81488 De locutione angelorum. Summa, II. 9, q. 35; Borgnet, XXXII. 376-387. He draws in his discussion from Augustine, St. Basil, and John of Damascus.
91489 Sent., IV. 50; Borgnet’s ed., XXX. 699. Albert even goes so far as to discuss whether unborn infants destroyed by abortion rise from the dead.
01490 in quid cecidit diabolus. Summa de creaturis, IX. 67; Borgnet’s ed., XXXIV. 682 sqq. Summa theol., II. 5, q. 23 sqq.; Borgnet’s ed., XXXII. 266-286.
1491 Adjunctus autem finis est qui secutus est ex isto: et ille est reparatio ruinae angelicae. Summa, II. 12 sq., 74; Borgnet’s ed., XXXIII. 57.
21492 Quare est creatus homo vel angelus? Brevi sermone, respondere potest. Propter bonitatem ejus. Sent., II. 1, E.; Borgnet’s ed., XXVII. 35.
31493 Summa, II. 14; Borgnet’s ed., pp. 131 sq.
41494 Habet potestatis plenitudinem quia est ordinarius omnium hominum et quia est vice Dei in terris. Summa, II. q. 141, 3; Borgnet, XXXIII. 484.
51495 Encyclical, Aug. 4, 1879. See text in Mirbt, pp. 391 sqq. Thomas is praised as "inter scholasticos doctores omnium princeps et magister ... ingeniodocilis et acer, memoriae facilis et tenax, vitae integerrimus, veritatis, unice amator, divina humanaque scientia praedives." The preface to the papal edition attacks the Lutheriana pestis and the Lutherianum virus, which are to be counteracted by the works of Thomas in cujus limpidissima et angelica mente veritas divinitus nobis patefacta. See Schaff, Thos. Aq. and Leo. XIII., p. 179.
61496 William of Thoco, ipse talem dabit in doctrina mugitum quod in toto mundo sonabit.
71497 This title was given to the work after Thomas’death. Thomas, in his dedication to Urban IV., calls it exposito continua. The Catena is so contrived that it reads like a running commentary, the several extracts being dovetailed together. The compiler introduced nothing of his own but connecting particles. See Preface to Oxford ed., p. iv.
81498 Summa de veritate Catholicae fidei contra Gentiles. The first three books include the arguments from reason, the fourth the argument from revelation.
91499 Contra errores Graecorum andde unitate intellectus contra Averrhoistas.
01500 See Koch, Kirchenlied, I. 137; Wackernagel, Kirchenlied, I. 143 sqq.; Werner, I. 791 sqq.
1501 Eicken, D. Philosophie d. Th. von Aq., p. 4, says, er gëhort nicht so wohl zu den schaffenden als zu den ordnenden Geistern. "He belongs not so much to the originating as to the organizing minds." He repeats this judgment in his Thomas von Aquino und Kant, p. 27. He who would charge the Middle Ages with confused and abstruse deductions must look for examples elsewhere than in Thomas.
21502 Following Sighart, Life of Albertus Magnus, and Landerer, in art. Albertus in Herzog, 2d ed. XV. 575, Stöckl says, II. 421, 734, that "Thomas stands wholly upon Albert’s shoulders. Thomas finished what Albert began." Thomas received a strong impulse from Albert, but he went out especially in the departments of ethics and apologetics into regions not fully explored by his great teacher.
31503 Multiplicatio inutilium quaestionum, articulorum et argumentorum. Prologue.
41504 De Dei simplicitate, I. q. 3; Migne, I. 626 sqq.
51505 Summa, I. 32, 1; Migne, I. 888, I. 1, 1; Migne, I. 607.
61506 Summa, I. 1, 8; Migne, I. 615.
71507 Tum propter certitudinem tum propter dignitatem materiae. Summa, I. 1, 5; Migne, I. 610.
81508 Seine Darstellung will gar nichts anders sein als das wissenschaftliche Bewusstsein der kirchlichen Lehre. Baur, p. 354.
91509 Non eodem ordine utraque doctrina procedit, etc. See Werner, II. 151, and his quotation from the contra Gentiles.
01510 See Köstlin, Beweise fürs Dasein Gottes, in Studien u. Kritiken, 1876, pp. 10 sqq.
1511 Sicut sagitta a sagittante. Summa, I. 2, 3; Migne. I. 622 sqq.
21512 Mundum incepisse est credibile, non autem demonstratibile vel scibile. Summa, I. 46; Migne, I. 1008.
31513 Ideo scriptores locorum de hoc loco mentionem non fecerunt. Summa, I. 102, 1; Migne, I. 1433.
41514 Summa, I. 103, 7; Migne, I. 1446. Comp. Werner, II. 396 sqq., for the passages from contra Gentiles.
51515 In locum angelorum cadentium substituti sunt homines. Summa, I. 23, 6; Migne, I. 828.
61516 Summa, I. 2, q. 72, 5; Migne, II. 633 sq. Thomas replies that in this case original sin would not have passed down to Adam’s posterity, for according to philosophers, the active principle in generation is the father. But if Adam had sinned and Eve had not sinned, original sin would have passed down to Adam’s descendants.
