For a list of the strange coins paid into this fund and a computation of their value in gold florins
, see Kirsch, pp. 56 sq. Kirsch estimates the gold florin as equivalent in face value to 10 marks or $2.50 and the mark in the 14th century as having four times the purchasing power of a mark to-day.
81908 De consid., III.1, 3. Bernard returns again and again (in his de consid., I. 11; IV. 4, etc., and his Letters) to the venality of the curia. He even suggested that Eugenius might have to leave Rome to get away from its corruption, De consid., IV. 3.
91909 Luard’s ed., V. 96.
01910 Coulton’s ed., pp. 261 sq.
Bernard of Cluny in his de contemptu mundi
has the following lines:—
Roma dat omnibus omnia, dantibus omnia Romae
Cum pretio: quia jure ibi via, jus perit omne
Ut rota labitur, ergo vocabitur hinc rota a Roma
Roma nocens nocet, atque viam docet ipsa nocendi
Jura relinquere, lucra requirere, pallia vendi
21912 The Latin Poems of Walter Mapes, ed. by T. Wright, London, 1841, p. 218.
31913 De consid., II. 8; III. 4; IV. 8. After the resurrection, Peter went to Jesus on the lake. The lake signified the world and Peter has charge over the world, and each Apostle charge over his own little boat. James was satisfied with jurisdiction over Jerusalem and acknowledged Peter’s authority over the entire Church.
51915 In a vigorous letter to Innocent, Bernard complained that bishops were deprived by the curia of the power to right wrongs in their own dioceses and to exercise the function of the keys. Ep., 178, Migne, 182. 310.
61916 See Döllinger, Papstthum, pp. 73, 409 sq. Innocent referred back to Leo I., who had written to a bishop of Thessalonica, vices enim nostras ita tuae credidimus charitati, ut in partem sis vocatus sollicitudinis, non in plenitudinem potestatis. Ep., VI. Migne, LIV. 671.
71917 Lib. Sextus, I. 6, 16, Friedberg’s ed., II. 954 sqq.
81918 Stubbs, Const. Hist., III. 303 sq., refers to "the shadowy freedom of election."
91919 Third Lat., can. 3.
01920 Hauck, III. 28 sqq.
1921 capitula clausa. Hurter, III. 355, pronounced the change a sign of decay.
The prospective occupants of stalls were called canonici in herbis
, canons on the commons; the actual incumbents, canonici in floribus et fructibus.
The Third Lateran forbade the appointment of canons to stalls not yet vacant
, but Alexander IV., 1254, sanctioned the appointment of as many as four such expectants. See Art. Kapitel,
Herzog, X. 38.
31923 Third Lat., can. 6, Friedberg, pp. 188 sqq. Innocent III. recognized the archdeacon as the bishop’s representative. Hurter, III. 362 sq.
41924 Hauck, IV. 10 sqq. Metz, Toul, Mainz, etc., also employed a number of archdeacons.
51925 Third Lat., can. 19, Fourth Lat., can. 46. This principle was recognized by Frederick II., 1220. Also Narbonne, 1127, can. 12; Toulouse, 1229, can. 20 sq., etc.
61926 Third Lat., can. 15.
71927 Epp., 112, 121.
81928 Subsidium charitativum. Third Lateran.
91929 Ethica, 25, Migne, 178. 672 sq.
01930 See Hurter, III. 292 sqq., for a list of warrior prelates.
1931 Gregorovius, IV. 610.
21932 Stubbs’ ed. of Hoveden, II.58.
31933 Coulton’s ed., p. 264 sqq.
41934 Dial., II. 27, Strange’s ed., I. 99.
Innocent III. Ep.,
II. 142. "Hundreds of times," says Harter, III. 388, does this pope insist upon obedience from the priest to his superior and says ’the evil of disobedience is the crime of idolatry
,’ inobedientiae malum est scelus idolatriae
61936 Fourth Lateran, can. 15.
71937 The practice of usury so frequently forbidden to priests was also forbidden to the laity, laicis usura dampnabilis est. Gratiani Decr. causa, XIV. 4, 9, Friedberg’s ed., I. 737.
