71157 Potthast, 8932.
Gregorovius, V. 156-161. The assertion has often been made
, by the Spaniard Balmes in 1842, the Abbé Coeur, 1846, a writer in the Dublin Review,
1850, and others, that Rome never witnessed an execution for heresy. Döllinger and Reusch in their edition of Bellarmin, Bonn, 1887, p. 233, have paid their respects to this mistake and give a list of more than twenty persons, Waldenses, Lutherans, and Jews, burnt in the papal city as late as1553-1635.
91159 Flade, p. 37 sq.
Henry VII., 1312 and Charles IV., 1369, 1871, 1373, etc.; Flade, p. 10. According to Charles’law the confiscated property of heretics was divided into three parts which went respectively for alms, to the Inquisitors
, and to municipalities for the repair of streets and walls.
1161 Flade, p. 24, gives a list of seventy-one between 1227-1452.
21162 For names see Flade, pp. 6, 7.
31163 Flade, p. 116. The pages of this author must be read to gain any adequate idea of the horrors of the Inquisition in Germany. He pronounces it even more bloody than the Inquisition in Southern France.
41164 Flade, p. 87.
51165 Roman Catholic writers have recently tried to remove the impression that Konrad’s victims were numerous. See Benrath’s reply, art. Konrad of Marburg, Herzog, X. 749 sqq.
61166 Quoted by Wagenmann, Herzog, 2d, VIII. 192.
71167 See Stubbs, Const. Hist., II. 353 (note) sqq., who says that if there was any persecution for heresy before 1382, it must have taken the ordinary form of prosecution in the spiritual court. See Prof. Maitland, Can. Law in the Church of England, p. 158 sq.
81168 See Mullinger, Schools of Chas. the Great, pp. 31 sqq.; Rashdall, p. 28; Hauck, IV. 450, etc.
91169 Mirbt, pp. 105 sq.
01170 Schmid, pp. 250 sq.; Mirbt, pp. 106 sq. Hauck, IV. 462-456, gives reasons for disparaging the schools of Germany.
1171 Ord. Vit., IV. 7, 11; Bohn’s ed., II. 40, 68. He speaks of the seed of learning sown by Lanfranc—liberalium artium et sac. lectionis sedimen per Lanfr. coepit.
21172 Vita Lanf.,
Migne, 150. 49. Maître, p. 122, calls Bec
, la soeur aînée de l’univ. de Paris
, and Schmid, p. 248, die erste Hochschule der Wissenschaft.
Church, in his Life of Anselm,
pp. 53 sqq., has remarks on mediaeval education.
31173 De vita sua, Migne, 156. 844.
41174 Guizot, Hist. of Civilization, Bohn’s ed., II. 22 sqq. Cardinal Newman in his Hist. Essays, through his admiration of monastic institutions, allowed himself to speak of the state of learning in Europe in the first half of the M. A. in terms which will not bear a moment’s investigation. See Laurie, p. 36.
51175 Hauck, III. 342.
61176 Wattenbach, p. 592.
81178 Splendidissima lumina Galliarum. Metal., Migne, 199. 832.
91179 He also wrote allegorical notes on the Canticles, Matthew, and Revelation. Migne, vol. 162.
01180 Metal., Migne, 199. 854.
1181 Metal., III. 4; Migne, 199. 900.
21182 See Rashdall, I. 67.
31183 See Poole’s art. in Herzog, 2d ed., XVIII. 132 sqq.
41184 Quoted by Compayré, p. 200.
51185 Qui diutius sudavit in scholis et laudabiliter proferit in eis. Hurter, III. 244.
61186 See Laurie, pp. 62 sq.; Mullinger, pp. 63 sq., etc.
71187 Quoted by Mullinger, p. 110.
81188 Migne, 139. 337 sq., quoted by Schmid, p. 243
.Migne, 189. 77. For other warnings
, see Wattenbach, pp. 324 sqq., and Sandys, pp. 595 sq.