71517 Haereticum est dicere quod anima intellectiva traducatur cum semine. Summa, I. 118, 2; Migne, I. 1556.
81518 Superadditio gratiae. Summa, I. 95, 1; Migne, I. 1405 sq. Comp. Loofs, Dogmengesch., pp. 292-295.
91519 Ad diligendum Deum naturaliter super omnia. Migne, II. 909.
01520 Migne. II. 603.
1521 Summa, III. Prologus; Migne, IV. 10.
21522 Justificatio impii non est successiva. Summa, I. 2, q. 113, 7 sqq. Migne, II. 955. Justification is defined as "an infusion of grace whereby the freewill is moved and guilt is pardoned."
31523 Per baptismum pueri liberantur a peccato originali et ab inferno. Summa, III. 57, 7; Migne, IV. 485, 486.
41524 Summa, III. 65, 1; Migne, IV. 595. See Werner, II. 676-699.
51525 Summa, II. (2), 10, 12; Migne, III. 101 sqq.
61526 Totus Christus sub utraque specie. Summa, III. 76, 2; Migne, IV. 734.
71527 Praecipue propter meritum Christi, etc. Supplem., XXV. 1; Migne, IV. 1014.
81528 Summa III. 94; Migne, IV. 1343 sqq. See Werner, II. 712.
91529 Not infrequently are there two or three references to Aristotle on a single page, e.g. I. (2), 2, 2; I. (2), 4, 2, Migne, II. 22, 46.
01530 Baur, pp. 429 sqq., pronounces Thomas’method descriptive rather than consequential. The system is not developed from fundamental principles.
1531 Summa, II. (2), 150, 4; Migne, III. 1051.
21532 Summa I. (2), 2, 1 sqq.; Migne, II. 19-37.
31533 In visione divinae essentiae. Migne, II. 43.
41534 No less than forty-six questions are devoted to the religious virtues, Migne, III. 9-375 and one hundred and twenty-four to the philosophical, Migne, III. 375-1194.
51535 Per se et essentialiter consistit perfectio christianae vitae in charitate. Summa, II. (2), 84, 3; Migne, III. 1295.
61536 See Werner, I. 760 sqq., 794 sqq. Köstlin, art. Staat und Kirche, Herzog Enc., 2d ed., XIV. 629 sqq. Reusch, Die Fälschungen, etc.
71537 De regimine principum ad regem Cypri. Two of the four books of this famous work are certainly genuine. The last two books are probably by Thomas’disciple, Ptolemy of Lucca. Poole has some judicious remarks on this work, Illustr. of Med. Thought, pp. 240-266.
81538 Eicken, D. Philosophie d. Thomas, etc., p. 38.
91539 successor Petri, Christi vicarius Romanus Pontifex cui omnes reges populi Christiani oportet esse subdito sicut ipsi domino Jesu Christo. De reg. principum, I. 14.
01540 Romanae ecclesiae magistrae et matris omnium ecclesiarum cui obediendum est tanquam Domino Deo Jesu, etc. Contra errores Graecorum, Reusch’s ed., p. 9. Also Mirbt, Quellen, pp. 143 sq. This work contains a discussion of four points: the Procession of the Holy Ghost, the primacy of the pope, the use of unleavened bread in the eucharist, and purgatory. It was written at the time when the reunion of the Greeks and Latins was the subject of negotiations. In the preparation of this treatise, Thomas used a work put into his hands by Urban IV., once patriarch of Jerusalem. Thomas refers to it as libellum ab excellentia vestra mihi exhibitum sanctissime Pater Urbane Papa diligenter perlegi. It is full of citations from Cyril of Jerusalem, Cyril of Alexandria, Chrysostom, and other Fathers, as Reusch, following Launoy, learnedly shows. Thomas accepts the quotations without a question as genuine. The tract has never been published in full. It was known to the abbot Uccelli from a MS. in the Vatican, and parts of it bearing on the papacy were issued by his hand, 1870. Reusch prints a portion of the Vatican MS., and also a part of the unpublished MS., the Thesaurus veritatis fidei by the Dominican Bonacursius, who wrote later than Thomas, and drew from the same source as Thomas did. The Dominicans were specially active in urging the extravagant claims of the papacy as against the Greek patriarch.
