41384 They are found in his Com. on Romans
, as well as in his Introd. ad Theol
. and his Sermons
, V., X., XII.
51385 They are set forth more particularly in the ethical treatise Scito te ipsum and the Com. on Romans, especially in an excursus on original sin, appended to chap. V., Migne, pp. 866-874.
61386 He thinks the tree whose fruit excited the sexual passions was the vine. Hexameron, Migne, p. 777.
71387 Com. on Romans, chap. II. 6. Deutsch, pp. 344 sqq., deals at length with Abaelard’s views on Sin.
81388 Introd. ad Theol., Migne, p. 1008.
Hausrath, pp. 293 sqq., assigns to Abaelard a place in the front rank of such martyrs. He justifies him for declining to stand by his conclusions in these words: "It would be unfair to demand that a scholar
, who was under the pressure of such circumstances (that is mediaeval ecclesiasticism should have the courage of a farm hand, or carry his views to their logical conclusion like a statesman."
01390 Abaelard left admiring pupils, some of whom, like Omnibene, wrote books of Sentences based upon their teacher’s Theology, and followed his threefold division of faith, the Sacraments, and love. See Denifle, Archiv, pp, 613 sqq.
1391 Denifle includes the Lombard in the theological school of Abaelard. See his Abaelard’s Sentenzen und d. Bearbeitungen seiner Theologie, Archiv, 1885, pp. 613-624.
21392 Neander-Deutsch, St. Bernard, II. 131. Poole, p. 181, calls Gilbert’s exposition of the Trinity "one of the subtlest and most elaborate contributions to theological metaphysics the Middle Ages produced."
31393 Hist. pontif
., VIII.; Migne, pp. 522 sqq. One of the accusers was Adam du Petit Pont
, an Englishman, afterwards bishop of St. Asaph. He got his name from the school he set up on a little bridge connecting Paris with the Latin quarter. Schaarschmidt, p. 13.
41394 Otto of Freising states the four detailed charges as follows: 1. divina essentia non est deus. 2. proprietates personarum non sunt ipsae personae. 3. theolog. personae in nulla praedicantur propositione. 4. dimna natura non est incarnata. Gaufried, Migne, 185. 617, states the first three a little differently.
51395 Stephens calls him "by far the most distinguished English scholar of his century."Hist. of the Engl. Ch., pp. 320 sqq.
61396 Schaarschmidt calls it "the first great theory of the state in the literature of the Middle Ages." In view of the variety of its contents, Poole, p. 218, says that "it is to some extent an encyclopaedia of the cultivated thought of the middle of the twelfth century."
71397 Poole says, "No writer of his age can be placed beside him in the extent and depth of his classical reading."Dict. of Natl. Biog., XXIX. 441. Schaarschmidt speaks of his marvellous acquaintance with the classics—eine staunenswerthe Vertrautheit.
81398 Metalog., VII. 2.
This is the date given on an ancient epitaph in Paris
, but the date is made uncertain by the appointment of a bishop of Paris as the Lombard’s successor, 1160. This would seem to indicate his death occurred at that time unless he was deposed on the charge of simony, of which, as Walter of St. Victor says, he was guilty. Migne, 199. 1140.
01400 Liber quem dicunt sententarium, Ep., 188; Migne, 182. 668. Walter of St. Victor declares it to have been by Abaelard’s hand or taken from his works, aut ex libris ejus excerptus. See Deutsch, P. Abaelard excursus.
1401 Denifle, Archiv, 1885, learnedly establishes the relation of these works to Abaelard. They exist in MSS. at Nürnberg, Munich, etc. Omnebene expressly declared his work to be a compilatlon taken from different sources.
21402 Sententiarum theologicarum libri, VII.; Migne, vol. 186. His name is spelt Pullein, Pullan, etc. See Rashdall’s art. in Dict. of Nat’l Biogr., XLVII. 19.
The Jesuit Possevin gives a list of 246 commentaries in print. See Wetzer-Welte, IX. 1921, which speaks of the number of commentaries as unzaelig
, "without number." Hergenröther (Gesch
. II. 516) speaks of them in the same way as zahllos
. The first commentary, according to Werner (Thom. von Aquino
, I. 314), was by William of Seignelay, teacher in Paris and later bishop of Paris.