01190 Richer, Historiae, III. 45, quoted by Schmid, p. 241.
1191 Ep., I. 55, exceptis his in quibus aliqua turpitudo sonat.
21192 Migne, 199. 854. The quotations from the poets in the Polycraticus are even more numerous. John also quoted the historians Sallust, Suetonius, Valerius Maximus, etc., but does nothing more than to refer by name to Livy, Caesar, and Tacitus. See Sandys, 521.
31193 Metal., I. 8; Migne, 199. 830. See Sandys, pp. 504 sqq., for Latin quotations from 1100 on.
"Then shall the Bedell purvay for every master in Gramer a shrewde boy whom the master in Gramer shall bete openlye in the Scolys," etc, Mullinger, Univ. of Cambridge
, I, 345.
51195 De vita sua, I. 4-6; Migne, 166. 843-848; Guizot, in his Hist. of Civilization, Bohn’s ed., II. 94 sqq.; Schmid, p. 249, and Laurie, pp. 80 sqq., consider the account of so much importance that they give it at length in the original, or in translation.
61196 Ipsa liventes attendit ulnulas dorsicula ex viminum illisione cutem ubique prominulam. De vita sua, Migne, 156. 847.
71197 Quoted by Schmid, p. 246, note.
81198 Quoted by Compayré, p. 303.
91199 Hauck, IV. 452. See Schmid, p. 250.
01200 Discere si cupias gratis quod quaeris habebis. Migne, 101. 757.
1201 Schmid, p. 246.
31203 Hurter, Innocent III. IV. 179.
41204 Claustrum sine armario quasi est castrum sine armamentario. See Maitland, p. 230; Wattenbach, p. 570.
51205 Clark, p. 25.
61206 Maitland, pp. 286 sqq.
71207 Edwards, pp. 448-454.
81208 Hauck, IV. 448.
91209 Edwards, p. 52.
01210 Edwards, p. 56. See also Sandys, pp. 500 sqq.
1211 Hurter, III. 314. A list of books is preserved which the archbishop of far Northern Lund gave to the cathedral.
21212 Stevenson, Life of Gross., p. 86.
31213 Ep., 44; Migne, 139. 214.
41214 Order. Vit., III. 3.
51215 Libri maxime Augustiniani, ut nosti, apud nos auro pretiosiores. sunt.
. Univ. Paris
., I. 493. Translated in the Univ. of Penn. Translations and Reprints
71217 Maitland, pp. 98 sq., 238 sqq.
81218 Maitland, p. 250.
91219 Wattenbach, p. 546.
01220 Wattenbach, p. 582.
1221 Putnam, I. 159.
21222 Maitland, p. 242.
31223 Clark, p. 24, and Gasquet, pp. 20-28.
41224 Such chained books were, in the Sorbonne from 1289 on "for the common use of the brethren"—in communem sociorum utilitatem.
Putnam, I. 152. The statutes of Oriel College, Oxford, 1329, ordered the books taken out once a year
, Nov. 2, each person, according to age, taking out a single volume. Clark, p. 34.
61226 Ep., 88; Migne, 182. 219. See Coulton’s Salimbene, p. 167.
71227 Ep., 35; Migne, 196. 1626.
81228 Maitland, p. 442.
91229 III. 3; Engl. trans., I. 406. Ordericus frequently refers to copyists. III. 5, IV. 19, etc.
01230 The heptateuch included the first seven books of the Old Testament.
1231 See his own description, Maitland, pp. 454 sqq.
21232 III. 3; Engl. trans., I. 407.
31233 Maitland, p. 444.
41234 p. 232.
51235 Wattenbach., pp. 471-534, gives a number of subscriptions.
"A teacher inspired by a love of teaching gathered around him a circle of scholars eager to learn. Other teachers followed, the circle of listeners increased, and thus, by a kind of inward necessity
, an enduring school was founded." Savigny, XX. 58.
71237 According to Denifle, after the middle of the thirteenth century, no university came into existence without a papal bull. I. 777. But Kaufmann disputes this view and, as it would seem, with reason. See Laurie, p. 137; Rashdall, I. 13. The mediaeval custom of giving a university legal existence by a papal bull was renewed for the United States when Leo XIII. chartered the University of Washington City, 1888.
