41794 In Sent. II. 22, E. Borgnet’s ed., XXVII. 377.
51795 In Sent., II. 22, I. 3, Peltier’s ed., III. 123.
61796 Man hatte Augustinische Formeln und gregorianische Gedanken. Loofs, p. 291. Schwane, p. 455, praises Thomas’ clear treatment of the doctrines of grace, and says he taught them as they are taught in the Catholic systems of dogmatics to-day. Loofs, Harnack, and Seeberg seem to me to go too far in ascribing to Thomas a de-Augustinianizing tendency. His plain statements of the necessity of divine grace and human inability are Augustinian enough. Passing from the study of Thomas’ theory of the sacraments, it is easy to put upon the statements about grace a Pelagian interpretation. The fairer way is to interpret his theory of the sacraments in the light of his teachings on the doctrine of grace.
71797 meritum apud deum esse non potest, nisisecundum praesuppositionem divinae ordinationis. Summa, II. 114, I. Migne, II. 960.
81798 Verum non potest cognosecre sine auxilio divino. Summa, II. 109, 2, 6, 7, Migne, II. 907 sqq.
91799 Sanguis qui est pretium nostrae redemptionis non dicitur obtulisse diabolo sed deo. Summa, III. 48, 4, Migne, III. 44.
01800 Mors Christi nos justificat, dum per eam charitas excitatur in cordibus nostris. Sent., III. 19, 1.
1801 Per passionem Christi homo cognoscit quantum deus hominem diligat et per hoc provocatur ad eumdiligendum. Summa, III. 46, 3, Migne, III. 417.
21802 In Sent., III. 20, Peltier’s ed., IV. 439. He attempts to show that he is not out of accord with Anselm, but he makes poor work of it. Anselm’s statement is absolute. Cur deus homo, II. 10.
31803 Peltier’s ed., IV. 474 sqq.
41804 De divisione gratiae. Summa, Migne, II. 927-960.
51805 Tota justificatio impii consistit in infusione gratiae ... justif. fit, deo movente hominem ad justitiam. Summa, II. 113, 3, 7, Migne, II. 946. 952.
61806 Hugo of St. Victor, Desacr. I. 10, 9, Migne, 176. 341 sqq.; P. Lombardus, Sent., III. 23, 24, Migne, pp. 295 sqq.; Bonavent., In Sent., III. 23, 24, Peltier’s ed., IV. 475 sqq.; Th. Aquinas, IV. 1-5, Migne, IV. 12 sqq; Alb. Magnus, In Sent., III. 23, 24, Borgnet’s ed., XXVIII. 408 sqq.
71807 Aliud credere deo, aliud credere deum, aliud credere in deum. P. Lomb., III. 23, 4.
81808 Spec. eccles., Migne, 172. 823.
91809 Summa, IV. 4, 2, Migne, IV. 14, quoting 1 Cor. 13:12.
01810 Charitas dicitur forma fidei, etc., IV. 4, 3. Such faith which is without love fides informis.
1811 P. Lomb., III. 25, 3, Migne, p. 300.
21812 Fides non remanet in homine postquam discredit unum articulum fidei. Summa, IV. 5. 3, I. 7 sqq., Migne, III. 63 sq.
31813 In heretico discredente unum articulum fidei, non manet fides neque formata neque informis. IV. 5, 3, Migne, p. 63.
41814 Summa, II. 113, 4, Migne, II. 948.
51815 This is one of the charges brought with great vehemence against Luther and the Reformation by Denifle, Luther und Lutherthum, I. 374-456. He misunderstood or willfully misrepresented Luther, who never intended to detach a life of good works from faith as its necessary consequence.
61816 Thomas Aquinas calls it locus dolorum and infernum damnatorum.
71817 Profundus carcer respectu amoenitatis coeli et est aer iste caliginosus in quem detrusi sunt demones, etc. Alb. Magnus, In Sent., III. 22, C, 4, Borgnet’s ed., XXVIII. 393.
81818 Ignis est in fortissima calididate ... cui nil est comparabile. Alb. Magnus, Borgnet’s ed., XXX. 597.
91819 Gehenna illa quae stagnum ignis et sulphuris dicta est, corporeus ignis erit et cruciabit damnatorum corpora vel hominum vel daemonum. P. Lomb., Sent., IV. 44, 6. Absque dubietate corporeus ignis cruciat, etc. Alb. Mag., In Sent., Borgnet’s ed., XXX. 393. Ignis corporalis qui concremabit et affliget spiritus et etiam corpora ... sed semper affliget, alios plus alios minus, secundum exigentiam meritorum. Bonavent., Brev., VII. 6.