41404 Prolog. to the Sentences, brevi volumine complicans patrum sententias appositis eorum eorum testimoniis, etc.
51405 Baltzer, pp. 2-5, gives the results of a careful study. Augustine furnishes 1000 quotations. Hilary comes next, being quoted 86 times. Baltzer’s book is a laborious comparison of every paragraph of the Lombard with the Fathers and his predecessors among the Schoolmen, especially Abaelard and Hugo of St. Victor.
61406 Denifle (Archiv, pp. 621 sqq.) is authority for the statement that he also quotes from Gandulf’s Sentences which still remain in MS. at Turin.
71407 Migne, 192. 522.
81408 Reprobatio Dei est praescientia militiae in quibusdam non finiendae, et praeparatio poenae non terminandae.
91409 II. 31; Migne, p. 211.
01410 Mors nos justificat, dum per eam caritas excitatur in cordibus nostris
, III. 19; Migne, p. 285. John of Cornwall
, his pupil, expressly says that the Bombard learned his view of the atonement from Abaelard and often had Abaelard’s Theologia
in his hands, Migne, 199. 1052. See Denifle, pp. 616 sqq. Baltzer, pp. 96 sqq., goes so far as to say that his silence is to be interpreted as a denial of the Anselmic theory.
1411 IV. 3; Migne, p. 335.
21412 Quaedam summa res est Pater et Filius et Spiritus et illa non est generans neque genita nec procedens.
31413 From time to time questionable articles continued to be cited from the Lombard. In the middle of the thirteenth century the number of such articles at variance with the doctrine of the Church was given as eight. The doctors of Paris increased the number. Eymeric wrote a treatise on twenty-two such heretical statements. A list of fifteen are given at the close of Peter’s Sentences. Migne, 451-454.
41414 He is probably a different man from Alanus, archbishop of Auxerre, with whom he has often been identified, and who spent the last twenty years of his life at Clairvaux and wrote a life of St. Bernard. Migne, 186. 470-523. See Deutsch, Alanus, Herzog, I. 283 sqq. Hergenröther-Kirsch frequently quotes Alanus.
51415 Regulae de sacra theologia, Migne, 210. 621-684; and de arte sive de articulis catholicae fidei, Migne, 593-617.
61416 Congregatio fidelium confitentium Christum, et sacramentorum subsidium
, Migne, p. 613. Under the title liber sententiarum
, Migne, 229-264, he wrote also on the Lord’s birth, John the Baptist, and Mary.
71417 Walter speaks of the four labyrinths as "treating with scholastic levity the mysteries of the Trinity and the incarnation and vomiting out many heresies." Planck gave an analysis of Walter’s work in Studien und Kritiken, 1844, pp. 823 sqq. Bulaeus, in Hist. universitatum, vol. II. 402, 629, gives extracts, which are reprinted in Migne, 199, pp. 1127 sqq. Denifle also gives quotations, Archiv, etc., 1886, pp. 404 sqq.
., III. 314 sqq., 373 sqq., turns to ridicule the alleged difference between scholasticism and mysticism. With the emotional or quietistic type of religion, die Pektoraltheologie
, the cardiac theology
, as the Germans call it, he has little sympathy. Piety, he says, is the starting-point of both and full knowledge their goal. He makes the brusque statement, p. 318, that "a mystic who does not become a Roman Catholic, is a dilettante." Ritschl had said before that there is "no normal mysticism except in connection with the hermit life. The love for it, widely prevalent among evangelical Christians, is dilettanteism."Pietismus
, II. 12. Harnack, however, is willing to allow a distinction in the terms and to speak of scholasticism when the relation of God to the universe is thought of and of mysticism when we have in mind the union of the soul with God.
91419 Paradiso, XXXI. 130, XXXIII. 49, etc. Dr. Philip Schaff said, Lit. and Poetry, p. 232, "Bernard defended orthodox mysticism and the theology of the heart against speculative rationalism and the theology of the intellect in contrast with Peter Abaelard."
01420 "The mediaeval mystics were steeped in Dionysius." Inge, p. 110.
1421 De perf. monachi, VIII.; Migne, 145. 303.
21422 De preparat. ad contemplationem sive Benjamin minor, I. 73; Migne, 196. 52.
31423 C. Faus. Man., XXII. 52.
41424 Sermo in Cant., 51, 2. See De consid., I, 1.
51425 Dogmengesch., III. 301, 305. For Bernard’s acquaintance with Scripture, see Ries, pp. 11 sq.
61426 Ries, pp. 9, 15.
81428 Non ea disputatio comprehendit sed sanctitas, quoting Eph., III., 18. Sancti comprehendunt. De consid., V. 14; Migne, 182. 804.