Innocent III., 1205, addressed the professors of Paris in this way, universitatem vestram rogamus
., I. 63. In this letter Innocent also addresses the corporation as universis magistris et scholaribus
. So also Gregory IX., 1251, Alex. IV., 1256, etc., Chart
., I. 136, 342, but the expression "university of masters and scholars," universitas magistrorum et scholarium
, seems to have been used first in 1221. Chart
., I. ix, 98, 99
91239 Rashdall, I. 8, a "general study" might be founded for each separate faculty as the studium generale in theologica facultate. Denifle, I. 5.
01240 The term "faculty" at first seems to have been synonymous with "science," or branch of knowledge. Thus Frederick II., in chartering the University of Naples, spoke of those who teach the science of surgery, chirurgiae facultatem instruunt.
1241 Honorius III., 1219, forbade the teaching of civil law in Paris. Chart., I. p. xxviii, 92.
31243 The University of Cambridge in its calendar is still styled "a literary republic." Laurie, p. 186.
41244 Chart., I. 138, liceat vobis usque ad satisfactionem condignam suspendere lectiones.
51245 Chart., I. 590. The term "faculty" was first used of the university of Paris by Honorius III., 1219. Chart., I. x, 87.
61246 English archdeacons were expected, after their election, to go to Bologna to study canon law. See Capes, Hist. of the Eng. Church, p. 240.
71247 Chart., I. 215, Honorius III., 1222, speaks of "nations," but does not definitely give the number. Chart., I. 103, Du Boulay, following a spurious document, dates their organization as far back as 1206. Denifle puts the existence of the four nations in Paris as far back as 1215-1222. See Chart., I. xxi. The first clear trace of the division into nations seems to be in a bull of Honorius III., 1217, and concerns Bologna. It is addressed to the scolaribus universitatis de urbe, de campania et de Tuscia, Bononie commorantibus.
81248 Rector univ. magistrorum et scolarium, Chart., I. pp. xxiii, 379.
91249 Chart., I. p. xix.
01250 Chart., I. 90 sqq.
1251 Chart., I. pp. xi, 441.
21252 Rashdall, I. 16.
By the fifteenth century the title "doctor" had come to be the usual one for theologians in Germany
, as Dr. Luther, Dr. Eck. Rashdall, I. 22. It was also applied to all the superior faculties. The title "master" was gradually restricted to the faculty of arts, and has gone out of use in Germany.
41254 By the fourteenth century most of the professors in Bologna were paid by the municipality. Savigny, quoted by Compayré, p. 283.
51255 A bursa at the University of Paris was the sum of money paid each week in board. Auctar., I. pp. xlv, xlix; Chart., II. 673 sqq., etc.
61256 See Rashdall, II. 647 sqq. Compayré, p. 286, commenting upon the marital prohibition, observes that the rod would not have been retained so long in the universities if the teachers had had families.
71257 A good illustration of the use of Latin by students is given in the most interesting dialogue of two students on their way to Wittenberg, the MS. of which was discovered by Prof. Haussleiter, 1898, in the library of Jena, and published. Leipzig, 1903, D. Univ. Wittenb. n. d. Schilderung d. Mag. Andreas Meinhardi, 1507.
81258 Chart., I. 78.
91259 satagant fieri theodocti, Chart., I. 138. Students were obliged to swear they had "heard" the required books. Chart., I., 227 sqq., for the year 1252; II. 673, for the year 1347, etc.
01260 Denifle, p. 248.
1261 Richard Fitz-Ralph
, archbishop of Armagh, writing about 1330, sets the number of students in his own day at six thousand.
21262 See Rashdall, II. 584 sqq.
31263 Chart., I. Nos. 60, 197, 425, etc.
41264 Auctar., I. p. xlvi.
51265 Chart., I. 426; Compayré, p. 276.
61266 Cantat ut Normannus, bibit ut Anglicanus, Auctar., I. p. lvi. For the fighting abilities of the English nation see Auctar. I. p. lx. Rashdall, II. 678 sqq., gives a number of cases of fights between town and gown in Paris. The cases of 1278 and 1304 were the most notorious.
