrive from Central Europe.

Roman Britain (55BC - 410AD)
Rome first invaded Britain in 55 BC under Julius Caesar. This expedition was too hastily organised and he failed to defeat the tribesmen of Britain. He returned the year later, but left as he felt Britain did not offer him the treasures that he was expecting. It was not until 43 AD that Britain was invaded again, this time for good, under Emperor Claudius. Whilst it took 30 years to conquer the rest of Britain (and not Scotland which never fell), the Romans occupied Britain for nearly 400 years and left a lasting legacy.



55 BC

Julius Caesar heads first Roman Invasion but later withdraws.

54 BC

Julius Caesar makes another attempt to invade England, but was forced to return to Gaul (France) to deal with unrest there.

43 AD

Romans invade (under the orders of Emperor Claudius) and Britain becomes part of the Roman Empire.

50AD

London was founded (Londinium).

61 AD

Queen Boadicea / Boudicca lead the Iceni in revolt against the Romans. She led an army of 100,000, although between 70 to 80,000 Romans and British were killed in the battles. Eventually the British were defeated at the Battle of Watling Street.

70 AD

Romans conquer Wales and the North.

122 AD

Emperor Hadrian orders the building of a wall, 75 miles long, to separate Scotland from England.

410 AD

The Roman Empire fell and the Romans withdrew from Britain.


Anglo Saxon Britain (450AD - 1066AD)
In 410, Rome could not send reinforcements to help Britain who were being attacked by ‘barbarians’. Britain was being attacked by the Irish (west), the Picts (north) and various Germanic speaking peoples from the east (Angles, Saxons and Jutes. The term ‘Anglo-Saxon’ did not become common until the eighth century to distinguish between the people of Britain and the Saxons who remained in Germany.



450-750

Invasion of the Juts from Jutland, Angles from South of Denmark and Saxons from Germany. Britain divided up into the Seven Kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia, Wessex, Essex, Sussex and Kent.

c. 500

Sutton Hoo in Suffolk, location for famous graves from Anglo-Saxon times, probably the royal cemetery of the kings of East Anglia. A 30 foot oak ship was buried here along with many other objects.

510

Battle of Mount Badon; British victory over the Saxons

597

St Augustine brings Christianity to Britain from Rome and becomes Archbishop of Canterbury

617

Northumbria becomes the Supreme Kingdom

685

King Ecgfrith’s (of Northumbria) army was defeated at Nechtansmere (in Angus) and this out an end to northern expansion. The rising power of Mercia in the south curbed ambitions here too.

735

Death of the Venerable Bede, author of the ‘Ecclesiastical History of the English People’ which is the main source for the history of Britain from the late sixth to the early eighth century.

779

Mercia becomes the Supreme Kingdom and King Offa builds a Dyke along the Welsh border (marking the boundary between Mercia and Wales).


Viking Britain (865 AD - 1066AD)
Raids by Scandinavian pirates began at the end of the eight century. The reason for their invasion was to find loot and booty and so they targeted monastic sites in particular. Whilst the raids were sporadic at first, by 840 they began to settle in various parts of Britain. By the 860s conquest was the clear aim. By the early 11th century, the King of Denmark became the King of England.


793

First Invasion by the Vikings

821

Wessex becomes the Supreme Kingdom

866-77

Invasion of the Great Danish (Viking) Army. By 876, the Vikings had permanently settled in England.

866

York captured by Viking army.

871

King Alfred defeats the Vikings but allows them to settle in Eastern England

886

King Alfred formally agreed to a boundary between his kingdom and land ruled by the Viking King Guthrum. The North became subjected to the Danelaw, the rules of the Vikings.

889

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle starts (a collection of recorded stories and events chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons).

926

Eastern England (Danelaw) conquered by Saxons

954

Eric Bloodaxe, the last Viking King of Jorvik, is thrown out of York. After he was killed in the battle, the Vikings agreed to be ruled by England’s king.

1013

King Sven of Denmark (with his son Canute) sail up the rivers Humber and Trent to be accepted as king in the Danelaw. The Saxon King Ethelred the Unready flees. (Ethelred was a weak king. He paid the Viking raiders gold to stop their attacks, called Danegeld. However, they kept attacking and so Ethelred’s soldiers killed Viking families in Danelaw. This made the King of Denmark so mad that he invaded England).