01820 Probabile est, quod idem locus vel quasi continuus, sit infernus et limbus. Th. Aq., Migne, IV. 1222. Thomas calls the infernal regions interchangeably infernus and inferni. Alb. Magnus uses the neuter plural inferna. In Sent., III, 26, C. 392.
1821 Th. Aq., Summa, III. 69, 6, originali peccato debebatur poena aeterna in limbo puerorum. Limbus means edge or border. Alb. Magnus also calls it limbus parvulorum, the region of the little ones. Borgnet’s ed., XXVIII. 392.
21822 Pueris non adest spes beatae vitae, etc. Th. Aq., Supplem., p. 1223. divinae justitiae aequitas perpetualiter eos consolidat, ut nec proficiant, nec deficiant, nec laetentur, nec tristentur; sed semper per sic uniformiter maneant, etc. Bonavent., In Sent., II. 33, 2, 3, Peltier’s ed., III. 419.
31823 In Sent., III. 22, I. 4 sqq., Peltier’s ed., IV. 467.
41824 Suppl., Migne, III. 1222. The deepest hell—profundissimus infernus —is the place of the lost. Bonavent., Brevil., VII. 6, Peltier’s ed., VII. 339.
51825 Summa, III. 52, 1, Migne, IV. 476.
61826 Attolite portas, principes, vestras.
71827 Post hanc vitam non est tempus gratiam acquirendi. Th. Aq., Summa, III. 52, 7; Suppl., Migne, IV. 1244.
81828 Poena purgatorii est in supplementum satisfactionis quae non fuerat plene in corpore consummata. Th. Aq., Suppl., 71, 6 Migne, IV. 1242.
91829 Th. Aq., Migne, IV. 1239.
01830 Claritas, subtilitas, agilitas, et impossibilitas quae ... secundum majoritatem et minoritatem prius habitae charitatis. Brevil., VII. 7, Peltier’s ed, VII. 340
1831 Deum per essentiam videre in quo consistit perfecta hominis beatitudo. Summa, III. 52, 5, Migne, IV. 482.
21832 Serm., XI.
31833 Proslog., XXIV. sqq.
41834 An. 1206, Luard’s ed. of M. Paris, II. 497-512.
51835 Dial, I. 32, Strange’s ed., I. 36-39.
61836 See Walter, Die ersten Wanderprediger, etc., p. 49.
71837 See Kaufmann, Thos. von Chantimpré, pp. 117 sq.
81838 Jus canonicum or ecclesiastica constitutio, in distinction from the civil code, jus civile. See Decr. Grat. Dist., III. Friedberg’s ed., I. 5. The term "canones" was the prevailing term till the 12th century when the expression jus canonicum came into general use.
91839 See Schulte, I. 2 sq.
01840 Döllinger-Friedrich, Papstthum, p. 403, says, "Leaving out the execution of the death penalty, I do not know a single function of the state which the Church did not assume. Is it, therefore, strange that the thought should arise, that the state is really superfluous or that its only significance is to act as a dumb executioner of the will of the Church?"
1841 Bridges’s ed., I. p. Ixxxiii.
21842 For full list see Friedberg, p. 126; Schulte, I. 43 sqq.; Hergenröther, p. 179.
31843 Peter the Lombard drew heavily from Gratian, especially in the fourth book of his Sentences, where he reproduced many of Gratian’s distinctiones entire. See Baltzer, D. Sentenzen des P. Lombardus, pp. 10 sq., etc.
41844 Perpetuo integrum et incorruptum conservetur. See Schulte’s remarks on Gratian’s influences I. 69-71.
51845 Quia extra Decretum Gratiani vagabantur.
61846 Friedberg’s ed., Quinque compilationes antiquae, Leip., 1882. The first, made by Bernard of Pavia, 1191 in his Breviarium extravagantium, distributes the materials under five heads,—judge, sentence, clergy, marriage, crime.
71847 Gregory’s bull is given in Wetzer-Welte, III. 1146-1450.
81848 Friedberg gives the text, II. 6-927, and also Gregory IX,’s letter transmitting the decretals to the university of Bologna.
91849 Dist., XIX. 3, Friedberg, I. 61. Romana ecclesia, cui nos Christus preesse voluit, posita est, omnibus, quicquid statuit, quicquid ordinat, perpetuo, irrefragabiliter observandum est.