71267 Chart., I. 138.
Rashdall, II. 656 sqq. Rashdall gives the following estimate of living in Oxford in the fifteenth century. Meat was ¼ d.
a pound; butter and cheese, ½d.
a pound, while six pounds of wheat cost 4 d.
Thus, 1½ pounds of bread
, 1 pound of meat, and ¼ pound of butter and cheese made up about 1 d.
a day, or 7 d. a week, "a tolerably substantial basis for a student’s diet."
91269 Compayré, p. 271
01270 See Laurie, p. 123 sqq.; Rashdall, I. 80 sqq.
1271 Rashdall, I. 120, associates an "epoch in the study of law" with Irnerius, but insists upon the activity of law teachers before his day. When Laurie, p. 128, still calls Irnerius the "rediscoverer" of the Roman law, the title is only relatively true.
The document of 1155 is known as the Authentica Habita.
A historical poem discovered and published by Giesebrecht
, 1879, describes Frederick’s visit of 1155. The document of 1158 is addressed to "all scholars and especially the professors of divine and sacred law." Denifle, p. 49 sqq.
31273 The first papal bull was that of Clement III., 1189, forbidding masters and scholars making a bid for a house already occupied by students.
41274 Denifle, p. 130, makes the scholastic guilds to have originated with the Germans. As a mercantile organization the guild was in existence in Bologna before studies began to flourish there. Foreign merchants residing there had their own societies. Also Rashdall, I. 160.
51275 This was called reaching a certain "point,"punctum, which was a division in the civil text-book and in Gratian’s Decretum. Rashdall, I. 199.
61276 The first instance of a lecturer with a fixed salary was Garsias, the canonist, to whom £150 were promised. In 1289 two chairs were endowed at £150 and £100. In 1838 there were at Bologna 27 professors of civil law, 12 of canon law, 14 of medicine, and 15 of the arts. Laurie, p. 140. In 1381 there were 23 salaried professors of the law and the city grant amounted to £63,670. Rashdall, I. 212 sq.
Denifle, I. 233, Ordericus Vitalis speaks of women practitioners and mentions one by name who had studied at Palermo. Engl. trans. I. 433. There were female physicians in Paris in the fourteenth century
, one of whom, Jacoba, healed a royal chancellor. Chart
., II. 263 sqq. The statutes of the medical faculty of Paris forbade a physician attending a patient who had not paid his bill to another physician and prohibited his practising with Jews or women practitioners. Rashdall, II. 430.
81278 Rashdall, I. 204.
91279 For these expenses see Rashdall, I. 229 sqq.
01280 Brewer’s ed., p. 418. Bridges, Opus Majus of Rog. Bacon, I. p. lxxxiii sq.
1281 Chart., I. 137.
21282 Chart., I. 343.
31283 Denifle, p. 677.
41284 Chart., I. 98 sq.
51285 Denifle gives the date as 1208 or 1209, Chart., I. 67. Rashdall, I. 301, puts it in 1210.
61286 Chart., I. 100. The seal was broken 1225. The seal of 1292 is preserved in Paris, Chart., I. p. ix sq.
71287 Universitäten, pp. 64 sqq., 655 sqq. Du Boulay was followed by Savigny. Seppelt, p. 221, agrees with Denifle.
81288 John’s biographer, Thomas of Walsingham, says John was a diligent student in Paris "in his youth" and was taken into "the association of the elect masters."
91289 Chart., I. 73, 75, 85.
1291 See Henry III.’s letter, Chart., I. 119.
21292 Capitale Parisiensium scolarium, Chart., I. 60. This, the view of Du Boulay, is adopted by Savigny. Rashdall, I. 297, gives the expression an entirely different signification, and says it does not refer to persons at all but to chattels. Denifle, p. 119, takes an entirely different view, and denies that the university had a rector in the full sense till the middle of the fourteenth century. His view is that the rector of the faculty of the Arts gradually came to be recognized as the rector of the whole university. Rashdall gives good grounds for holding that he was the recognized head of the university, certainly as far back as the middle of the thirteenth century.