1541 Cum tota ecclesia sit unum corpus, oportet si ista unitas debet conservari, quod sit aliqua potestas regitiva respectu totius ecclesiae supra potestatem episcopalem, qua uniquaeque specialis ecclesia regitur, et haec est potestas papae. Summa, Supplem., 40, 7; Migne, IV. 1075.
21542 Quod subesse Romano pontifici sit de necessitate salutis. contra errores Graecorum. Döllinger, in Das Papstthum, says that "Thomas was the first theologian to discuss the theory of papal infallibility as an integral part of systematic theology." Leitner, pp. 10-14, etc. denies this. See Chapter XV.
31543 A number of MSS. left by Ware are preserved in Oxford.
41544 In the controversiae theol. inter Thomam et Scotum, by De Rada, the Franciscan bishop of Trani, Cologne, 1620. Werner devotes the whole third volume of his Life of Thomas, filling 876 pages, to the posthumous influence of Thomas. It takes up the teaching of his pupils, the conflicts with the Franciscans and Jesuits, etc., and brings in the names of Des Cartes, Leibnitz, Malbranche, Schelling, etc. See also art. Thomismus und Scotismus in Wetzer-Welte, XI. 1699-1710.
51545 Thomas war der Brunn und Grundsuppe aller Ketzerei, Irrthumb undVertilgung des Evangelium wie seine Bücher beweisen. Erl. ed., 24. 240.
61546 Köstlin, Leben M. Luthers, I. 431.
71547 In the tract, Thomas von Aquino und Kant, Eicken contrasts Thomas and Kant as the representatives of two antagonistic types of thinking and study, the mediaeval and modern, that which is mechanical and bound by external authority, and that in which the individual, the subjective, have their proper place as the determining principles. Kant is the creator of ideas, the thinker; Thomas, the compiler and systematizer of ideas previously announced.
81548 Prologue to his Life of St. Francis.
91549 De paupertate Christi. Peltier’s ed., XIV. 364-409. A few years later he presented the subject more at length in his Apologia pauperum. Peltier’s ed., XIV. 410-520.
01550 Sabatier, Vie de S. François, lxxi.-lxxxviii., compares Bonaventura’s life to the figures of saints exposed for sale on a dealer’s shelves, all having a downcast, pious, but unreal look. The biography is given by Peltier, XIV. 293-363.
1551 His body, it seems, was burnt by the Calvinists in 1562. Only the head was saved. The right arm had before been removed to Bonaventura’s birthplace. See Hergenröther. Kirchengesch., II. 529; Wetzer-Welte, II. 1022.
21552 Quae veritatis sunt credenda de necessitate salutis. Du Pin’s ed. of Gerson’s Works, 1728, I. 21. See also Gerson’s Epistola in lauden S. Bonaventurae Du Pin’s ed., I. 117.
31553 Paradiso XII. 127.
41554 Sixtus V. in his encyclical admitting Bonaventura into the company of the Doctors of the Church places them side by side and brings out their distinguishing characteristics. He calls them potissimum gloriosi doctores —"those most illustrious teachers.
51555 Sie sind die beiden leuchtenden Sterne am Horizont des 13ten Jahrhunderts. Stöckl, II. 882.
61556 Peltier gives his sermons in vol. XIII. For his works on Mary, see section 130.
71557 A number of the works once ascribed to Bonaventura are regarded as ungenuine, e.g. de six alis cherubim, de septem itineribus aeternitatis, etc. The Venetian ed. of 1751 and Bonelli discuss the authorship of the many writings associated with Bonaventura’s name.
81558 Peltier’s ed., VII. 240-343. Funk, Kirchengesch., p. 364. An ed. was published by Hefele, 3d ed., Tübingen, 1861, and also Vicenza, 2d ed. Freiburg, 1881. Sixtus V. said of Bonaventura’s theology that "nothing more fruitful for the Church of God" had appeared, Encyclical in Peltier’s ed., I p. viii.
91559 II. 296-520.
01560 Peltier’s ed., II. 298sqq. The arguments given for an affirmative answer to this question are that the angels are in a place not after a "bodily but spiritual fashion." Theyarespiritual lights, as the Areopagite said, and consequently are independent of space, etc. Bonaventura, however, answers the question in the negative.
1561 Peltier’s ed., II. 415 sqq. Bonaventura answers that foreknowledge belongs to God alone, but that by reason of their intellectual acuteness and long experience the demons are sometimes able to accurately predict contingent events.
21562 Stöckl, II. 880, says, Bonav. ist vorzugsweise Mystiker, and expresses the opinion that the mysticism of the Middle Ages reached its highest point in him.