01850 Causa, XXV. I. 16; Döllinger, Papstthum, pp. 55 sqq. Gratian misquoted the 36th canon of the Sixth Oecumenical council which, giving to the patriarch of Constantinople equal rights with the patriarch of Rome, made it say the very opposite. Misquoting the synod of Carthage of 418, which forbade appeals across the sea, Gratian made the synod say the very opposite. Causa, II. 6, 37. Leaning upon pseudo-Isidore, Gratian allows the transfer of bishops from one see to the other with the assent of the pope. Causa, VII. I. 34.
1851 See Causa, XXIII. 4, 5, 6, Friedberg’s ed., I. 899-950.
21852 Ranke wrote, Weltgesch., VIII. 410, that at Rome the authorities put him on the Index because he did not regard the papacy as a divine institution. Nevertheless, he said, "I hold the papacy to be one of the mightiest of all institutions that have appeared in history, and one that is most worthy of inspiring us with wonder and admiration."
31853 See Innocent’s letter in Decr. Greg., III. 8, 5, Friedberg’s ed., II. 489.
41854 Sedes apost. a nemine judicatur. For Bernard, see Ep., 213; de consid., III. 4
51855 See Gee and Hardy, Doc. of Engl. Ch. Hist., p. 53.
61856 See Schwane, p. 531.
71857 Causa, XXV. I, 11, Friedberg’s ed., I. 1009. Anathema apud deum, qui censuram Rom. pontificum violat.
81858 Christi vicarius in totam eccles. univ. praelationem obtinet ... Pontificem pertinet quae fidei sunt determinare. C. errores Graec., II. 32, 36. Also Th. Aq., Summa, II. 2, q. I. 10.
91859 Brevil., VI. 12, Peltier’s ed., VII. 327. Christi vicarius fons, origo, et regula omnium principatuum eccles., etc.
01860 Ep., 49. See Luard’s ed., p. x.
1861 Ad quem plenaria de omnibus totius orbis beneficiis eccles. pertinet, etc. Lib. Sext., Friedberg, II. 102.
21862 So Thomas Aquinas in his c. errores Graec. Bernard, Epp., 187. 341, 356, 396, etc.
31863 The Dictatus papae of Deusdedit. Mirbt, p. 113.
41864 Deus nullum excepit, nihil ab ejus potestate subtraxit. Reg., IV. 2.
51865 Petro non solum universam eccles. sed totum reliquit seculum gubernandum. Ep. I. 401, Mirbt, p. 130.
61866 Hauck, p. 1.
71867 Mirbt, Quellen, pp. 99 sq.
81868 Reg., I. 63, Migne, 148. 569.
91869 Reg., II. 51.
01870 Bréholles, IV. 914-923.
1871 See Döllinger, Papstthum, pp. 67, 404. Leo X,’s bull against Luther reaffirmed this fiction of the transfer of the empire from the Greeks to the Germans by the pope. See copy of the bull in this Hist., VI. 233.
21872 De consid., IV. 3, Migne, 82, 776. Uterque Ecclesiae et spiritualis gladius et materialis; sed is quidem pro Ecclesia, ille vero et ab Ecclesia exserendus: ille sacerdotis, is militis manu, sed sane ad nutum sacerdotis, et jussum imperatoris.
31873 Bishop Reinkens, of the old Catholic Church, in his annotated translation of Bernard’s treatise, de consideratione, argues for the other view namely, that Bernard does not present the theory of the "Caesar-pope." He also argues, pp. vi sq., that Bernard regarded the bishops as receiving their authority not from the pope but directly from God. His edition was issued at the time of the Vatican council of 1870 and as a protest against the dogma of papal infallibility. The position taken above is the position of most writers, both Protestant and Catholic.
41874 Rom. ecclesiae obediendum est tanquam domino J. Christo. Reusch’s ed., p. 9.
51875 Rom. episcopus dici potest rex et sacerdos .... Sicut corpus per animam habet virtutem et operationem ita et temporalis jurisdictio principum per spiritualem Petri et successorum eius. De regim., II. 10.
61876 See Werner, D. hl. Thomas, I. 760 sqq., 794 sqq.; and especially Reusch and Leitner.
71877 De sacr., II. 1, 2, Migne, 176. 141, etc.
81878 Migne, 210. 613.
91879 Reg., II. 44, Migne, 148. 392.
01880 Reg., I.7; I. 29, VIII. 10; II. 32; II. 51; II. 73; I. 70, Migne, 148. 290, 312, 387, 405, 423, 345.
1881 Hefele, V. 565. The permanent nuntiatures at Catholic courts were first established in the 16th century. Such are now maintained at Munich, Vienna, Lisbon, Madrid, and Brussels.