1016

King Sven dies but his son, King Canute / Cnut of Denmark captures the English Crown.

1042

Ethelred’s other son, Edward the Confessor is invited to return from Normandy and become King after Harthacnut died suddenly (Edward was his half-brother).

1055

Westminster Abbey is completed.

1066

Harold Godwinson becomes the last Anglo-Saxon King after the death of Edward the Confessor. King Harold is eventually defeated by William, Duke of Normandy at the Battle of Hastings.

The Middle Ages (Medieval) Britain (1066AD - 1485AD)



1066 (5th Jan)

Edward the Confessor dies. Harold Godwinson named as his successor.

1066 (25th Sep)

Harald Hardraada (King of Norway) felt that he should be the King of England. He invaded and fought against the Saxons at the Battle of Stamford Bridge. He was killed.

1066 (14th Oct)

The Battle of Hastings; the invading Normans defeat the Saxons.

1066 (25th Dec)

William, Duke of Normandy was crowned as King.

1078

Work starts on the Tower of London (the White Tower) under the orders of King William.

1080-1100

Building work starts on Cathedrals and monasteries.

1086

The Domesday Book is compiled (this was to allow William to know the assets of each village for when he needed to raise money).

1170 Dec

Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury is killed in Canterbury Cathedral.

1215

The Magna Carta (Great Charter) is signed at Runnymede by King John. It limited the powers of the monarchy.

1282-83

King Edward invades and defeats the Welsh. The Welsh came under English rule and castles were built to protect his newly acquired lands.

1296

King Edward invades Scotland but they were not as easily defeated as the Welsh.

1297

The Scots under William Wallace defeat the English at the Battle of Stirling Bridge.

1306

Robert Bruce crowned King of the Scots.

1314

Scots under Robert Bruce defeat the English at the Battle of Bannockburn.

1337

King Edward claims the throne of France. Start of the Hundred Years War (1337-1453).

1348

The Black Death arrive. In Europe the death rate was 1 in 3. In England nearly half of the population died.

1381

The Peasants' Revolt. A major uprising against the poll tax but was eventually suppressed.

1415

English defeat the French at the Battle of Agincourt. This crippled France. Henry V married the French king's daughter and Henry's son was made heir to the throne of France.

1455

The Civil war (Wars of the Roses) starts between the Houses of York and Lancaster.



Tudor Britain (1485 - 1603)



1485

The Battle of Bosworth Field and the end of the Wars of the Roses. King Richard III (House of York) was killed. Henry Tudor from the House of Lancaster became King Henry VII.

1509

Henry VIII becomes King (the same year he marries Catherine of Aragon). Catherine of Aragon gave birth to a girl, Mary in 1516.

1533

Henry marries Anne Boleyn. The Pope excommunicated Henry and Archbishop Cranmer. In Sep, their daughter Elizabeth was born.

1534

Henry splits from the Catholic Church and forms the ‘Church of England’ through the Act of Supremacy.

1536

Anne Boleyn was beheaded for treason. Henry married Jane Seymour (she gave birth to his son, Edward but died shortly afterwards).

1536-1543

Act of Union joins England and Wales.

1536

Beginning of the dissolution of the monasteries.

1540

Henry marries Anne of Cleves. He divorces her later in the year. He marries Kathryn Howard in the same year.

1542

Henry has Kathryn Howard beheaded for adultery. He marries his final wife, Katherine Parr in 1543.

1547

Henry VIII dies and is succeeded by his son Edward. Edward was only 9 years old.

1553

Edward dies and is succeeded by his staunchly Catholic sister, Mary. She gets the nickname 'Bloody Mary' for her punishment of heretics.

1558

Mary I died and her protestant half-sister, Elizabeth I begins her reign.

1587

Elizabeth I orders the execution of Mary Queen of Scots. She had kept her prisoner for 19 years but was implicated in the Babington Plot. She was considered too much of a threat to Elizabeth's reign.

1588

The steady decline of relations between England and Spain led to the Spanish Armada. Spain sent 300 ships to invade England, but they were defeated.