31563 e.g. Cogitatio, meditatio, contemplatio, ascendere, etc.
41564 Itinerarium mentis in Deum. Peltier’s ed., XII. 1-22. His Meditations on the Life of Jesus, his commentaries on Ecclesiastes, the Book of Wisdom, and John and Luke belong to this class. The mystical element is also strong in the Breviloquium and the Centiloquium. Other mystical writings ascribed to Bonaventura, such as Incendium amoris, de septem verbis domini, etc., are disputed.
51565 These three activities constitute the theologia symbolical theol. propria, and theol. mystica.
61566 Itin., 7.
71567 Döllinger, p. 2127, and Harnack, III. 429, agree in pronouncing Duns the "most acute thinker among the Schoolmen," der scharfsinnigste scholastishe Denker. Seeberg, Theol. d. J. D. Scotus, p.2, speaks of "the enormous difficulty"—ungeheure Schwierigkeit —whichthe reading of Duns offers to one who is not thoroughly familiar with his mode of thinking and expression. Again, p. 6, he speaks of Duns’ "sentences and arguments" as "endlessly complicated." Schwane, p. 78, says that Duns’ abstruseness of thought, lack of system in presenting his materials, and the thorny paths of his critical method have imparted to theology little glory. See also pp. 288, 292.
81568 Die Hoffnung aus seinen Schriften ein System herzustellen ist vergeblich, Seeberg, p. 644.
91569 "Remember ye not," said Tyndale, "how within this thirty years and far less, the old barking curs, Dunce’s disciples, and like draff, called Scotists, the children of darkness, raged in every pulpit against Greek, Latin and Hebrew ?"—Quoted by Trench: The Study of Words, p.91.
01570 1274 is the date accepted by Wadding, Cavellus, and Schwane. Döllinger, Rigg, and Seeberg adopt an earlier date. Seeberg, pp. 36 sqq., lays stress upon the refusal of the bishop of Lincoln, in 1300, to grant to Duns the privilege of hearing confession. A rule of the Franciscans, 1292, required that members of the order should be thirty before aspiring to this privilege. In this case Duns was born before 1270.
1571 Döllinger attaches much weight to a statement made in a MS. of one of Duns’ works in Merton College, to the effect that he was born in Dunstane, England. O’Fihely, MacCaghwell, and Wadding, all Irishmen, are loyal to the theory that he was of Irish nativity. Dempster gives twelve reasons to prove Duns was a Scotchman. See Dict. Natl. Biog., XVI. 216, and Seeberg, p. 34.
21572 Seeberg, pp. 46 sqq. MacCaghwell in two tracts learnedly denied his being buried alive.
3157Scotia me genuit, Anglia me suscepit,
Gallia me docuit, Colonia me tenit.
41574 It fills 3 vols. in the Paris ed.; the Opus Oxoniense, 14 vols.; the Quodlibetales, vols. XXV., XXVI.
51575 Trithemius, 1495, distinctly speaks of two volumes of Duns’ Sermons. Seeberg, p. 63.
61576 Universali aliquid extra correspondet a quo movetur intellectus ad causandum talem intentionem. Seeberg, p. 69.
71577 Libris canonici sacri non est credendum nisi quia primo credendum est ecclesiae approbanti et autorizanti libros istos et contenta in eis. Seeberg, p. 120.
91579 Harnack, Dogmengesch., III. 446, has chosen strong words to show the unwillingness of Thomas Aquinas and Duns Scotus to pursue the narrow way to the knowledge of God, that is, through the person of the historical Christ. And Seeberg, p. 671, lays stress upon the failure of Duns to bring God near to the soul. God remained a God afar off. According to both these modern dogmaticians, it remained for the Reformation through the principles of a living faith and God’s love to bring God into nearness to the soul.
01580 Seeberg, Dogmengesch., II. 135, Theologie, etc., 227 sq., 293 sqq., 666 sq.; Schwane, p. 463.
1581 Carentia justitiae originalis. Seeberg, 218 sq.; Loofs, Dogmengesch., p. 305. Harnack, III. 551, and Seeberg, p. 220, emphatically assert that Duns abandoned the Augustinian conception of sin and moral corruption.
21582 Pronitas in appetitu rationali, i.e. in voluntate ad concupiscendum delectabilia immoderate. Quoted by Stöckl, II. 362.
31583 He concludes his account of Anselm’s exposition by acknowledging his indebtedness to Anselm, in the words haec veraciter, ut potui, ex dictis ejus, collegi. Seeberg, p. 283. Seeberg’s full discussion of Duns’ theory of the atonement, pp. 275-296.