21882 De consid., IV. 5.
31883 Coulton, From St. Francis to Dante, pp. 252 sqq.
41884 See Döllinger, Papstthum, p. 76.
51885 Quale est istud demane ad vesperam litigare, aut litigantes audire? Utinam sufficeret diei malitia sua! non sunt liberae noctes.
61886 De consid., I. 4-6; III. 2.
71887 John of Salisbury, Polycrat., VI. 64, qui a doctrina vestra dissentit aut hereticus aut schismaticus est.
81888 Quoted by Jensen, p. 42.
91889 See Hurter, Innocent III., III. 121-149. One is amazed at the extent and variety of the articles and at the curious names of the coins derived from different countries.
01890 Tangl, pp. 7 sqq. The full treatment of the subject of the papal finances belongs to the period of the Avignon exile. It has called forth a distinct body of literature, beginning with the work of Woker and including the careful works of Tangl, Kirsch, Goeller, Gottlob, Baumgarten, and others.
1891 Monies from these sources were called "monies of the college," pecuniae colegii, and were often entered into the books of the college of cardinals under the head of servitia, census, visitationes, and proventus. Kirsch, Finanzverw., p. 5, Baumgarten, p. xcvi.
21892 The terms servitia and annatae were used more or less interchangeably, but the former was usually applied to the gifts of prelates, the latter to the payments of the lower clerics. Gottlob, Servitientaxe, p.1.
31893 Such a visit was called a visitatio ad limina apostolorum, and was not limited to the city of Rome. The visits upon which a tax was paid were called visitationes reales in distinction from other visits called visitationes verbales. Kirsch, pp. 22 sq.
41894 For the meaning and history of the word, see Gottlob, Servitientaxe, pp. 14-17. They were called servitia communia in distinction from the servitia pro familia or servitia minuta, which were smaller fees given to the officials of the papal household and officials of the body of cardinals, called familiares. These lesser fees were also matter of exact regulation, and usually amounted to one-fourteenth or one-twentieth of the servitium commune. Up to 1298 we hear of only two distinct fees for the members of the papal household. In 1299 we hear of three, and in the fourteenth century the number of the servitia minuta was increased to five. Gottlob, Servitientaxe, pp.101 sqq.; Kirsch, pp. 12 sqq.
51895 Kirsch, p. 12, gives the documents in which appeals were made for a reduction of the tribute by the archbishops of Narbonne, 1341, and Cashel, 1332, and the abbot of Amiens, 1344. In the case of the abbot, the amount was reduced from 4000 to 2500 gold florins.
61896 See the cases from which Kirsch deduces the rule, p. 9.
71897 The case of the abbot of St. Edmundsbury seems to belong here. In 1248 he paid to the Roman see 800 marks. M. Paris, Luard’s ed., V. 40; Tangl, p. 6.
81898 The promises to pay were called obligationes. Receipts, quitationes, were given by the papal treasurer, or the treasurer of the college of cardinals, or by both. Kirsch gives original documents. He was the first to clear up the subject of the servitia.
91899 Kirsch, p. 32.
01900 Hurter, III. 136.
1901 Jensen, p. 36.
21902 See O’Gorman, Hist. of the Cath. Ch. in the U. S., p. 6. Nicolas Breakspear, Adrian IV., as cardinal legate, secured the promise of Peter’s Pence from Norway and Sweden at the synod of Linkoping, 1152. Jensen, p. 12.
31903 Kirsch, pp. 22, 23, 25. Nicolas IV., 1288, was the first to establish an equal division of the census in the bull coelestis altitudo.
41904 Such a formula dating from 1296 is given by Kirsch, p. 58. The number of the cardinals is distinctly stated in the ledger-books and also the names of cardinals who had forfeited their rights by deposition.
51905 camerarius collegii dominorum cardinalium. The first treasurer whose name is known was William de Bray, cardinal-priest of St. Marks, 1272-1282. For a list of his successors to 1401, see Kirsch, pp. 44-46, and Baumgarten, pp. xliii sqq.
61906 Kirsch, p. 66. Baumgarten, p. xxiii, is of a different opinion and puts the first systematically kept ledgers in 1295.