91429 Ep., 142, 2; Migne, 182, 297. Dr. Philip Schaff said that "love and humility were the crowning traits of Bernard’s character."Lit. and Poetry, p. 232.
01430 Ries, pp. 35, sqq.
1431 Causa diligendi Deum Deus est, modus sine modo diligere. De dilig. Deo. 1. Migne, 182. 974.
21432 In Cant., p. 919, as quoted by Ries, p. 212.
31433 Sic affici deificari est. Bernard does not shrink from the use of this word as also Origen and Gregory of Nyssa did not, and other Fathers who used it or its Greek equivalent.
41434 Serm., LXXV. 2; LXIII. 1; LXXIII. 1, 2.
51435 Serm., VIII. Migne, p. 810.
61436 Divinitus inspiratus Christi et ecclesiae laudes, et sacri amoris gratiam et aeterni connubii cecinit sacramenta, etc. Serm., I. 8.; Migne, p. 788.
71437 Serm., LXXIX. 1; Migne, p. 1163.
81438 Haec mea philosophia scire Jesum Christum et hunc crucifixum. Serm., XLIII. 4; Migne, p. 995.
91439 Jesus mel in ore, in aure melos, in corde jubilus
., XV. 6; Migne, p. 847.
01440 See Vacandard, Vie de S. Bernard, II. 497, and Ries, pp. 198 sq.
1441 Unitas quam facit non confusio naturarum, sed voluntatum consensio. Serm. in Cant., LXXI. 7; Migne, 183. 1124. Harnack, whose treatment of St. Bernard is one of the most stirring chapters in his Hist. of Doctrine, nevertheless says unjustly III. 304, that Bernard’s mysticism naturally led to Pantheism. In Bernard himself there is no trace of Pantheism. See Ries, pp. 190 sq.
St. Victor, the convent which William of Champeaux, Hugo, and Richard made famous, had its filial houses not only in France but also in Ireland. With the French Revolution the convent and its grounds disappeared. Two streets of Paris, the Rue Guy de la Brosse and the Rue de Jussieu
, were driven through them. See Wetzer-Welte, St. Victor
, XII. 914 sqq.
31443 The argument in favor of Saxony is well stated by Preger, Deutsche Mystik, I. 227 sqq. So Zöckler in Herzog, and the art. on Hugo, in Wetzer-Welte.
41444 Summa Sententiarum, Migne, 176. 42-172. This work has been denied to Hugo by Denifle on insufficient grounds. Hugo opens the work with a treatment of the three cardinal virtues, faith, hope, and love, and proceeds to the discussion of the Trinity, creation, the five sacraments, and marriage.
He discusses the senses of Scripture, the number of the books
, the apocrypha, the translation, the historical difficulties of Scripture, etc. See Migne, 175. 9-28. The same topics are treated in his treatise on Learning. Migne, 176. 778-811.
61446 Among his mysticalwritings are de arca Noe morali, Migne, 176. 619-680; de arca mystica, Migne, 176. 681-703; de vanitate mundi. Noah’s ark is symbolical of the spiritual house and Christ is the "Captain, the supreme Noah." The wood, windows, and other parts of the ark are all spiritualized. In the second treatise the ark represents the cross.
71447 Carnale cor quasi lignum viride necdum ab humore carnalis concupiscentiae exsiccatum, etc. See Liebner, p. 315.
81448 De arca morali, III. 7; Migne, 176. 654.
91449 de erud. didasc., Migne, 176. 797.
01450 Quia non potest dei beatitudo participari nisi per intellectum
, etc. Summa
, II. 1: Migne, 176. 79.
1451 See Liebner, Hugo von St. Victor, pp. 81 sq.
21452 Migne, 196. 409.
31453 .De Emmanuele, Migne, 196. 601-665
41454 Migne, 196. 995-1011. Richard calls Bernard, divus Bernardus, and "my Bernard," V; Migne, 195. 999. He also addressed other works to St. Bernard.
51455 O felix culpa quae talem ac tantum meruit habere redemptorem, Migne,196. 1003.
61456 See Engelhardt, pp. 14 sqq.
71457 Fides totius boni initium est atque fundamentum, Migne, 196. 889.
81458 Interficit matrem ubi omnem supergreditur rationem. De prep., 86; Migne, 196. 62, etc.
91459 Animus qui ad scientae altitudinem nititur ascendere, primum et principale sit ei studium se ipsum cognoscere. De prep., 76; Migne, 196. 54.