1603

Death of Elizabeth I. Her 44 years on the throne had brought stability for England. Her reign was called 'the Golden Age'.


The Stuarts (1603 - 1714)



1603

James VI (Stuart) of Scotland becomes James I of England; uniting the two Kingdoms. Elizabeth had not married and had no heirs.

1605

Guy Fawkes tries to blow up Parliament on Nov 5th. It was a catholic conspiracy against the protestant king.

1606

The Union Flag adapted as the National Flag. It symbolised the union of Scotland and England through the reign of King James VI and I.

1620

The Pilgrim Fathers set sail aboard the Mayflower. They were puritans who wanted to start again in the New World.

1624-9

War With Spain. In 1630, both sides signed a Treaty ending the war.

1626-9

War with France.

1629

Parliament dissolved by King Charles and not recalled for 11 years (when he needed to raise money).

1635

King Charles I introduced ship tax. This made him very unpopular.

1642-1651

In August 1642, the English Civil Wars began between the King and his supporters (Royalists / Cavaliers) and Parliament and their supporters (Parliamentarians / Roundheads).

1649

King Charles executed. England became a republic.

1649-50

Cromwell’s conquest of Ireland.

1650-52

Cromwell’s conquest of Scotland.

1653

Cromwell proclaimed Lord Protector of England. He ruled as a monarch.

1660

Restoration of Monarchy under King Charles II

1660

Samuel Pepys starts his diary.

1664-65

The Great Plague. In London 100,000 people were killed. The only other place affected was Eyam in Derbyshire.

1666

The Great Fire of London swept through the city from 2 to 5 Sep 1666. The death toll was small but the fire was destructive and caused over £1billion damage (in today's terms).

1689

English Bill of rights. All England’s monarchs to rule in partnership with Parliament. Catholics were barred from the English throne.

1707

Act of Union between Scotland and England to form a united Parliament of Great Britain.



Georgian Britain (1714 - 1837)

1714

George of Hanover, Germany, succeeds Queen Anne to the throne. Although over 50 people were closer blood relatives, as they were catholic they were prohibited through the Act of Settlement to take the throne. George was Anne's closest living protestant relative.

1721

Sir Robert Walpole becomes the first Prime Minister.

1746

Bonnie Prince Charlie is defeated at the Battle of Culloden. Charles Edward Stuart was also known as The Young Pretender. He wanted to regain the British throne for the exiled house of Stuart. His uprising was unsuccessful and ultimately led to defeat at the Battle of Culloden.

1761

The Bridgewater Canal opened from Worsley to Manchester. Considered the first 'true' canal in Britain it required an aqueduct to cross the River Irwell.

1765

The Spinning Jenny was invented by James Hargreaves which mechanised the weaving of cloth.

1775

Watt's first steam engine.

1775 - 1783

America goes to war with Britain for their independence which they made official on 4 July 1776 through the Declaration of Independence. In 1783 war was over and Britain agreed to a peace which recognised the sovereignty of the US.

1780s

Start of the Industrial Revolution.

1788

First convict ships sent to Australia

1796

Edward Jenner invented small pox vaccination. James Phipps was the first person to be vaccinated against small pox.

1800

Act of Union with Ireland.

1804

Richard Trevithick built the first steam locomotive. It was officially tested in Feb at the Penydarren Ironworks in Merthyr Tydfil, Wales.

1805

Lord Nelson defeats Napoleon at the Battle of Trafalgar. It was a naval battle between Britain and the combined troops of France and Spain.

1807

Abolition of the Slave Trade Act which abolished the slave trade in the British Empire.

1815

Duke of Wellington defeats Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo. This marked the end of the Napoleonic Wars.

1825

World’s first railway opens between Stockton and Darlington (27 Sep).

1829

The Metropolitan Police Act was passed in Parliament after being introduced by Sir Robert Peel. It established a police force.

1832

The Great Reform Act passed. This made small changes to voters rights but it was a start.

1834

The Poor Law set up workhouses, where people without jobs could live in return for doing unpaid work.


Victorian Britain (1837 - 1901)



1837

Queen Victoria becomes Queen at the age of 18. She succeeded her uncle, King William IV.

1838

Peoples Charter drawn up highlighting 6 key points for democratic reform.