81938 Ep., I. 231.
91939 Hauck, IV. 29 sqq.
01940 The Gregorian Decretals discuss chapels controlled by monks. Friedberg’s ed., II. 607 sqq.
1941 Hauck, IV. 47 sq. In some dioceses priests were said to receive only one-sixteenth of the tithes due them, the rest being appropriated by the lay patron or bishop. So the synod of Mainz, Hefele, VI. 75.
31943 Piacenza, 1095; London, 1138, 1175; Oxford, 1222; Treves, 1227, etc. Caesar of Heisterbach, Dial., II. 7, tells of priests who for bribes gave burial to unchurched persons.
41944 First Lat., can. 9; Second Lat., can. 10; Third Lat., can. 17; synods of Nismes, 1096, Troyes, 1107, Rheims, 1119, etc. The Gregorian Decretals are full on the subject of patrons and their rights. Friedberg’s ed., II. 609-622. Innocent III. laid down the rule, quod beneficia non possint conferri per saeculares. Ep., I. 64, IX. 234, quoted by Hurter, III. 381.
51945 Hurter, III. 395.
61946 Third Lat., can. 13; Fourth Lat., can. 29; Paris, 1212, etc.
71947 Hauck, IV. 40. Cruel, Deutsche Predigt, etc., expresses a less favorable judgment and estimates that one-half of the German clergy in the 13th century were uneducated and unable to preach. Coulton, p. 277, referring more especially to Italy, speaks "of the abyss of ignorance among the clergy at which we may well stagger."
81948 The Constitutions of Otho, 1237. Grosseteste, Letters, LII., Luard’s ed., p. 154 sqq.
01950 Ep., VI. 199, etc. Writing to the abp. of Pisa, he expressed amazement that the abp. should have declared a cleric, receiving injury from a layman, might submit his case to a lay tribunal. Ep., IX. 63.
1951 Clermont, 1095, 1130; Rheims, 1131, 1148; Second Lat., Third Lat., can. 12, etc.
21952 Innocent III. Ep., V. 79; M. Paris, IV. 578; Hauck, IV. 83 sqq.; M. Paris, IV. 496; vita Norberti, 18. Salembene(sic) reports the murder of a bishop of Mantua in a political quarrel. Coulton’s ed., p. 35.
31953 Greg., Decret., II.1, 10, Friedberg’s ed., II. 242.
41954 Third Lat., etc.
51955 Fourth Lat., can. 16; Soissons, 1079, London, 1102, 1175; Rheims, 1171; Paris, 1212; Montpellier, 1215, etc. Innocent III.’s letters also make reference to the worldly garb of the priests. See Hurter, III. 391.
61956 M. Paris, an. 1238.
Rouen, 1083; Soissons, 1079; Clermont, 1095; Fourth Lateran
; Treves, 1227; Rouen, 1231. The Constitutions of Otho, 1237, etc.
81958 De consid., III. 5. habitu milites, quaestu clericos, actu neutrum exhibent.
91959 Chart. univ. Paris, I. No. 470.
01960 Coulton’s ed., 272 sqq.
1961 See text; Rashdall, Universities, II. 690.
21962 Ep., I. 469, VI. 103, etc., Migne, 214. 436; 215. 110.
31963 Libellus apologet. and Quare fratres Minores praedicant.
41964 Hergenröther, Kathol. Kirchenrecht, p. 342, speaks of the rarity of synods from 900-1050 as a sign of the laxity of Catholic discpline.
51965 Döllinger-Friedrich, D. Papstthum, p. 88 sqq.
61966 Summa, supplem., VIII. 4, Migne, IV. 946, etc.
71967 Anglia plena jocis
. William Fitzstephen (quoted by Traill, I. 377 sq.) dwells upon the Englishman’s love of sports that day
,—football, boating, archery, etc.
81968 Haller, Papsttum, p. 27.
91969 Maitland, p. 123; Jessopp gives many cases of these appeals.
01970 Stubbs, III. 322 sq.
1971 Fitzstephen, as quoted by Traill, I. 383.
21972 The king entered the chapter and forced the election. The pope yielded, but to prove "he had not sown on a barren coast without reaping benefit of harvest, at once made a demand of 5000 marks for a favorite." M. Paris, V. 179 sqq.