01460 Contemplatio est libera mentis perspicacia in sapientae spectacula cum admiratione suspensa
. De gratia
, I. 5; Migne, 196. 67. Here, as in other places, Richard quotes his teacher Hugo.
1461 Supra rationem et praeter rationem. De prep., 86; Migne, 196. 61.
21462 De prep., 74; Migne, p. 54.
31463 Suspecta mihi est omnis veritas, quam non confirmat scripturarum auctoritas. De prep., 81; Migne, 196. 57.
41464 A fall edition of his works is given by Migne, vols. 167-170. See Bach and Schwane. Also Rocholl, Rupert von Deutz. Beitrag zur Gesch. der Kirche im 12ten Jahrh., Gütersloh, 1886.
51465 Rupert gives an account of his journey to France to meet William and Anselm in disputation in his De regula Benedicti, I. 1; Migne, 170. 482 sq.
The name of the work is De operibus sanctae trinitatis
Migne, 167. 199-1827. The first two parts represent the work of the Father and the Son and the third the work of the Holy Spirit
, pp. 1571-1827.
71467 Migne, 168. 841.
81468 De operibus S. trinitatis, II. 10. Bellarmin pronounced Rupert a heretic because of his views on the Lord’s Supper. Schwane, Dogmengesch., p. 641, denies the charge.
91469 Roger Bacon contemptuously said of it that it was heavier than a horse in weight. Natl. Dict. of Biogr., I. 273. Other MSS. ascribed to Alexander are found in Oxford, etc. The summa de virtutibus, Paris, 1509, a Com. on the Apocalypse, Paris, 1647, published under his name, are of doubtful authenticity.
01470 Videtur quod sic, et videtur quod non.
1471 Cognitio secundum visum, cognitio secundum gustum.
21472 See Chapter on the Sacramental System.
He speaks in his will of spending most of his life in the convent at Cologne. He appointed a brother by birth
, Henry, one of his executors. Sighart, p 247.
41474 Leo XIII., in his letter allowing Borgnet to dedicate his edition of Albert’s works to him, said: "Especially am I glad to grant this permission because our old love for the angelic doctor is not disjoined from love for his teacher." Borgnet’s ed., I. p. vii. Labbé, the Jesuit editor of the acts of the councils, wrote a poem comparing Albert with his pupil, Thomas Aquinas, and greatly praising him for his eulogy of Mary. Borgnet, I. lxxii. sq.
Sighart, pp. 148, 152, ascribes his resignation to bitter opposition, and thinks Albert had this opposition in mind when he was writing the paraphrase to Aristotle’s Politics
. The slothful, Albert says, find fault with those who excel. They killed Socrates, drove out Plato from Athens, and banished Aristotle. These people have the same plan in the domain of letters and science that the liver has in the body. For everybody has gall which collects in the liver and which dispenses itself and makes the whole body bitter. Thus in the domain of letters there are some bitter men filled with gall, who would fain make all other men bitter
, and will not allow them to seek after truth in sweet company.
61476 So Von Hertling. The records of the council do not mention his name. Peter of Prussia affirms Albert was present, and is followed by Sighart, p. 225.
71477 Averrhoes, Avicenna, Algazel, etc. The honor of first mastering all the works of Aristotle and putting them into the service of Christian philosophy belongs to Albertus, says Schwane, p. 40.
81478 This is brought out by J. Guttmann, in his Die Scholastik des 13ten Jahrhunderts in ihren Beziehungen zum Judenthum und zur judischen Lateratur, Breslau, 1902.
91479 He again and again says: "Aristotle erred,"e.g. Borgnet’s ed., III. 545, etc. He says: "He who believes Aristotle to have been a god, can believe he never erred. But if he was a man, then he could err like ourselves." Borgnet’s ed., III. 553
01480 Sent., II. xiii., F. Borgnet’s ed., XXVII. 249 sq.
21482 Summa de creaturis, vols. XXXIV., XXXV., in Borgnet’s ed.
31483 Theologia verissima scientia est et, quod plus est, sapientia. Summa theol., I. 1, 1; Borgnet’s ed., XXXI. 9.
41484 Summa, I. 3, q. 17; Borgnet’s ed., XXXI. 116.
51485 Physic, VII.; Borgnet’s ed., III. 483-502.
61486 Philosophi pro propria ductu naturalis rationis non potuerunt cognoscere trinitatem personarum. Borgnet, XXXI. 60.