1842

Mines Act ended child labour. It stopped all boys and girls under the age of 10 from working in the mines.

1845

Ireland suffered the Great Potato Famine when entire crops of potatoes were ruined. Nearly 1 million people died of starvation which was about 20-25% of the population in Ireland.

1848

First Public Health Act passed to try and improve the state involvement in the health of the country.

1851

The Great Exhibition. A celebration of modern technology and design by all nations.

1854

Crimean War. Britain and France fought against Russia in the Crimea. Britain were eventually victorious.

1854

A cholera epidemic led to demands for a clean water supply and proper sewage systems in the big cities.

1856

Britain beats Russia in the Crimean War.

1861

The death of Prince Albert from typhoid fever. He was only 42 years old.

1867

Joseph Lister discovers disinfectant for use in surgery (carbolic acid). This meant that operations would be more hygienic.

1867

Second Reform Act doubles the electorate.

1870

The first Education Act. Established a system of school boards to try and encourage the building of schools where they were needed.

1876

Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone.

1876

Queen Victoria becomes Empress of India.

1877

First public electric lighting in London.

1880

Elementary Education Act. Compulsory attendance for children aged 5-10.

1883

First electric railway.

1891

Provided for the state payment of school fees making education free for all.

1899

Second Boer War starts in South Africa. It ends in 1902 in defeat for the Boers.


Modern Britain (1901 - now)



1901

Edward VII became king after the death of his mother.

1902

Britain defeats Dutch settlers in Boer War in South Africa

1903

WSPU (Women's Social and Political Union) formed to try and gain the right for women to vote. They were nicknamed the Suffragettes.

1906

Liberal Welfare Reforms were a series of reforms passed by the Liberal government after their election victory in 1906.

1906

First free school meals for children (but schools were not forced to provide these until 1914).

1908

Children and Young Peoples Act. This imposed punishments on people for neglecting children.

1908

Old Age Pensions introduced (with limitations).

1911

National Insurance Act passed. Gave workers rights to sick pay and unemployment benefits.

1914

4th August Britain declared war on Germany. This marked the start of British involvement in the First World War.

1916

1st July marked the start of the Battle of the Somme. Sixty thousand British men were killed or injured on the very first day alone.

1918

11th November, armistice. The end of the First World War. Ten million civilians were killed and nine million soldiers.

1919

Lady Nancy Astor becomes the first female MP in Parliament.

1920

Republic of Ireland gains independence.

1928

Women over the age of 21 are given the right to vote. This was the first time that they had equal voting rights to men.

1936

Edward VIII becomes King but sparks a national crisis when he abdicated in order to marry his American divorcee, Wallis Simpson.

1937

Sir Frank Whittle invents the jet engine.

1938

Neville Chamberlain met with Hitler to agree on the issue of Czechoslovakia. The policy of Appeasement did not work.

1939

3 September, Britain declared war on Germany. The Second World War had begun.

1940

The evacuation of British soldiers from Dunkirk.

1941

December, the navy of the USA is attacked at Pearl harbour by the Japanese. America enters the war.

1944

June 6, D-Day. Allied troops land on the Normandy beaches in France. The offensive against the Germans launches into its final successful stage.

1945

May 8, Victory in Europe day. The end of the Second World war in Europe.

1948

National Health Service (NHS) established.

1952

Elizabeth II becomes Queen upon the death of her father, King George VI.

1953

Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II.

1966

England won the World Cup.

1979

Margaret Thatcher become Britain’s first woman prime minister. She was leader of the Conservative party.

1982

The Falklands War against Argentina.

1991

The Gulf war. Thirty four nations went to war against Iraq following their invasion of Kuwait.

1991

Sir Tim Berners-Lee invents world wide web.

1994

Channel Tunnel opens linking Britain to the continent. A 31 mile long tunnel linking Britain to France.

1999

Welsh National Assembly and Scottish Parliament formed.

2003

The Second Gulf War.

2005

July bombings in London. A series of coordinated suicide attacks that killed 52 people in central London.

2012

Diamond Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II (60 years on the throne).

2012

Olympic Games held in London. Team GB came third with 29 gold medals; their best medal haul since the Olympics of 1908.






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