31973 Hurter, III. 331 sqq., speaks of the English bishops in the time of Innocent III. as most corrupt. Stubbs, III. 327 sq., finds it to the credit of the bishops that there were so few instances of "removal from their sees for any penal reason."
41974 Stubbs, II. 180.
51975 Upon the valuation of 1291, the clerical tax should have amounted to £20,000. Stubbs, III. 360.
Jensen, D. englische Peterspfennig
, Heidelb., 1903, and Liebermann, The Peter’s Pence and the Population of Engl. about 1164,
in Engl. Hist. Rev., 1896. The Saxon designations of Peter’s Pence were romfeoh
. The Normans called it romascot
, and the popes usually referred to it as denarius, census
, or res beati Petri
, and "gift," eleemosyna
71977 Jensen, pp. 60-64, with elaborate list of authorities.
81978 M. Paris, IV. 580.
91979 M. Paris, IV. 32. This chronicler says that Edmund, archbishop of Canterbury, was so harassed by these demands that in despair he exiled himself from the kingdom.
01980 M. Paris, IV. 285, 443.
1981 Stubbs, III. 348.
21982 M. Paris, II. 229, IV. 60, 100, 136, 160, 284, 626, etc.
31983 M. Paris, II. 210, IV. 610, says of Geoffrey, bishop of Bethlehem, legate to Scotland, that it was hoped that as "adamant attracts iron, so he would draw to himself the much coveted monies of Scotland."
41984 V. 233.
51985 III. 245.
61986 III. 283.
M. Paris, III. 170. See Stubbs
, III. 383, note.
81988 John of Salisbury, Ep. 27, Migne, 199. 18.
91989 See Maitland, p. 18.
01990 Stubbs, I. 306 sq., III. 353 sqq.
1991 Stubbs, Const. Hist., II.313, in pronouncing the thirteenth century "the golden age of English churchmanship," has reference more particularly to the influence the bishops had upon the formation of the English constitution.
21992 Praeterita III. 1.
31993 Cencio’s register gave the number of households owing Peter’s Pence, as 10,080 for Lincoln, 4160 for Winchester, 3960 for London, and 1896 for Canterbury.
41994 Stubbs, ed. of Hoveden, IV. p. xcii, calls this a "landmark of English constitutional history, the first clear case of a refusal of a money grant demanded directly by the crown."
His name is spelt Grossetete, Grosthead, Greathead, etc. The Latin forms
, Grossum Caput
, were also used. Fuller, with more quaintness than authority, says he got his name from the bigness of his head, "having large stowage to receive and store of brains to fill it." Stevenson, p. 337, adduces three lines along which Grosseteste did conspicuous service; namely, as an ecclesiastical reformer, a friend of learning, and a statesman.
61996 Solus ... novit scientias. Bridges’ ed., I. 67. Gower, in his confessio amantis, praises the "grete clerke Grosseteste."
71997 The Mon. Francisc. gives sixty of Marsh’s letters to Grosseteste.
81998 M. Paris, V. 226. The methods the bishop resorted to for determining the fidelity of the nuns to their vows is also recorded by M. Paris.
91999 Letter 127. See Luard’s Introd., p. 114.
. 128. Adam Marsh referred to the letter "as that fearless answer written with so much prudence, eloquence
, and vigor, which will, with God’s aid, benefit all ages to come." See Stevenson, p. 312. M. Paris, V. 257, states that Grosseteste declared he would be acting like the devil if he were to deliver the cure of souls over to the Romans, "whom he hated like poison."
12001 De omnibus beneficiis eccles. libere potest ordinare. Ep., 49, Luard’s ed., p. 145.
2002 M. Paris, IV. 643 sqq., VI. 138-144.
32003 ·Ep. 2. auctoritas irrefragabilis scripturae.
Bishop Hall quoted Grosseteste for his scriptural views, and Field, Of the Church
, IV. 384 sqq., quoted him against the pope’s claim to supreme authority
, but wrongly.
52005 Pegge devotes twenty-five closely filled pages with the list of the bishop’s books.
62006 Mon. Franc., p. 64.
72007 Peltier’s ed., XIV. 181. A free translation runs, "Hail, heavenly lily, Hail most graceful rose, Hail mother of the lowly, Reigning on high, Couch of deity; Give to us in this valley of tears strength, Lend aid O thou palliator of sins."
82008 2 sinus, bosom; pectus, breast; viscera bowels; ubera, breasts; uterus, etc.
92009 Bonaventura, Speculum, III. Peltier’s ed., XIV. 240.
02010 Migne, 145. 566
12011 Ir antlutze war so tugentliche, Ir ougen also kunchliche, Ir gebaerde also reine, Das sich ze ir glichte deheine, Under allen den frouen
, quoted by von Eicken, p. 477.
2012 The word used is concupiscentia, the usual word for lust. Migne, 183. 62.
32013 Specialissime et spiritualissime. Migne, 210. 53.
See von Eicken, p. 481. In a song to Mary written by the Dominican
, Eberhard of Saxony, in the thirteenth century, occur the lines:—
Got in sinem hohen trone hat begehrt diner schone
Da er wil, o wiber Krone mit gelüste dich ansehen.
"God on His throne desired thy beauty and wanted, O crown of womanhood, to look on thee with passion."
52015 Orationes, LII., Migne, 158. 954.
62016 De laud. Mariae, Borgnet’s ed., XXXVI. 600-840.
72017 These works may not all be genuine. They belong, at least, to Bonaventura’s age.
82018 De assump., Migne, 183. 430; De nativ. Mariae, Migne, 183. 441; Supermissus III., Migne, 183. 70
92019 In Sent., III. 1, 2, Peltier’s ed., IV. 63.
02020 Orat., LVIII, LX. Migne, 158. 964, 966.
12021 Dreves, Analecta, I. 48 sqq.
2022 De variis mirac
., Migne, 145. 586 sq.; De bono suffr
., Migne, 145. 564
32023 Dial., VII. 13, 19, XI. 12, VII. 12, 39, 40, 51, etc.
42024 Dial., VII. 38.
52025 II. 264.
62026 The Assumption of Mary. Temple Classics, IV. 249.
72027 Hase, Miracle Plays, 31.
82028 De Mariae virg., Migne, 173. 872. Bernard even uses the word "impregnate," impregnare to indicate the Spirit’s influence. Migne, 183. 59.
92029 Cur Deus homo, II. 8; De concept. virg., Migne, 158. 445.
02030 Summa III. 28, 1, etc., Migne, IV. 258, 262, 294, 298, etc.
12031 In Sent., III. 5, IV. 3, 1, PeItier’s ed., IV. 53 sqq., V. 59.
32032 Ep., 174, Migne, 332-336.
32033 Sententia communior, rationabilior et securior. Peltier’s ed., IV. 67.
42034 Summa, III. 27, 4, Migne, IV. 252.
52035 Si auctoritati eccles. vel scripturae non repugnet videtur probabile quod excellentius est attribuere Mariae videlicet quod non sit inoriginali peccato concepta. Sent., III. 3 Paris ed., XIV. 165. See Seeberg, p. 247 sq., and Schwane, p. 424 sqq.
72037 Addis and Arnold, Cath. Dict., 6th ed., commend the tradition as inherently probable as no relics of Mary’s body have ever been found.
82038 Damiani, De Mirac., Migne, 146. 586.
92039 De bono suffr. Migne, 145. 564.
02040 According to Caesar of Heisterbach, the Ave Maria took the place of sugar and honey in the mouths of nuns who repeated it on their knees daily fifty times and it tasted like honey. A priest who tried it found, after six weeks, that his spittle had turned to honey. Sermons, as quoted by Cruel, Gesch. d. Deutschen Predigt, p. 284.
12041 De laude virginis. Migne, 183. 58.
2042 Th. Aq., Summa, III. 25, 6, Migne, IV. 240 sq.; Bonavent., Peltier’s ed., IV. 206 sq., VIII. 196. Thornas accords a single brief chapter to relics and quotes Augustine but not Scripture in favor of their vvorship.
32043 Bonavent., III. 27, 2, Peltier’s ed., IV. 619.
42044 Coulton’s ed., p 253.